The Jurisprudence on Regional and International Tribunals Digest
390 Pages
English
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The Jurisprudence on Regional and International Tribunals Digest

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390 Pages
English

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The Jurisprudence on Regional and International Tribunals Digest is borne out of the recent developments in the judicial arena of the East African Community and other inter-state arrangements where matters are increasingly getting litigated and determined at the international fora. With such a development, there is the more current need to document the reasoning, not just of judicial officers from the East African Court of Justice but also from other regional and international tribunals. This will help in consolidating knowledge on diverse aspects of substance and procedure from these tribunals for both academic and practice purposes. This digest no doubt adds value to practitioners in the East African region and beyond who are getting absorbed into legal practice before tribunals of an international law character. It is hoped that the digest will further be of great assistance to the community of the academia that is in need of material for the dispensation of knowledge in the area of international law.

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Published 29 December 2007
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EAN13 9789966031495
Language English
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THE JURISPRUDENCE ON
REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL
TRIBUNALS DIGEST




THE JURISPRUDENCE ON
REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL
TRIBUNALS DIGEST



Published by:
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© LawAfrica Publishing Ltd 2007
ISBN 9966-7121-9-4

Printed and bound by Kijabe Printing Press TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Preface........................................................................................... vii
Introduction................................................................................... ix
Subject Index ................................................................................. xi
Table of Cases ................................................................................ xv
Mwatela and others v East African Community......................... 1
Anyang’ Nyong’o and others v Attorney General of the
Republic of Kenya and others ............................................ 19
Nangale and others v Attorney General of the Republic
of Kenya and others ........................................................... 28
Attorney General of the Republic of Kenya v
Anyang’ Nyong’o and others.............................................. 33
Anyang’ Nyong’o and others v Attorney General of the
Republic of Kenya and others ............................................ 54
The Republic of Kenya and Commissioner of Lands v
Coastal Acquaculture ......................................................... 86
Eastern and Southern African Trade and others v
Martin Ogang.................................................................... 94
Inter-American Court of Human Rights................................... 104
Caesar v Trinidad and Tobago Inter-Am
Ct HR (Ser C)................................................................... 167
International Court of Justice Year 2004................................... 223
The Prosecutor v Jean-Paul Akayesu......................................... 271
European Parliament v Council of the European
Communities..................................................................... 348

vi The Jurisprudence on Regional and International Tribunals Digest
European Parliament v Council of the European
Communities..................................................................... 354
East African Law Society and others v Attorney General of
the Republic of Kenya and others ...................................... 361 PREFACE
In this era of globalisation, the law is slowly but surely taking the central stage.
Unlike before, it is no longer force in the form of gunboat diplomacy or ideology
as represented by cold war which determines the right and wrong at international
level. It is the law.
The choice of the tribunals whose work is digested is wide and rich. There are
cases from one global tribunal (the International Court of Justice); one regional
tribunal (the Inter-American Court of Human Rights); two sub-regional tribunals
(the East African Court of Justice and the COMESA Court of Justice); and two ad
hoc tribunals (the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and
the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda). The selected cases cover a variety
of subjects in international law from international trade to international
humanitarian law. They deal with both issues of substance as well as procedure.
Of special interest in this digest is the work of the East African Court of Justice.
This court, hitherto thought to be a dormant and useless part of the East African
Community set-up has of late surprised many. After almost six years of inaction, it
has recently produced earth-shaking decisions. These bold rulings and judgments
have caught governments of East African Community member States by surprise
and thus forcing them to make a clear choice between respecting rule of law or
resorting to illegality. Unfortunately, they have chosen the later. They have resorted
to high-handedness – threatening judges, ignoring rulings – all in the name of
sovereignty! This is an indication of the effects of a good international tribunal
which is composed of people of integrity – bold spirits who are ready to stand by
justice even if heavens fall. The judges of the East African Court of Justice are doing
the region proud.
The arrival of this Digest is more than timely. It is inter alia, a clear evidence
that both regional and international tribunals are doing a fantastic work and
enormously contributing to the development of international law. In addition, it is
making the work from the African continent which is rarely available to the rest of
mankind now accessible to the wider world. This is an important and
wellconceived initiative for which the East Africa Law Society should be saluted.
Chris Maina Peter
Professor of Law
University of Dar es Salaam, TANZANIA INTRODUCTION
For a long time states committed themselves to international legal obligations that
they did not, with equal enthusiasm, commit themselves to enforcement. The
concept of state sovereignty was the shield that many states invoked to keep at bay
attempts by the international community to measure their compliance with
international legal obligations.
The recent past has seen the fashionability of regional trading and administrative
blocks. With the emergence of these blocks have emerged institutions for dispute
resolution. This accounts for the existence of such institutions such as the East
African Court of Justice, the court for the Common Market for Eastern and
Southern African States, the African Commission of Human and Peoples’ Rights,
the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Inter-American Court of
Human Rights, the European Court of Human Rights among other regional
tribunals.
The changing nature of interstate relations has also seen the emergence of
international tribunals like the International Court of Justice, the International
Criminal Tribunal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal
Tribunal for Rwanda and the International Criminal Court.
These courts have varying approaches to procedural aspects of the questions
that they are confronted with. Further, the jurisdictions of these tribunals vary
depending on the instruments establishing them and other general principles of
international law.
The emergence of these tribunals has further had the desired and enriching
effect of adding value and giving meaning to the dry letter of international law.
Areas of international law such as general international law, principles of regional
integration, international human rights, international humanitarian law,
international criminal law, international trade law, international environmental law,
innal law of the sea, international space law among other branches of law
have benefited tremendously from the reasoning advanced by these tribunals on a
case by case basis.
Practitioners of law cannot evade the challenges attendant to practicing before
these tribunals. It is against the background of this inescapable challenge that this
digest becomes the more relevant. Though not covering all aspects of international
law as discovered by various tribunals, it is a material addition to the resources of
international law available in the East African region.

