An Introduction to Linguistics

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English
221 Pages
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It is an introduction to morphology, syntax, phonetics, phonemics, semantics, psycholinguistics, and sociolinguistics, with exercises. It can be used as؟ textbook for university students (the English Department). In fact, it is used as؟ textbook at several universities in Jordan.

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Published by
Published 01 January 2009
Reads 15
EAN13 9796500022680
Language English
Document size 1 MB

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AnIntroduction toLinguistics  2009 Edition  Dr. Muhammad Ali Alkhuli Publisher: DAR ALFALAH ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاو ﴩﻨﻠﻟ حﻼﻔﻟا راد :ﴍﺎﻨﻟا P.O. Box 818 818 ب .ص Swaileh11910  11910 ﺢﻠﻳﻮﺻ Jordan  ندرﻷا Tel & Fax 009626-5411547 ﻒﺗﺎﻫ009626-5411547 ﺲﻛﺎﻓو E-mail: books@daralfalah.com Website: www.daralfalah.com  .ﻪﻨﻣ ءﺰﺟ يأ وأ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا،نﻮﻧﺎﻘﻟا ﺐﺟﻮمﺮﻳﻮﺼﺗ ﻊﻨُ  ﴍﺎﻨﻠﻟ ﺔﻇﻮﻔﺤﻣ قﻮﻘﺤﻟا ﻊﻴﻤﺟ
 Copyright: by the Publisher  All rights are reserved. No part of this book may be translated, reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans, electronicormechanical,includingphotocopyandrecording, without the prior written permission of the publisher.  2009 Edition Publisher: DAR ALFALAH ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاو ﴩﻨﻠﻟ حﻼﻔﻟا راد :ﴍﺎﻨﻟا P.O.Box 818 818 ب.ص Swaileh11910 11910 ﺢﻠﻳﻮﺻ Jordan ندرﻷا 009626-5411547 ﺲﻛﺎﻓو ﻒﺗﺎﻫ Tel & Fax 009626-5411547 E-mail: books@daralfalah.com Website: www.daralfalah.com  (ندرﻻا) ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ عاﺪﻳﻹا ﻢﻗر ٢٠٠٦/٨/ ٢٣٨٧ 421  Al-Khuli, Muhammad AliAn Introduction to Linguistics, Muhammad rd y  Ali Alkhuli. 3 ed.  Amman: Dar Alfalah, 2006.  (210)P  Deposit No.: 2387/8/2006.  Descriptors: \English Language\  \Linguistics\\Education\  ندرﻻا ،نﻋ ،ﺔﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ﻞﻗ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻟوﻻا ﻒﻨﺼﺘﻟاو ﺔﺳﺮﻬﻔﻟا تﺎﻧﺎﻴﺑداﺪﻋاﺗ **  ٢٠٠٦/٨/٣٠٥١ (ندرﻷا) ﴩﻨﻟاو تﺎﻋﻮﺒﻄﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ ﻞﺴﻠﺴﺘﳌا ةزﺎﺟﻹاﻗر  ISBN 9957 – 401 – 63 – 7 (ﻚﻣدر)
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 PREFACE This book is meantto be an introduction to the field of linguistics, and, therefore, it has come adequately brief. If detailed discussion had been aimed at, a whole book would have been needed to cover what is discussed in each single chapter. The first chapter deals with the nature of language, its main features, types, functions, generalities, peculiarities, and the various branches of theoretical and applied linguistics. The second chapter deals with phonetics; the third, phonemics; the fourth, morphology; the fifth, syntax; the sixth, semantics; the seventh, the origin of language and language families; the eighth, the social aspect of language; the ninth, writing; the tenth, language acquisition, which falls under the umbrella of psycholinguistics. At the end of every chapter, the author presents a group of direct questions, the answer to which are easily located in the text, and some indirect questions and exercises which require some research or independent thinking on the student’s part. The author wishes to thank Mr. Waleed Uthman for his help in proofreading the text. He also hopes that this book will be beneficial to university students majoring in linguistics and any readers interested in advancing their knowledge of linguistics. Dr. Muhammad Ali Alkhuli Amman, Jordan iii
