Administration and Finance Translation

-

English
205 Pages
Read an excerpt
Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more

Description

هذا الكتاب يضم تمارين كافية لترجمة النصوص الإدارية والمالية إدارة عامة، إدارة أعمال، مُحاسبة، أعمال مصرفية، مالية من الإنجليزية إلى العربية مع مسارد المصطلحات المتخصصة، ويصلح هذا الكتاب أن يكون مُقررا لطلاب الجامعة قسم اللغة الإنجليزية أو قسم الترجمة.

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 01 January 2001
Reads 2
EAN13 9796500000510
Language English

Legal information: rental price per page €. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

Report a problem
 ADMINISTRATION  AND  FINANCE  TRANSLATION:  FROM ENGLISH INTO ARABIC  :ﺔﻴﻟﺎﳌاو ﺔﻳرادﻹا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا  ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﱃا ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﻦﻣ  Dr. Muhammad Ali Alkhuli Publisher : DAR ALFALAH ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاو ﴍﺎﻨﻟا راد :ﴍﺎﻨﻟا P.O. Box 818 818 ب . ص Swaileh 11910 11910 ﺢﻠﻳﻮﺻ Jordan ندرﻷا Tel & Fax 0096266-5411547 009626-5411547 ﺲﻛﺎﻓو ﻒﺗﺎﻫ  books@daralfalah.com E-mail: Website: www.daralfalah.com  ﻪﻨﻣ ءﺰﺟ يأ وأ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا ﺮﻳﻮﺼﺗ ﻊﻨم ،نﻮﻧﺎﻘﻟا ﺐﺟﻮ
 Copyright: by the Publisher  All rights are reserved. No part of this book may be translated, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording without the prior written permission of the publisher.  2008 Edition  ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاو ﴩﻨﻠﻟ حﻼﻔﻟا راد :ﴍﺎﻨﻟا Publisher : DAR ALFALAH  818 ب .ص P.O. Box 818  11910 ﺢﻠﻳﻮﺻ Swaileh 11910  ندرﻷا Jordan  009626 - 5411547ﺲﻛﺎﻓو ﻒﺗﺎﻫ Tel & Fax 0096266-5411547  ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﻴﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد عاﺪﻳﻹا ﻢﻗر  2001/9/1828  418, 022 Alkhuli, Muhammad Ali  Administration And Finance Translation:  From English into Arabic / Muhammad Ali Alkhuli  Amman: Dar Alfalah, 2001  (202) P Deposit no: 1828/9/2001  Depositors: Translation / Business Management ندرﻷا ، ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﻟوﻷا ﻒﻴﻨﺼﺘﻟاو ﺔﺳﺮﻬﻔﻟا تﺎﻧﺎﻴﺑ داﺪﻋإ ﻢﺗ *  2001/9/1749 ﴩﻨﻟاو تﺎﻋﻮﺒﻄﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ ﻞﺴﻠﺴﺘﳌا ةزﺎﺟﻻا ﻢﻗر  ISBN 9957 – 401 – 43 – 2 ( ﻚﻣدر )
2
 CONTENTS PREFACE………………………………………………...…… 5 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TRANSLATION………...…. 8  UNIT16 1.PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: WHAT IT MEANS ……  UNIT2.COMPARISON IN THE STUDY OF PIBLUIC 20 ADMINISTRAITON………………………………...  UNIT243. WHATE IS PUBLIC ADMINISTRAITON?............. UNIT284. NATURE AND KINDS OF CONTRACTS……..…. UNIT5. PUBLIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS……………… 32  UNIT6. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS……..…………… 36  UNIT7. APPROACHES TO MANAGMENT AND ADMINISTRAITON DEVELOPMENT……..…...…… 40  UNIT8. THE DEMANDS OF INDEPENDCE UPON PUBLIC ADMINISTRAITON……….………...…… 48  UNIT9. THE USEFULNESS OF METHODS AND STATISCS TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION…… 52  UNIT10. IMAGES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRAITON……... 60  UNIT5611. MANAGEMENT MADE SIMPLE……...……...…  UNIT6012. ADMINISTRATIVE LAW……………...…………  UNIT6413. FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCTIVITY…  UNIT14. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT…………………… 68  UNIT15. THREE FINANCIAL TARGETS……………….. 72  UNIT16.OPERATING ENVIRONMENT OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT……..……………………………. 76  UNIT17. PRIVATE SECTOR AND PUBLIC SECTOR….… 80  UNIT18. INDESTRIAL SITUATION AND ITS NATURE……... 84  UNIT19. MANAGEMENT AS A PROFESSION……..….… 88  UNIT9220. INDESTRIAL RELATIONS…………...….………  UNIT9621. AN OVERVIEW OF MANAGERIAL FINANCE……  UNIT10022. MEASUREMENT OF EXPENSES………..……..  UNIT23.THE ECONOMIC FUNCTIONS AND GOALS 104OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR………………………….