x The Jurisprudence on Regional and International Tribunals Digest
The digest covers all decisions so far made by the East African Court of Justice.
The digest, thereafter samples two decisions from the COMESA court, two
decisions from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, two decisions from the
International Court of Justice, two decisions from the International Criminal
Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and two decisions from the International
Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Space is many times a highly limiting factor. That is
why diverse reasoning from other cases determined by the same tribunal as well as
the jurisprudence from other tribunals like the African Commission on Human and
Peoples’ Rights and the European Court of Human Rights have been given a wide
berth. It is hoped that by instrumentality of sequels, such inadequacies will be
addressed.
Ongoya Z Elisha, Advocate
Editor SUBJECT INDEX
Action for annulment – Parliament’s right to bring such an action restricted to
defence of its prerogatives (EEC Treaty, article 173; EAEC Treaty, article 146).
European Parliament v Council of the European Communities; 354
Bias – Disqualification of judicial officer – Applicable principle – Procedure for
making the application. Attorney General of the Republic of Kenya v Anyang’ Nyong’o
and others; 33
Children’s rights – Scope of children’s rights – The persons, bodies and institutions
to guarantee the rights –The best interest of the child – Meaning of the best interest
of the child. Inter-American Court of Human Rights; 104
COMESA Court – Jurisdiction – Exhaustion of local remedies compulsory
prerequisite to filing an application before the court. The Republic of Kenya and
Commissioner of Lands v Coastal Acquaculture; 86
COMESA Court – Locus standi – Jurisdiction of the court – Who has locus standi to
invoke the court’s jurisdiction. Eastern and Southern African Trade and others v
Martin Ogang; 94
Corporal punishment – Whether cruel inhuman and degrading punishment in
international human rights law. Caesar v Trinidad and Tobago Inter-Am Ct HR (Ser
C); 167
EAEC – Health protection – Safety standards for the protection of the general
public and workers – Laying down maximum permitted levels of radioactive
contamination of foodstuffs and of feedingstuffs – Prohibition in placing ated foodstuffs on the market – Legal basis – Article 31 of EAEC Treaty
(EEC Treaty, Article 100(a); EAEC Treaty, Article 31; Council Regulation
number 3954/87). European Parliament v Council of the European Communities; 348
East African Community – Jurisdiction – Whether the Council had jurisdiction over
the Assembly – Whether there was any restriction on the kind of bills that could be
brought before the Assembly. Mwatela and others v East African Community; 1
East African Community – Legislative procedure – Whether there was any
restriction on private members bills – Whether private members bills could be taken
over and withdrawn by the Council of Ministers. Mwatela and others v East African
Community; 1

