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Talal Abu-Ghazaleh Intellectual Property Dictionary

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هذا الكتاب هو معجم يأمل مؤلفه من خلاله لسد جزء من الثغرة الكبيرة التي يعاني منها العالم العربي في المراجع والأبحاث والمعاجم المختصة بحقوق الملكية الفكرية، كما يأمل أن يكون حافزا ومشجعا لجميع المهتمين كي يقبلوا على التأليف والكتابة والإبداع لتعريف المجتمعات العربية بمجال في أمس الحاجة للإلمام العميق به، ويشكل هذا المعجم مرجعا لا غنى عنه للراغبية في الحصول على شهادة خبير في الملكية الفكرية.

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Published 01 January 2013
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EAN13 9796500121604
Language English
Document size 2 MB

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 Talal Abu – Ghazaleh  Intellectual Property  Dictionary  ﺔﻟاﺰﻏ ﻮﺑأ لﻼﻃ ﻢﺠﻌﻣ  ﺔﻳﺮﻜﻔﻟا ﺔﻴﻜﻠﻤﻠﻟ  English – يﺮﻋ
 ﺔﻴﻤﺷﺎﻬﻟا ﺔﻴﻧدرﻷا ﺔﻜﻠﻤﳌا  ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ عاﺪﻳﻻا ﻢﻗر  ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا  2013/9/3337
 2 ط – ﺔﻳﺮﻜﻔﻟا ﺔﻴﻜﻠﻤﻠﻟ ﺔﻟاﺰﻏﻮﺑأ لﻼﻃ ﻢﺠﻌﻣ  2012 ، ﴩﻨﻟاو ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاو ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻠﻟ ﺔﻟاﺰﻏﻮﺑأ لﻼﻃ ﺔﻛﴍ :نﻋ  2013 : ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻌﺒﻄﻟا  ﻪﺤﻔﺻ 256 : تﺎﺤﻔﺼﻟا دﺪﻋ  2013/9/3337 : أ.