3
 UNIT24. ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY…………………..  UNIT25. INTERNATIONAL BANKING…………………...  UNIT26. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES……………….  UNIT27. EURO-CURRENCY MARKETS…………...…….  UNIT28. SUCCESSFUL INVESTING……………………..  UNIT29. CURRENT ACCONT…………..………………….  UNIT30. INVESTMENT…………..………………………...  UNIT31. COMMERCIAL BANKS…………..……………..  UNIT32. DEPOSIT CONTRACTS AND BANKING………  UNIT33. OVERVIEW OF FINANCIAL MARKETS  UNIT34. THE IMPORTANCE OF LENDING……...………  UNIT35. THE ACCOUNTS OF A TRADING CONCERN  UNIT36. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS……………………  UNIT37. THE FRAMEWORK FOR ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL REPORTING FOR GOVERNMENTAL AND NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS……  UNIT38.OBJECTIVES AND ENVIRONMENT OF ACCOUNTING…………………..………………... UNIT39. WOMEN IN MANAGEMENT…..……………...  UNIT40. PURPOSE OF ACCOUNTING……..……..…..  UNIT41.SOURCE AND METHODOLOGY OFACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES………………………………………  UNIT42. A PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT………………  UNIT43. MANAGER –EMPLOYEE RELATIONS………  UNIT44. ACCOUNTING AS A CAREER………….…….  UNIT45. ACCOUNTING: AN INFORMATION SYSTEM TEXT SOURCES………………………………………………  AUTHOR'S BOOKS…………………………………………...
4
 108  112  116  120  124  128 132  136  140  144  148  152  156  160  164  168  172  178  180  184  188  192  196
 200
 ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟا ﻦﻤﺣﺮﻟا ﷲ ﻢﺴﺑ  PREFACE  ﺔــﻣ ﺪــﻘــﻣ ﻦـﻣ ﺔـﻋﻮﻨﺘﻣ ﻪـﻴﻓ ﻊـﻄﻘﻟاو .ﺔـﻳرﺎﺠﺘﻟا ﺔـﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﲆﻋ ﺐﻳرﺪﺗ ﻮﻫ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ ةرادإو ﺔـﻣﺎﻌﻟا ةرادﻷاو ﺔﺒـﺳﺎﺤﳌا ﻲـﻫ ﺔـﻌﺑرأ تﻻﺎـﺠﻣ ﰲ ﻲـﻬﻓ ،ﺎـﻫاﻮﺘﺤﻣ ﺚـﻴﺣ ﺔـﻌﻄﻗ نـﻌﺑرأو ﺲـﻤﺧ ﲆـﻋ يﻮـﺘﺤﻳ بﺎـﺘﻜﻟاو .