xii The Jurisprudence on Regional and International Tribunals Digest
East African Community – Words and Phrases – “Council of Ministers” – What
was meant by Council of Ministers – Whether Attorneys General of Kenya and
Tanzania were Ministers in their respective governments – Whether a sectoral
Council could delegate its powers to non-Ministerial government representatives.
Mwatela and others v East African Community; 1
East African Community Treaty – Composition of the Legislative Assembly – To
be by election – Meaning of election – Article 50 of the Treaty establishing the
East Aftican Community. Anyang’ Nyong’o and others v Attorney General of the
Republic of Kenya and others; 54
East African Court of Justice – Jurisdiction to interpret and apply the treaty – To
determine the legality of any Act, regulation, directive, decision or action of a
Partner State or an institution of the Community. Anyang’ Nyong’o and others v
Attorney-General of the Republic of Kenya and others; 19
East African Court of Justice – Parties to proceedings – Who can be a respondent in
a case at the East African Court of Justice. Anyang’ Nyong’o and others
vAttorneyGeneral of the Republic of Kenya and others; 19
European Communities – Institutional balance – Implications – Maintenance of the
division of powers – Judicial review (EEC Treaty, article 164; EAEC Treaty, article
136). European Parliament v Council of the European Communities; 354
Injunction – Interim Injunction – At the East African Court of Justice –
Applicable principles. Anyang’ Nyong’o and others v Attorney-General of the Republic
of Kenya and others; 19
Inter-American Court of Human Rights – Jurisdiction – Ratione Temporis –
Nonparticipation of party to proceedings. Caesar v Trinidad and Tobago Inter-Am Ct HR
(Ser C); 167
Interpretation of treaties – Interpretation of the Inter-American Convention on
Human Rights – The applicable guidelines. Inter-American Court of Human
Rightspage 104
Jurisdiction of the Court to give the advisory opinion requested – Article 65,
paragraph 1, of the Statute – Article 96, paragraph 1, of the Charter – Power of
General Assembly to request advisory opinions – Activities of Assembly.
International Court of Justice Year 2004; 223
Jurisdiction of the Inter American Court of Human Rights – Jurisdiction over
advisory opinions – Requirements that must be fulfilled – Jurisdiction over
Conventions other than the Inter-American Convention on Human Rights.
InterAmerican Court of Human Rights; 104
“Legal consequences” of the construction of a wall in the Occupied Palestinian
Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem – Scope of question posed-

Subject Index xiii
Request for opinion limited to the legal consequences of the construction of those
parts of the wall situated in Occupied Palestinian Territory – Use of the term
“wall”. International Court of Justice Year 2004; 223
Measures adopted by the Community institutions – Choice of legal basis – Criteria.
European Parliament v Council of the European Communities; 348
Orders of the East African Court of Justice – Components of an order of court –
Power of court to direct amendment of its orders. Nangale and others v Attorney
General of the Republic of Kenya and others; 28
Parliament – Prerogatives – Participation in the legislative process – Restricted by
the Council’s choice of legal basis for an act of secondary law – Admissibility of
Parliament’s action for annulment (EEC Treaty, articles 100(a) and 173; EAEC
Treaty, articles 31 and 146). European Parliament v Council of the European
Communities; 354
Useful purpose of opinion Nullus commodum – Capere potest de sua injuria propria –
Opinion to be given to the General Assembly, not to a specific State or entity –
No “compelling reason” for Court to use its discretionary power not to give an
advisory opinion. International Court of Justice Year 2004 ; 223
Violation of international law – Duty to pay reparations – Kinds of reparations
payable – Enforcement of order. Caesar v Trinidad and Tobago Inter-Am Ct HR (Ser
C); 167 TABLE OF CASES
East Africa
Auto Garage v Motokov ............................................................. 56, 68, 363, 366
Coastal Acquaculture Limited v Commissioner of Lands and
Attorney-General.................................................................................... 87, 91
Commissioner of Lands v Coastal Aquaculture Limited............................... 87, 90
Council and Attorney General.................................................................... 60, 70
Giella v Cassman Brown and Company Limited ......................................363, 367
Ismail Serugo v Kampala City..................................................................... 60, 70
Jaramogi Oginga Odinga v Zachariah R Chesoni and
Attorney General .................................................................................... 60, 69
Kenya Commercial Finance Company Limited v
Afraha Education Society .....................................................................363, 367
King Woollen Mills Limited and another v
Ole Keiwua v Chief Justice of Kenya and others...................................... 36, 48
Professor Peter Anyang’ Nyongo and others v The
Attorney General of Kenya and others..................................................363, 366
Reverend Christopher Mtikila v The Attorney General...........................363, 366
Standard Chartered Financial and another................................................... 36, 48
T Tarmal Industries v Commissioner of Customs and Excise .................59, 60, 80
Uganda v Commissioner of Prisons ex parte Matovu ................................ 2, 9, 11
India
Golak Nath v The State of Punjab............................................................ 2, 3, 11
Indira Sawhney v Union of India................................................................ 60, 82
Janata Dal v HS Chowdhary............................................................ 362, 363, 366
SP Gupta v Union of India.............................................................. 361, 363, 365