ر  ﺔﻳﺮﻜﻔﻟا ﺔﻴﻜﻠﳌا // ﻢﺟﺎﻌﳌا / : تﺎﻔﺻاﻮﳌا *  ﺔﻴﻟوﻷا ﻒﻴﻨﺼﺘﻟاو ﺔﺳﺮﻬﻔﻟا تﺎﻧﺎﻴﺑ ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد تﺪﻋأ
346/048
ISBN : 978-9957-559-08-3 (ﻚﻣدر) ISBN : 978-9957-559-07-6 (ﻚﻣدر)Book- E
ﺮﻣﻷ ﺔﻘﻴﻘﺣ ﰲ ﱪﻌﻳ يﺬﻟ لﺎﺠﳌ ﺬﻫ ﱃإ ﻞﺼﺗ قﻮﻘﺤﺑ ﺔﻳﺮﻜﻔﻟ ﺔﻴﻜﻠﳌ لﺎﺠﻣ ﰲ ﺔﻴﺨﻳرﺎﺗ ﺎﻳﺎﻀﻘﺑ ﺎﻬﻤﻛﺎﺤﻣ ﻞﻐﺸﻨﺗ اﻨﻴﺑو نﺎـﻛ ﺪﻗ ،ﺬﻟ .هﻜﻔﺗو ﻪﻠﻘﻋ جﺎﺘﻧ ﺔﻳاﺣ ﰲ نﺎﺴﻧﻹ ﻖﺣ ﻲﻫو ،ﺔﻳﴩﺒﻟ ﺎﻬﺘﻓﺮﻋ ﻲﺘﻟ قﻮﻘﺤﻟ سﺪﻗأو مﺪﻗأو ﻢﻫأ ﺪﺣأ ﻦﻋ ﺔـﻴﻤﻠﻌﻟ ﺔﻀـﻬﻨﻟ ﰲ ﻞﻀـﻔﻟ ﺔﺒﺣﺎـﺻ ﺔـﻓﺮﻌﳌو ﻢـﻠﻌﻟ ﻞﻋﺎﺸـﻣو ﺐـﺘﻜﻟ تﺎـﻬﻣأ ﺖـﻠﻘﻧ ﻲﺘﻟ ﻲﻫو ،ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟ ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌﺎﺑ ﱃوأ ز،لءًننأ،بو  .ﻲﻣﻮﻗو ﻲﻨﻃو ﺐﺟوو ﻞﺑ ﺔﺤﻠﻣ ةروﴐ ﺮﻌﻟ ﰲﺎﻘﺜﻟ ثﱰﻟ ﺔﻳاﺣ ﺖﺤﺒﺻأ ﻰﺘﺣ تدﺪﻌﺗو ترﺎﻀﺤﻟ ﺮـﻌﻟ ﺎـﻌﻟ ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﺎﻌﻳ ﻲﺘﻟ ةﺒﻜﻟ ةﺮﻐﺜﻟ ﻦﻣ ءﺰﺟ ﺪﺳ ﰲ ﺢﺠﻧ ﺪﻗ ﻢﺠﻌﳌ ﺬﻫ زﺎﺠﻧإ نﻮﻜﻳ نأ ﻮﺟرأ ،ﻖﻠﻄﻨﳌ ﻚﻟذ ﻦﻣ ــًـوًـنـنأآا،قوثو .ﻪﺑ ﻖﻴﻤﻌﻟ مﺎﳌﻺﻟ ﺔﺟﺎﺤﻟ ﺲﻣأ ﰲ ﻲﻫ لﺎﺠ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟ تﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﳌ ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺘﻟ عﺪﺑﻹو ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﻟو ﻒﻴﻟﺄﺘﻟ ﲆﻋ ﻮﻠﺒﻘﻳ .