A Contrastive transformational grammar
128 Pages
English
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A Contrastive transformational grammar

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Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more
128 Pages
English

Description

It is؟ book that compares English grammar to Arabic grammar using the transformational theoary. It can be used as؟ textbook for university students (the English Department).

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Published by
Published 01 January 2002
Reads 0
EAN13 9796500031101
Language English
Document size 1 MB

Legal information: rental price per page 0.0018€. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

Exrait

A CONTRASTIVE TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMARArabic and English Dr. Muhammad Ali Alkhuli Publisher DAR ALFALAH P.O. Box 818 Swalieh 11910 Jordan Tel&Fax009626-5411547
A CONTRASTIVE TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR Arabic and English Dr. Muhammad Ali Alkhuli Publisher DAR ALFALAH P.O. Box 818 Swalieh 11910 Jordan Tel & Fax 009626-5411547
Copyright: 2000, by the Publisher All rights are reserved.
No part of this book may be translated, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ عاﺪﻳﻹا ﻢﻗر 2002 / 6 / 1484 ClassNo. 425 Author:Alkhuli, Muhammad Ali Title: A Contrastive Transformational Grammar: Arabic and EnglishSubject Heading:1- English Language Notes:Swalieh: DAR ALFALAH, 2000, 119P Prepared by The National Library 2000/7/972 ﻞﺴﻠﺴﺘﳌا ةزﺎﺟﻹا ﻢﻗر ISBN 9957 - 401 - 27 - 3 (ﻚﻣدر)
TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. The Purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. The Advantage. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. The Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Content. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Complexity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . II. The Underlying Transformational Theory. . . . . . 1. The Need for a Theory . . . . . . . . . . 2. A Definition of Transformational Grammar. . . . 3. Generative Grammar and its Relation to the T-Grammar 4. Reasons for Using the T-Theory . . . . . . . 5. Phrase-Structure Rules . . . . . . . . . . 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. The Base Universality . . . . . . . . . 3. The Sentence in Phrase-Structure Rules . . . 4. The Types of PS-rules. . . . . . . . . 5. Further Terminology in PS-rules. . . . . . 6. The Lexicon. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Transformational Rules . . . . . . . . . . 1. The Nature of T-rules . . . . . . . . .  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . The Function of T-rules . . . . . . . . The Condition of T-rules . . . . . . . . The Order of T-rules . . . . . . . . . 2. The Types of T-rules . . . . . . . . . 8. Morphophonemic Rules . . . . . . . . . . 9. The Criteria for Evaluating a T-grammar . . . . 10. Further Remarks on the T-theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. The Corpus. 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Method of Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . 3. The Representativeness of the Sample . . . . . 1. Types of Sentences. . . . . . . . . .
IX XI 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 6 8 8 8 9 9 11 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 17 18 18 18 19 19
2. Types of Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3. Types of Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4. Types of Objects21 . . . . . . . . . . 5. Types of Particles . . . . . . . . . . 22 6. Miscellaneous Types . . . . . . . . . 22 4. The Sentences of the Corpus . . . . . . . . 23 IV. Phrase Structure Rules (PS-Rules) . . . . . . . . 27 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2. The Chosen PS-model . . . . . . . . . . 27 3. The Modification of Fillmores Model. . . . . 28 4. The Justification for Choosing Fillmore. 29s Model . 1. Chomsky's Model . . . . . . . . . . 29 2. Other Chomskian Modified Models . . . . 30 3. The Advantages of Fillmore. . . . s Model 31 5. DescribingtheCorpusaccordingtoFillmore31s Model V. Lexical Rules (L-Rules) . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2. Plus Noun Words . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3. Plus Verbal Words . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4. Plus Determiners47. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Plus Prepositions. . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6. Plus Interrogatives. . . . . . . . . . . 49 7. Plus Negatives. . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 8. Plus Auxiliaries . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 9. Plus Time Adverbials . . . . . . . . . . 50 VI. Transformational Rules (T-Rules)51. . . . . . . . 1. Subject Preposition Deletion . . . . . . . . 52 2. Object Preposition Deletion. . . . . . . . 53 1 3.yaku:nDeletion . 54. . . . . . . . . . . 4. Ergative-Dative Permutation . . . . . . . . 55 5. Ergative or Agent Fronting. . . . . . . . . 56 6. Ergative-Agent Permutation. . . . . . . . . 57 7. Ergative Deletion . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 8. Instrument-Agent Permutation . . . . . . . . 59 9. Locative Copying59. . . . . . . . . . . . 10. Locative Pronominalization. . . . . . . . . 60 _______ 1 For phonemic symbols, see Appendix I.