ﺔﻴﻓـﴫﳌاو ﺔﻴﻟﺎﳌا مﻮﻠﻌﻟاو لﻋﻷا ﻞـﻌﺟأ أ ﺄـﺷأ و .ﺮﻛﺬـﻟا ﺔﻘﺑﺎـﺳ ﺔـﻌﺑرﻷا تﻻﺎـﺠﳌا ﲆـﻋ ﺎـﺒﻳﺮﻘﺗ يوﺎﺴﺘﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻋزﻮﻣ تﺮـﺛآ اﺬـﻟ ،ﻰﻨﻌﳌا جودﺰﻣ اﻮﻨﻌﻟا اﺬﻫ ﻞﺜﻣ ﻷ ،"ﺔﻳرﺎﺠﺘﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا" بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﻮﻨﻋ  ." ﺔﻴﻟﺎﳌاو ﺔﻳرادﻷا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا" اﻮﻨﻋ .ـاـائدـالوـًـًاءاباو ، ﻊﺒﻄﻟﺎـﺑو .ﺔـﻤﺟﱰﻟﺎﺑ ءﺪـﺒﻟا ﻞـﺒﻗ ﻪـﺑﻼﻄﻟ ئدﺎـﺒﳌا هﺬﻫ ﺢﺿﻮﻳ أ ذﺎﺘﺳﻷﺎﺑ ﻦﺴﺤﻳو .ًذىأرﺿأذةىأئدكدــيوــةــونــرأوًـــتاــادــُــــو تاﴐﺎـﺤﻣ ثﻼـﺛ سﺎـﺳأ ﲆﻋ ،ﺪﺣاﻮﻟا ﳼارﺪﻟا ﻞﺼﻔﻟا ﰲ تاﴐﺎﺤﳌا
5
اذإاـ.ااارااًأىًأﻦـٌﻜ اﺬـﻫ ﺈـﻓ ، ﻞـﻗأ تاﴐﺎـﺤﳌا دﺪـﻋ ﺎـﻛ اذإو .ةﴐﺎـﺤﻣ 45 ﺲﻳرﺪـﺗ ﺎﻨﺿﱰﻓا  .ءﺎﺸﻳ ﺎﻣ ءﺎﻨﺜﺘﺳاو ﻊﻄﻘﻟا ﻦﻣ ءﺎﺸﻳ ﺎﻣ رﺎﻴﺘﺧا ﻦﻣ ذﺎﺘﺳﻷا
بﻼـﻄﻟا مﻮـﻘﻳ أ ﻲـﻫ – ﻲـﻳأر ﰲ – ﺔـﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﺲﻳرﺪـﺘﻟ قﺮـﻄﻟا ﻞـﻀﻓأ ﻦﻣو ذﺎﺘـﺳﻷا فاﴍﺈـﺑ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﻖﻴﻗﺪﺘﺑ بﻼﻄﻟا مﻮﻘﻳ ﻢﺛ ،ﻒﺼﻟا جرﺎﺧ ﺔﺑﻮﺘﻜﳌا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟﺎﺑ ،ىﺮـﺧأ ةرﺎﺒﻌﺑ .ﻒﺼﻟا جرﺎﺧ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﻬﻨﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﺑ ﻮﻣﻮﻘﻳ ﻢﺛ ، ةﴐﺎﺤﳌا ءﺎﻨﺛأ ﰲ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﻖﻴﻗﺪﺗ (2) ،ﺖﻴﺒﻟا ﰲ ﱃوﻷا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻠﻟ بﻼﻄﻟا ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻛ (1) :ﻞﺣاﺮﻣ ثﻼﺛ كﺎﻨﻫ أ ﻚـﺷ ﻻ .ﺖـﻴﺒﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﻬﻨﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻠﻟ بﻼﻄﻟا ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻛ (3) ،ﻒﺼﻟا ﰲ ذﺎﺘﺳﻷا فاﴍﺈﺑ ـأــاهـأـأـو،ارىأًكقوﺮـﻳ ﺎـﻣ ﺎﻬﻨﻣ رﺎﺘﺨﻳو قﺮﻃ ةﺪﻋ بﺮﺠﻳ أ ذﺎﺘﺳﻷﺎﺑ ﻦﺴﺤﻳ ،لﺎﺣ يأ ﲆﻋو .قﺮﻄﻟا  .ﻪﻟ