ةدلًو يﺮـﻜﻔﻟ ﻊﺳﻮﺘﻟﺎﺑ ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺻ ﺊﻓﺎﻜﻳ ﻞﻤﻌﻟ ﺬﻫ نأ ﻦﻣ ﻢﻏﺮﻟ ﲆﻋ ﻪﻧأ ،يﻮﻐﻟ ﻢﺠﻌﻣ ﻊﺿو ﱃإ رﺪﻘﻟ ﻪﻗﺎﺳ ﻦﻣ ﻞﻛ ﻢﻠﻌﻳ اﻛو ﺬﻫ ﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﻻإ ﺎﻫرﺪﻘﻳ ﻻ ﺔﻘﺸﳌو ﺪﻬﺠﻟ ﻦﻣ ﻢﻴﻈﻋ رﺪﻗ ﲆﻋ يﻮﻄﻨﻳ ﻪﻧﺈﻓ ،ﻪﻨﻣ ءﺎﻬﺘﻧﻻ ﺪﻨﻋ ﺎﻬﻟ ﻞﻴﺜﻣ ﻻ ﺔﻳﺮﻜﻓ ةدﺎﻌﺴﺑو  .يﺪﺤﺘﻟ ﻦﻣ ةﻮﻄﺧ ﻞﻛ ﻲﻔﻓ .ئرﺎﻘﻟ يﺰﻳﺰﻋ ،ﺖﻧأ ﺎﻫرﺪﺼﻣ ﻢﺠﻌﳌ ﺬﻫ دﺪﻋإ ءﺎﻨﺛأ ﱪﺼﻟﺎﺑ ﲇﺤﺘﻟ ةﻮﻗو مﺰﻌﻟ نأ ﻪﻴﻓ ﻚﺷ ﻻ اﻣو  .ﻚﻴﻠﻋ ﺴﻴﺘﻟ ﺔﻴﻔﻴﻛ ﰲو ﻚﺑو ﻚﻴﻓ ﺮﻜﻓأ ﻲﻌﻣ ﺖﻨﻛ ،ﻞﻤﻌﻟ تﻮﻄﺧ  ﻖﻴﻓﻮﺘﻟ ﱄو ﻪـﻠـﻟو  ﺔﻟاﺰﻏ ﻮﺑأ لﻼﻃ .د  ﺔﻳﺮﻜﻔﻟا ﺔﻴﻜﻠﻤﻠﻟ يﺮﻌﻟا ﻊﻤﺠﳌا ﺲﻴﺋر  ﺔﻳﺮﻜﻔﻟا ﺔﻴﻜﻠﻤﻠﻟ ﺔﻟاﺰﻏ ﻮﺑأ ﺲﻴﺋر
ﺔﻣﺪـﻘﻣ
نﺮـﻘﻟ ﻦـﻣ ةـﺧﻷ ﺔـﺒﻘﺤﻟ نأ ﻆـﺤﻠﻳ ,ﺦﻳرﺎـﺘﻟ تﺎﺤﻔـﺻ ﰲ ءﺮـﳌ ﺚـﺤﺒﻳ ـﺣو .ﺔﻠﻫﺬﻣ ةرﻮﺼﺑ ﺎﻨﻟﻮﺣ ﻦﻣ ﺎﻌﻟ رﻮﻄﺘﻳ ًاـإدننأ.رًًوًًرتىﺮـﺧﻷ ﺐﻛﻮﻜﻟ ﱃإو ﻞﺑ ﺮﻤﻘﻟ ﱃإ تﻼﺣﺮﻟ تﴩﻋ نﺈﻓ ،مﻮﻴﻟ ﺎﻣأ .ﺔﻌﻗو ﺔﻘﻴﻘﺣ ﺲﻣﻷﺎﺑ ﻰﺤﺻأ ،ءاﻠﻌﻟ لﺎﻴﺧ ﺐﻋﺪﻳ ﺎـﻬﻧﻮﻛ دﺮﺠﻣ وﺪﻌﺗ ﻻ ﺖﺤﺒﺻأ،ﺎﻨﺒﻛﻮﻛ ﻚﻠﻓ ﰲ -رﻮﻄﺴﻟ هﺬﻫ ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻛ ﺖﻗو – روﺪﺗ ﻲﺘﻟ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟ راﻗﻷ تﺎﺌﻣ ﱃإ ﺔﻓﺎﺿﻹﺎﺑ  !ةﺎﻴﺤﻟ مﺎﺣز ﰲ ﺎﻬﻴﻟإ تﺎﻔﺘﻟﻻ ﺔﻘﺸﻣ ﻰﺘﺣ ﻪﺴﻔﻧ ءﺮﳌ ﻒﻠﻜﻳ ﻻ ﻲﺘﻟ ﺔﻴﻣﻮﻴﻟ رﺎﺒﺧﻷ ﻦﻣ يأ ﻰـﺘﺣ وأ ﺔـﻳرﺮﺤﺗ رﺎـﻜﻓأ وأ ءﺪـﺷأ لﺎـﺟر ﺎـﻬﻣﻮﻗ ﺲﻴﻟ ةرﻮﺛ ،ﺪﻳﺪﺟ عﻮﻧ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﳌﺎﻋ ةرﻮﺛ مﺎﻴﻗ ﱃإ ىدأ مﺪﻘﺘﻟ ﺬﻫ ﻞﻛ ،تﺎـﻣﻮﻠﻌﳌ ةرﻮـﺛ ﺎﻬﻧإ .ﻪﻨﻋ ﺔﺑﺎﻴﻧ ةرﻮﺜﻟﺎﺑ مﺎﻘﻓ نﺎﺴﻧﻹ هﺮﺨﺳ يﺬﻟ زﺎﻬﺠﻟو ﺔﻟﻵ ﺎﻫداﻋ ﻞﺑ يرﺎﻀﺣ وأ ﻲﺟﻮﻟوﺪﻳأ عﴏ ةﻐﺻ ﺔﻳﺮﻘﻛ ﺖﺤﺒﺻﺈﻓ ﺎﻬﻓﺮﻃأ ﺖﻠﺼﺗو ﺎﻬﻈﺟﻮﺣ ﺖﻟز ﺔﻴﳌﺎﻋ ﺔﻟود ﰲ ﻨﻃﻮﻣ ﻚﻨﻣو ﻲﻨﻣ ﺖﻠﻌﺟ ﻲﺘﻟ ،ئرﺎﻘﻟ يﺰﻳﺰﻋ .