11. Ergative-Locative Permutation . . . . . . . 61 12. Passive Transformation . . . . . . . . . 61 13. Verbal Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . 62 14. Noun Copying . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 15. Void . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 16. Case Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 65 ation. . . . . . . . 66 17. Reflexive Transform 18. Determiner Transformation. . . . . . . . 67 19.mubtada?68Deletion . . . . . . . . . . 20. Void . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 21. Special Verb Transformation . . . . . . . 69 22. Relative Transformation . . . . . . . . . 70 23. Emphatic Transformation . . . . . . . . 72 24. Identical Element Deletion . . . . . . . . 73 25. Complement Transformation . . . . . . . 74 26. Manner Transformation. . . . . . . . . 75 27. Purpose Transformation77. . . . . . . . . 28. Adjective Transformation . . . . . . . . 78 29.mubtada?Copying79. . . . . . . . .  . 30. Interrogative Transformation80. . . . . . . 31. Time Transformation82. . . . . . . . . . 32. Separation Transformation . . . . . . . . 82 33. Ergative-Instrument Permutation83. . . . . . 34. Condition Transformation . . . . . . . . 84 35. Instrument or Locative Fronting85. . . . . . 36.mawǰu:dDeletion. . . . . . . . . . . 86 VII. Testing the Grammar Efficiency. . . . . .  . 88 VIII. Conclusions and Suggestions. . . . . . . 106 . Appendix I: Phonemic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . 108 Appendix II: Non-Phonemic Symbols . . . . . . . . 109 Appendix III: Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Appendix IV: Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 The Author. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117s Books.
PREFACE Transformational theory is one of the recent descriptions of language. It has been originally applied to English by different linguists, whose transformational descriptions of that language have taken several forms. What the author intends to do here is to apply this transformational theory to Arabic, which has not entered seriously till now into the field of modern linguistic research. Arabic has always been described as it was done one thousand years ago. This new attempt in this book moves Arabic into the realm of modern linguistics. It is also a step towards grammar universality since at the deep-structure level almost the same rules account for both Arabic and English. Further, it is a contribution to contrastive analysis, as it contrasts English and Arabic at another linguistic level and locates areas of similarity and areas of difference. The author hopes that this research may be useful to specialists interested in Arabic grammar, English grammar, transformational theory, universal grammar, applied linguistics, and contrastive lin-guistics. Muhammad Ali Al-Khuli
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION I.1The Purpose The purpose of this study is to design a new grammatical description of Arabic and then to compare Arabic to English through this new description, which is based on a modern linguistic theory, i.e., the transformational theory. The variety of Arabic that is under consideration is Modern Standard Arabic. There are different reasons of selecting this variety. Firstly, Standard Arabic is the variety known all through the Arab World and most probably outside the Arab World whereas other colloquial varieties are known basically as local dialects. Secondly, Standard Arabic is more systematic and better controlled than the colloquial dialects of Arabic, which makes Standard Arabic a more convenient subject of scientific analysis and contrast. It must be known that the designed grammar is just a sample one. It mainly deals with the most common patterns of Arabic and this is secured through choosing a representative sample of grammatical structures. In brief, this study aims at devising a transformational grammar for Arabic then finding out where Arabic and English are different and where they are similar. This study also aims at testing the degree of universality of a certain deep structure in order to see how far that structure can account for languages other than English. 1.2The Advantage The advantage of using the same grammatical model for Arabic as is used for English is that it reveals what is common to both languages (“universal”) and what is different (“particular). This result can be beneficially employed in teaching English to the native speakers of Arabic and teaching Arabic to the native speakers of English.
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