ﰲ ﺔـﻴﻓﺎﻛ ﺔـﻴﻤﻛ ﻲـﻫو ،نﺘﺤﻔـﺻ ﻦـﻣ ﺺﻧ ﲆﻋ يﻮﺘﺤﺗ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا ﰲ ةﺪﺣو ﻞﻛ ﻦﻜﻤﺘـﻳ ﻻ ﺪـﻗ ،ﺔـﻘﻴﻘﺤﻟا ﰲو .ةﴐﺎـﺤﳌا ﺖـﻗو ﻲـﻫ ﻦﻣﺰـﻟا ﻦـﻣ ﺔﻋﺎﺳ ءﻞﳌ ﺐﻟﺎﻐﻟا ﺔﺑﻮﻌـﺻ ﲆـﻋ ﻒـﻗﻮﺘﻳ ﺮـﻣﻷا إ . ﺖﻗﻮﻟا ﻂﻐﺿ ﺖﺤﺗ نﺘﺤﻔﺼﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﻦﻣ ذﺎﺘﺳﻷا ﻻ . ﺔـﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﺲﻳرﺪـﺗ ﺔـﻘﻳﺮﻃ ﲆـﻋو ﻢﻫـﻀﺤﺗ ىﺪﻣو بﻼﻄﻟا ىﻮﺘﺴﻣ ﲆﻋو ﺺﻨﻟا ىﺪـﺣإ وأ تاﺮـﻘﻔﻟا ﺾﻌﺒـﺑ ﻲـﻔﺘﻜﻳ ﺪـﻗ ذإ ، نﺘﺤﻔـﺼﻟا ﺔـﻤﺟﱰﺑ ذﺎﺘـﺳﻷا مﺰـﻠﻳ ءﳾ ﻦـﻣ ﻊﻴﻄﺘـﺴﻳ ﺎـﻣ ﻛأ ﻢﺟﱰﻳ أ ﺎاد ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻠﻟ حﻮﺘﻔﻣ لﺎﺠﻣ كﺎﻨﻫ ﻦﻜﻟو .نﺘﺤﻔﺼﻟا الااجراوأًا  .ةﴐﺎﺤﻤﻠﻟ دوﺪﺤﳌا ﺖﻗﻮﻟا ﻂﻐﺿ
6
Helpful ةﺪﻋﺎـﺴﻣ تـﻠﻛ ﲆـﻋ ةﺪـﺣو ﻞــﻛ يﻮـﺘﺤﺗ ، ﺺــﻨﻟا ﱃا ﺔﻓﺎـﺿﻹﺎﺑ ﺮـﻬﻈﺗو ، ﺺﻨـﻟا ﰲ ةدراﻮﻟا تارﺎﺒﻌﻟا ﻢﻫأ ناﻮﻨﻌﻟا اﺬﻫ ﺖﺤﺗ ﺮﻬﻈﺗو . Vocabulary تارﺎـﺒﻋ ﻲـﻫو ، قﺎﻴـﺴﻟا ﺐـﻠﻄﺘﻳ ﺒـﺴﺣ فﺪـﻬﻟا ﺔـﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ ﺎـﻬﺘﻤﺟﺮﺗ ةرﺎﺒﻋ ﻞﻛ مﺎﻣأ ﻞـﻛ ﲆـﻋ يﻮـﺘﺤﺗ ﻻ ةﺪﻋﺎـﺴﳌا تـﻠﻜﻟا ﻦـﻣ ﺔﺤﻔـﺼﻟا هﺬﻫ .ﺐﻟﺎﻐﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻴﺣﻼﻄﺻا . ﻂـﻘﻓ ﺎـﻫزﺮﺑأ ﲆـﻋ يﻮﺘﺤﺗ ﻞﺑ ، ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا ﺎﻬﺟﺎﺘﺤﻳ ﻲﺘﻟا تارﺎﺒﻌﻟاو تادﺮﻔﳌا  . ﺎﻳروﴐ ﻚﻟذ ىأر ﻠﻛ ﻢﺠﻌﳌﺎﺑ ﻌﺘﺴﻳ نأ ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا ﲆﻋو ةﺪـﺣو مﻮﻳ ﻞﻛ يﻮـﺘﺤﺗ ، ةﺪﻋﺎﺴﳌا تﻠﻜﻟاو رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ ﺺﻨﻟا ﱃا ﺔﻓﺎﺿإ ،قﺎﻘﺘـﺷﻻا ﻦﻳﺮـ ﻮـﻫ ﺎﻨﻫ ﻦﻳرﺘﻟا هﺬﻫ ﻊﻴﺷأو .ﺺﻨﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻠﺻ يذ يﻮﻐﻟ ﻦﻳﺮ ﲆﻋ وأءـأوألـأاــو.ـاْتدروتـةــ،ًــاـاذإ،ًـ.