ًأف .ﺔﺪﻗ تﺎﻋرﺎﺻو ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺑ بوﺮﺣ ﺎﻬﺘﻔﻠﺧ دوﺪﺣ ﻦﻣ ﻰﻘﺒﺗ ﺎﻣ ﲆﻋ ﴤﻘﺘﻟ ةرﺎﺠﺘﻟ ﺮﻳﺮﺤﺗو نوﺎﻌﺘﻟ تﺎﻴﻗﺎﻔﺗ تءﺎﺟ ﻢﺛ ﺢﻠﺴـﺘﻧ نأ ﺎـﻨﻴﻠﻌﻓ ،ﺔـﻬﺟﻮﳌﺎﺑ ﻦﻳﺮﻳﺪـﺟ نﻮـﻜﻧ ـﻟو .ﺪﻳﺮﻓ عﻮﻧ ﻦﻣ ًﺪﻳﺪﺟ ًﺎﳌﺎﻋ مﻮﻴﻟ ﻪﺟﻮﻧ ﺎﻨﻧأ ﱃإ ﺬﻫ ﻞﻛ ﻦﻣ ﺺﻠﺧأ  .ﴫﻌﻟ تﺎﻳﺪﺤﺗ مﺎﻣ دﻮﻤﺼﻟ ﲆﻋ ﺎﻨﻨﻴﻌﻳ ﻪﻠﻋ ،ﺪﻳﺪﺟ ﺮﻜﻔﺑ ًﺎﻀﻳأ ﻦﺤﻧ تﻻﺎﺼـﺗﻻ ﺔـﻴﻨﻘﺗ لﺎـﺠﻣ ﰲ ﺔـﻠﻫﺬﻣو ﺔـﻌﻳﴎ ﺔـﻠﺋﺎﻫ ترﻮـﻄﺗ ﻪﻴﻓ ﺪﻬﺸﻧ ﺎﻋ ﰲ ﺶﻴﻌﻧ ﺎﻨﻧﻷو ،ﺮﻛﺬﻟ ﺔﻔﻟﺎﺳ بﺎﺒﺳﻷ ﻞﻜﻟ ًـأتساوةروتو .يعلأوقورتًأوًا .ﺎﻬﻴﻨﻃﻮﳌ يﺮﻜﻔﻟ جﺎﺘﻧﻹ ﺔﻳﺎﺤﳌ تﺎﻌﻳﴩﺘﻟو ﻧﻮﻘﻟ ﻦﺳ تﺰﺠﻧأ ىﺮﺧﻷ لوﺪﻟ اﻨﻴﺑ ؟ﺬﻫ ﻞﻛ ﻦﻣ ﻦﺤﻧ ﻦﻳأ ﻦﻜﻟ
To the Gentle Reader:
The world around us is amazingly advancing. Its fast-paced rhythm urges us to sit and ponder on things gone by including man’s achievements all over recorded history. Our eyes are particularly dazzled by the unprecedented rapid developments of the twentieth century, especially in its last decades. No wonder, it was called the “Century of Speed” where the unimaginable dream of something like reaching the moon became a reality. The îrst trip to the outer space was followed by a series of other far-reaching trips and expeditions. Artiîcial satellites orbiting Earth have become a fact of life and too familiar to take away the breath of bewildered people.