xvi The Jurisprudence on Regional and International Tribunals Digest
South Africa
The President of the Republic and others v South African
Rugby Football Union and others ......................................................34, 37, 44
United Kingdom
A v United Kingdom ...................................................................... 109, 150, 152
Commission v Council............................................................................349, 351
Customs and Excise Commissioners v APS Samex Hanil Synthetic
Fibre Industry Company Limited................................................................... 95
Defrenne v Sabena ................................................................................... 2, 3, 11
European Parliament v Council............................................... 348, 354, 355, 356
Ex-parte Sidebotham...............................................................................363, 366
Inland Revenue Commissioners v National Federation of
Self-Employed and Small Businesses Limited ................................ 362, 363, 366
Ireland v United Kingdom ......................................................................170, 203
Locabail (UK) Limited v Bayfield Properties Limited and another ............... 36, 49
Maritime Electric Company Limited v General Dairies Limited .................. 59, 60
Moore v Buchanan and another.............................................................28, 29, 30
Parliament v Council...............................................................................349, 350
R v Bow Street Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate and
others ex parte Pinochet Ugarte............................................................... 37, 38
R v Secretary of State for Transport ex parte Factortame Limited................ 60, 84
Southend-on-Sea Corporation v Hodgson (Wickford) Limited..............59, 60, 80
St Aubyn (LM) v Attorney General ............................................................ 60, 82
Tyrer v United Kingdom ........................................................................170, 180
Z and others v United Kingdom..............................................................109, 152
United States
Broadbent v Organization of American States ............................................95, 100
Castillo Petruzzi and others v Peru................................................... 110, 142, 150
Golak Nath v The State of Punjab............................................................ 2, 3, 11

Table of Cases xvii
Islamic Republic of Iran v United States of America ................................226, 250
Linkletter v Walker Warden..................................................................... 2, 3, 11
Nicaragua v United States of America.............................................. 226, 247, 265
Villagrán Morales and others v Guatemala.........................110, 142, 151, 171, 202
Others
Akdeniz and others v Turkey...................................................................110, 150
Algemene Transporten Expeditie Onderneming van Gend
en Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen............................... 60, 83
Amminstrazione delle Finanze dello Stato v Simmenthal............................. 60, 83
Barrios Altos............................................................................................170, 202
Belilos v Switzerland ...............................................................................170, 205
Blake v Guatemala...................................................................................170, 199
Bulacio v Argentina.................................................................................170, 202
Caesar v Trinidad and Tobago................................................. 167, 170, 197, 222
Flaminio Costa v ENEL ............................................................................. 60, 83
Gómez Paquiyauri v Peru........................................................................170, 221
Greek......................................................................................................170, 203
Gustav Becker, Wilhelm Weber and others .............................................170, 195
I Gueye et alii v France ...........................................................................170, 206
James et allii v Trinidad and Tobago..........................................................17, 212
König......................................................................................................170, 200
Le Compte..............................................................................................170, 200
Lilian Celiberti de Casariego v Uruguay ..................................................226, 255
Loayza Tamayo v Perú ............................................................................170, 181
Loizidou v Turkey ......................................................................................... 200
López Burgos v Uruguay.........................................................................226, 255
Matthew v The State of Trinidad and Tobago .........................................170, 188
Montero v Uruguay ................................................................................226, 255
National Coal Board v Gamble................................................................274, 301

xviii The Jurisprudence on Regional and International Tribunals Digest
Oneryildiz v Turkey................................................................................110, 150
Osbourne v Jamaica.................................................................................170, 180
Portugal v Australia ........................................................................................ 226
Prosecutor v Tadic ..................................................................................274, 291
Ringeisen................................................................................................170, 200
Sooklal v Trinidad and Tobago ...............................................................171, 180
Tanrikulu v Turkey.................................................................................110, 150
The Prosecutor v Dusko Tadic................................................................274, 291
Tibi v Ecuador................................................................................ 171, 221, 222
Van Duzen v Canada...............................................................................171, 199
Villagrán Morales and others v Guatemala........................................ 110, 142, 159
Villagrán Morales and others v Guatemala, Merits....................................202, 171
X and Y v The Netherlands ............................................................ 110, 150, 151