ـاـاـنأاو،تﻞﻌﻔﻟا ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﻖﺘﺸﻳ نأ ﻪﻴﻠﻌﻓ ،ﺔﻔﺻ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ اذإو . ﺔﻔﺼﻟاو ﻢﺳﻻا ﺎﻬﻨﻣ ﻖﺘﺸﻳ نأ ﻪﻴﻠﻌﻓ . ﺔـﻤﻠﻛ ﻞـﻛ مﺎـﻣأ ىﺮـﺧﻷا ﺔـﻐﻠﻟﺎﺑ ﻞـﺑﺎﻘﳌا ﺐـﺘﻜﻳ نأ ﺎـﻀﻳأ ﻪﻴﻠﻋو . اﺬﻜﻫو ،ﻢﺳﻻاو ﰲ ﳼﺎـﺳأ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﻲﻫ ﻲﺘﻟا ﺔﻴﺗادﺮﻔﳌا ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا ﺔﻠﻴﺼﺣ ءاﺮﺛإ ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺘﻟا اﺬﻫ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻳﺎﻐﻟاو  . ﺔﻴﻤﺟﱰﻟا ةرﺪﻘﻟا ﺮـﺧآ ﰲ تﺮﻬﻇ ﺪﻘﻠﻓ ، ﺔﻋﻮﻨﺘﻣ تﻼﺠﻣ وأ ﺐﺘﻛ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺴﺒﺘﻘﻣ صﻮﺼﻨﻟا نأ ﺎو  . تﺎﺳﺎﺒﺘﻗﻻا هﺬﻫ ردﺎﺼﻣ ﺒﺗ ﺔﺎﻗ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا وابةاذبااننأرأ،ًو . ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟﺎﺑ مﺘﻫا  . ﳌﺎﻌﻟا بر ﺪﻤﺤﻟاو  ﱄﻮﺨﻟا ﲇﻋ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ .د.أ
7
 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF  TRANSLATION  ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻣﺎﻋ ئدﺎﺒﻣ ﻲﻋاﺮﺗ نأ ﺐﺠﻳ ﻲﺘﻟا ئدﺎﺒﳌا ﻢﻫﺄﺑ ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ ﺲﺤﻳ ، بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ ﺔﻳاﺪﺑ ﰲ :ﲇﻳ ﺎﻣ ئدﺎﺒﳌا هﺬﻫ ﻦﻣو . ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ءﺎﻨﺛأ ﰲ ﻰﻨﻌﳌا ﺔﻀﻣﺎﻏ Source language رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻠﻤﺠﻟا ﺖﻧﺎﻛ اذإ.1 لوﺎﺤﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻌﻓ ، ( داﺮﻔﻣ ﺐﺒﺳ وأ يﻮﺤﻧ ﺐﺒﺴﻟ ﺎﻌﳌا ةدﺪﻌﺘﻣ يأ)  .ﻚﻟاذ ﻪﻨﻜﻣأ ﻠﻛ target language فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺎﻬﺿﻮﻤﻏ ﺔﻟازإ رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺐﺗﺎﻜﻟا هﺪﺼﻗ يﺬﻟا ﺛﺄﺘﻟا ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﻞﻘﻨﻳ نأ ﻦﺴﺤﺘﺴﻳ.2 مأًزمأًامأًان.اًراناذإ اراوةاورإاو؟ا...ًمأًﺿ .( فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟاو رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا) ذإ،ءطًانأ.3  . ﺺﻨﻟا ﻢﻬﻓ ءﻮﺳ ﲆﻋ ﺔﻴﻨﺒﻣ ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﻦﻣ ةﺪﺋﺎﻓ دادﺰﺗو .فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺔﻣﺪﺨﺘﺴﳌا تﺎﺤﻠﻄﺼﳌﺎﺑ ﺪﻴﻘﺘﻳ نأ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻋ.4  صﻮﺼﻨﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ يأ ، ﺔﻴﺼﺼﺨﺘﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﰲ ءاﺪﺒﳌا اﺬﻫ ﺔﻴﻤﻫأ
8
ﺪﻴﻔﻳ ﻻ ﺎﻨﻫ .ﺔﻓﺮﻌﳌا عوﺮﻓ ﻦﻣ ﺎﻫاﻮﺳ وأ ﻮﻧﺎﻘﻟا وأ مﻮﻠﻌﻟا ﰲ ﺔﺼﺼﺨﺘﳌا ﰲ ﺔﻌﺋﺎﺸﻟا تﺎﺤﻠﻄﺼﳌﺎﺑ ماﺰﺘﻟﻻا ﻦﻣ ﺪﺑ ﻻ ﻞﺑ ، ةﺪﻳﺪﺟ تﺎﺤﻠﻠﻄﺼﻣ عاﱰﺧا  .دﻮﺸﻨﳌا يﻮﻐﻠﻟا ﻢﻫﺎﻔﺘﻟا ﻖﻴﻘﺤﺘﻟ فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﻰﻋﺪﻳ ﺎﻣ اﺬﻫو ، رﺪﺼﳌا ﺺﻨﺑ ﺪﻴﻘﺘﻟا ﻮﻫ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﻟا ﰲ ﻞﺻﻷا.5  .ﻰﻨﻌﳌا ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﱃا لﻮﺤﺘﻳ أ ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻌﻓ ، ﺎﻣ ﺐﺒﺴﻟ ﻚﻟذ رﺬﻌﺗ اذإو .ﺔﻴﻓﺮﺤﻟا ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﻢﺟﺮﺗ اذﺈﻓ ، ﺎﻣ ﺢﻠﻄﺼﳌ ﺔﺘﺑﺎﺛ ﺔﻤﺟﱰﺑ ماﺰﺘﻟﻻا ﻢﺟﱰﳌا ﲆﻋ.6 س ﻞﺑﺎﻘﻣ ص مﺪﺨﺘﺴﻳ أ ﻪﻴﻠﻌﻓ ، ﺎﻣ ﺺﻧ ﰲ ﺎﻣ ﺔﻠﻤﺟ ﰲ ص ﻞﺑﺎﻘﳌﺎﺑ س ﺢﻠﻄﺼﳌا قﺎﺴﺗﻻاو تﺎﺒﺜﻟاو حﻮﺿﻮﻟا ئدﺎﺒﻣ ﻖﻴﻘﺤﺗ ﻞﺟأ ﻦﻣ رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ س تﺮﻬﻇ ﻠﻛ  .consistency ادا.(3000)رد(3000ً)ادا.7 .ثِــthreehundredً،دأphoneme،ً.ا،تا.8  .( ﺲﻛﺎﻓ )ﻰﻘﺒﺗ ،fax( ﻢﻴﻧﻮﻓ )ﻲﻫ ﻛ ﻰﻘﺒﺗ ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺎﻫزوﺮﺑ ﲆﻋ ﻆﻓﺎﺤﻳ رﺪﺼﳌا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ةزرﺎﺒﻟا ةرﺎﺒﻌﻟا وأ ﺔﻤﻠﻜﻟا.9 ادأفاوأاتا،ً.فا اﻮﻨﻋ . فﺪﻬﻟا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﺎﻬﺘﺤﺗ ﻂﺧ ﻊﺿﻮﺑ وأ ﺎﻬﺗاذ ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻄﻟﺎﺑ ﺎﻫزاﺮﺑإ ﻦﻜ رﺪﺼﳌا ﻪﺘﺤﺗ ﻊﺿﻮﻳو ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﱃأ ﻢﺟﱰﻳ ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻷا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﰲ ﻞﺋﺎﻣ فﺮﺤﺑ بﻮﺘﻜﳌا بﺎﺘﻜﻟا  .ﻞﺋﺎﻣ فﺮﺤﺑ ﻊﺒﻄﻳ وأ ﻂﺧ
9