By the turn of the century, the previous pattern of development did not slow down. On the contrary, it peaked again, though in a new form of a non-conventional revolution. The outbreak of that revolution was not instigated or nourished by the physical abilities of men. Even less signiîcant were liberal ideas or cultural and ideological conLicts that would always surface an uprising or unrest. This new revolution has impinged upon reality through the use of machines and information, reshaping, thus, our lives in so many subtle ways. It was so powerful that it changed our long unshakable perceptions of a sprawling world, which has now shrunk into a small well-connected global village, where we know each other more than ever before.
Alo thei whi
ng those lines, nations among the world pursued a different approach to trade. In r international conventions, they recognized a persisting need to remove borders, ch were the leftovers of old wars and conLicts and barriers to trade.
With that background in mind, I cannot stress enough our need to face up this unique new world. To that end, we need to be equipped with new thoughts. We need “new eyes” to look at our present realities and to withstand the challenges of our age.
The new realities of this age and the information technology promise have given us a stimulus for upholding to intellectual property law. We need to deîne our rules for commercial transactions, inventors’ rights and all other types of human creativity.
While the so-called “developed” world has made great leaps in relevant legislation to protect their citizens’ intellectual property rights, our efforts in the Arab world are still modest and have failed to rise above the minimum expectations. The Arabic library should have been more vigorous in transferring to Arabs the know-how and expertise on one of the most sacred rights ever known to mankind. It is high time Arabs, whose heritage sparked a renaissance in the West, did something for its own intellectual renaissance.
I offer this dictionary to reduce the gap in relevant literature, lexicons and research on intellectual property rights. My hope is for this book to provoke and motivate the interested readers to write, create and innovate in a bid to raise awareness among Arabs of the necessity of learning this îeld.
This dictionary will be an essential tool for those willing to get a certiîcation as experts in intellectual property.
The compilation of this dictionary, just as any other solid lexicon, was not possible except after exerting such great efforts and facing such hardship, appreciated only by that who accepted to be up to the challenge.
Needless to say, determination, patience and strong will have been our values that we derive from you, the reader. With every step forward, providing you with usable entries was my source of inspiration.
Glory be to God, the source of our success.
Talal Abu-Ghazaleh President of Arab Intellectual Property Society Chief Executive Ofîcer of Abu-Ghazaleh Intellectual Property
This is our language:
From the 3rd Millennium BC to the 3rd Millennium AD When and how did Arabic emerge? An uneasy question Was it in the Stone Age (10,000-8,000 BC) with the inception of human settlements in the now-called Arab World? Was it after the îrst invention of writing by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (4000-3000 BC)? Or, was it later on when the so called phonetic letters were invented (1600 BC)? But, what is certain is that the Arab civilization started before the end of the 3rd millennium BC. By the end of the sixth millennium AD, Arabic had become a fully developed and reîned language for literature. It was used in poetry, particularly for the purposes of narrating heroic stories of warriors. Nevertheless, the development of Arabic had yet to encompass intellectual property related terms despite the fact that early emergence of relevant concepts accompanied the emergence of the culture.
Our forefathers were not only brave warriors but also leaders in all îelds of sciences, a testimony to which was perpetuated in inscriptions and pictographs found in ancient Egyptians’ tombs dating back to 5000 BC. Walls depicted farmers piercing their livestock just as we do nowadays when identifying the origin of and title to a given property. This is, in fact, a main feature protected by trademarks, which in turn form one element of intellectual property in addition to patents, copyright, designs and utility models.
With the inception of the new third millennium AD, intellectual property concepts have not only become well established but have also Lourished and become wide-spread. In our societies beset by the challenges of globalization, it has become easier to carry out businesses using modern technologies. The advancement on communication technology made it easier to strike transactions and deals on the global level instantly to an amazing degree. The functions of such intellectual property rights as patterns have become more valuable for their holders and for the public interest alike.
Along those lines, a new jargon was enveloped by those dealing with intellectual property. With the progress of times, several attempts were made to translate basic terms of intellectual property into Arabic.
Compiling those terms in one reference, this dictionary seeks to unify the commercial terms used in intellectual property. It will eventually improve communication between speakers of Arabic and between us and the world and hence improve relevant professionalism in the region. This is the third version of the dictionary, which includes around 10,000 entries.
: ﺎـﻨﺘﻐﻟ ﻲـﻫ هﺬـ
 "دﻼﻴﳌا ﺪﻌﺑ ﺔﺜﻟﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻴﻔﻟﻷا ﱃإ دﻼﻴﳌا ﻞﺒﻗ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻴﻔﻟﻷا ﻦﻣ"  ؟ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا تأﺪﺑ ﻒﻴﻛو ﻰﺘﻣ  ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﺔﺑﺎﺟﻹا ﻞﻬﺴﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺲﻴﻟ لاﺆﺳ مأ ؟ﺮـﻌﻟا ﻦﻃﻮﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻳﴩﺒﻟا تﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﳌا ءﻮﺸﻧ ﺔﻳاﺪﺑ ﻊﻣ (دﻼﻴﳌا ﻞﺒﻗ ٠٠٠٨-٠٠٠٠١) يﺮﺠﺤﻟا ﴫﻌﻟا نﺎﺑإ ﻚﻟذ نﺎﻛ ﻞﻫ ،ًــذنوأ؟(دا٠٠٠٣-٠٠٠٤)اضرأرافواعااذن ؟(دﻼﻴﳌا ﻞﺒﻗ ٠٠٦١) ﺔﻴﺗﻮﺼﻟا ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺠﻬﻟا فوﺮﺤﻟا ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺪﻌﺑ ،دـاـسداناو.داااتأاةرانأ،ًفواةدﺎـﻋإ ﰲ ﺔﻳﺮﻌﺸـﻟا ﺪﺋﺎﺼـﻘﻟا ﻢﻈﻨـﻟ ﺖﻣﺪﺨﺘـﺳا ةزﺎـﺘﻤﻣ بدأ ﺔﻐﻟ نﻮﻜﺘﻟ فﺎﻛ ﻮﺤﻧ ﲆﻋ ترﻮﻄﺗ ﺪﻗ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﺖﻧﺎﻛ  .ةﺪﻴﺠﳌا ﺎﻨﺑوﺮﺣ ﺺﺼﻗ ﻒﺻو ﻦـﻣ ﻪـﻧﺈﻓ ،ﺔﻳﺮﻜﻔﻟا ﺔﻴﻜﻠﳌﺎﺑ ﺔﺻﺎﺧ تادﺮﻔﻣ ﻞﻤﺸﺘﻟ ﻦﻜﺗ  ﺎﻫﻼﺗ ﺎﻣو ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ تارﻮﻄﺘﻟا هﺬﻫ نأ ﻦﻣ ﻢﻏﺮﻟا ﲆﻋو ةدـداـأـكـ.اءواااتوااًنأﺿاا ٠٠٠٥ ﻞـﺒﻗ ﺎﻣ ﱃإ دﻮﻌﺗ ﻲﺘﻟاو ءﺎﻣﺪﻘﻟا ﻳﴫﳌا رﻮﺒﻗ ﰲ ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﻋ ﻲﺘﻟا تﺎﻳرﺎﺨﻔﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺾﻌﺒﻟا ﲆﻋ مﻮﻠﻌﻟا ةدﺎﻗو بﺮﺤﻟا ـولـالـترـ،اراامانأ.توً،داﻲـﺘﻟا ﻒﺋﺎـﻇﻮﻟا زﺮـﺑأ اﺪـﺣإ ﻲﻫ هﺬﻫو .ﻚﻟﺎﳌا ﺔﻴﻤﺴﺗو رﺪﺼﳌا ﺪﻳﺪﺤﺗ ﻢﺘﻳ ﺚﻴﺣ ًﺎﻴﻟﺎﺣ يﺮﺠﻳ ﻛ ﺎﻣﺎ ، ﺔﻴﺷﺎﳌا نﻮﻤﺳﻮﻳ ـاقـوتـااتاءاـًأاااةا،راتا .ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟا جذﻨﻟاو مﻮﺳﺮﻟاو تﺮـﻫدزا ﺎـإو ـﺒﺴـﺤﻓ ﺎـﻬﺗﺎﺒﺛ ﲆـﻋ ﺔـﻳﺮﻜﻔﻟا ﺔـﻴﻜﻠﳌا ﻢﻴﻫﺎـﻔﻣ ﻆﻓﺎﺤﺗ  ،دﻼﻴﳌا ﺪﻌﺑ ﺔﺜﻟﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻴﻔﻟﻷا ﻊﻠﻄﻣ ﰲ ﻦﺤﻧو نﻵاو ﺬـﻴﻔﻨﺗ ﻞﻬﺴـﻳ ،ﺎـﻫﻮﺤﻧ ﺔﻴﺤﻠﺼـﻣ ﻊﻓاوﺪـﺑو ﺔـﺜﻴﺜﺣ ﻰـﻄﺨﺑ ﺴـﺗو ،ﺔﳌﻮﻌﻟا تﺎﻳﺪﺤﺗ ﻪﺟاﻮﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ﺎﻨﺗﺎﻌﻤﺘﺠﻣ ﰲو .تﴩﺘﻧاو ًاـأاقاتاءاإوتاوتا،ومالا ،ـو(تـااـ)تاءااااوو.وًآهوًار .ﺔﻣﺎﻌﻟا ﺔﺤﻠﺼﳌاو قﻮﻘﺤﻟا بﺎﺤﺻأ ﻦﻣ ﻞﻜﻟ ﺔﻤﻴﻗ ﻛا ﺖﺤﺒﺻأ نوـااروو.اناوأاذًو  .ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﱃإ تﺎﻴﻤﺴﳌاو تﺎﺤﻠﻄﺼﳌا ﻚﻠﺗ تﺎﺤﻠﻄﺼـﳌا ﺪﻴﺣﻮﺗ ﱃإ ﺪﺣﻮﻣ ﺪﺣاو ﻊﺟﺮﻣ ﰲ ﺎﻬﺒﻴﺗﺮﺗو تﺎﻴﻤﺴﳌاو تﺎﺤﻠﻄﺼﳌا ﻚﻠﺗ ﻊﻤﺟ ﻮﻫ ﻢﺠﻌﳌا اﺬﻫ ﻦﻣ ضﺮﻐﻟا نإ ،ﺎﻌﻟا ﻊﻣو ةﺪﺣاﻮﻟا ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺎﻨﺘﻣأ ءﺎﻨﺑأ ﺑ ﺔﻛﱰﺸﳌا ﺐﻃﺎﺨﺘﻟا ﺔﻐﻟ ﻦﺴﺤﻳ نأ ﻪﻧﺎﺷ ﻦﻣ اﺬﻫو .ﺔﻳﺮﻜﻔﻟا ﺔﻴﻜﻠﳌا ﰲ ﺔﻳرﺎﺠﺘﻟا  .ﺔﻘﻄﻨﳌا ﰲ "ﺔﻴﻨﻬﳌا" نﺄﺷ ﻦﻣ ﻊﻓﺮﻳو  .ةرﺎﺒﻋو ﺔﻤﻠﻛو ﺢﻠﻄﺼﻣ فﻻآ ةﴩﻋ ﻦﻣ بﺮﻘﻳ ﺎﻣ ﲆﻋ تﻮﺘﺣا ﻲﺘﻟاو ﻢﺠﻌﳌا ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟا ﺔﻌﺒﻄﻟا تءﺎﺟ اﺬﻬﻟو