 CONTENTS PREFACE…………………………………………. …iii CHAPTER 1. NATURE OF LANGUAGE… 1 Types of Language …………………………… 2  Functions of Language ………………………..4  Levels of Language …………………………... 4  Hierarchy of Language ……………………….. 5  Knowing a Language ……………………….… 6  Dialects ………………………………………. . 8  Generativity of Language ……………………. . 10  Competence and Performance………………… 11  Generalities of Language……………………… 12  Peculiarities of language………………………. 12  Features of Language…………………………. 14  Linguistics……………………………………... 15  Questions and Exercises……………………….. 19  CHAPTER 2. PHONETICS…………………21  Human Speech System……………………….. 21  Classification of Speech Organs…………….... 25  Description of Speech Sounds………………… 26  Points of Articulation…………………………. 27  Manners of articulation……………………….. 27  Other Phonetic Features………………………. 28  Description of Vowels………………………... 30
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 Stages of Sound Articulation………………... 31  Segmental Phonemes……………………….. 31  Superasegmental Phonemes……………..….. 33  Stresses……………………………………… 34  Pitches ……………………………………… 34  Junctures…………………………………….. 35  Questions and Exercises………………….….. 36 CHAPTER 3. PHONEMICS……………….….. 39  Phonemicity Test……………………………. 40  Types of Phonemes………………………….. 40  Phonemic Relationships……………………... 41  Functional Load of the Phoneme……………. 41  Phoneme and Grapheme…………………..… 42  Symbols of Linguistics Levels…………….… 42  Distribution of Phonemes………………….… 42  Horizontal Concatenation……………………. 43  Vertical Contrast……………………………… 44  Frequency of Phonemes…………………...…. 44  Phonemic Clusters………………………….. . 45  Syllables……………………………………... 45  Phonetic Phenomena……………………….... 46  Questions and Exercises……………………... 49 CHAPTER 4. MORPHOLOGY………………… 55  Morpheme and Allomorph…………………….. 55  Morpheme and Syllable……………………….. 56  Free and Bound Morphemes………………….. 57 v
 Affixes……………………………………….. 57  Derivational and Inflectional Morphemes…... 58  Grammatical Morpheme…………………….. 60  Continuous and Discontinuous Morphemes. .. 61  Number of Morphemes……………………… 61  Root and Stem……………………………..... 62  Content and Function Words………………… 62  Active and Passive Words………………...… 63  General and Special Words…………………. 64  Frequent and Rare Words…………………… 65  Types of the Word…………………………... 66  Rules of Word Structure……………………. 67  Distribution of the Morpheme…………….... 68  Morpho-phonemic Rules………………….… 69  Word Coinage…………………………….… 70  Questions and Exercises…………………….. 73 CHAPTER 5. SYNTAX………………………… 77  Branches of Syntax…………………………. 77  Types of Sentence Classification…………… 78  Psychological Classification………………... 78  Structural Classification……………………. 80  Initial Classification………………………… 81  Infinity of Language………………………... 81  Sentence Correctness……………………….. 82  Grammatical Flexibility…………………….. 83  Morphology-Syntax Relationship…………… 84
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 Horizontal Structure of the Sentence………….. 84  Horizontal Relationships and Expectations…… 85  Vertical Structure of the Sentence……………. 86  Infinity of the Sentence……………………….. 87  Syntactic Patterns……………………………. 88  Sentence and Utterance……………………….. 90  Hierarchy of the Sentence…………………….. 90  Meaning of the Sentence……………………... 92  Ambiguity of Meaning……………………….. 93  Syntactic Theories……………………………. 94  Traditional Theory…………………………… 94  IC Theory………………………………….…. 95  Tagmemic Theory…………………………… 96  Transformational Theory………………..…… 97  Questions and Exercises……………………… 99 CHAPTER 6. SEMANTICS………….…….…… 104  Triangle of Meaning…………….……….…… 104  Semantic Fields…………………..……….…. 106  Association…………………………..……… . 107  Semantic Features…………………..….…..… 108  Inter-Field Relationships……………..….….. . 108  Synonymy……………………………..…….... 109  Antonymy……………………………..…..….. 110  Inclusion………………………………....…… 112  Exclusion………………………………....….. . 112  Totality……………………………………...... 113
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 Definition…………………………………….. 113  Relative Meaning………………………..…… 114  Literal and Figurative Meanings…………...… 115  Affective Meaning…………………………… 116  Homophones and Homographs………….…… 117  Meaning Expansion and Narrowing………...... 118  Analytical and synthetic Meanings………..….. 118  Lexical and Grammatical Meanings…….....…. 119  Meaning and Context……………………..….. 120  Meaning and External Factors………….....….. 121  Questions and Exercises…………………..…. 123 CHAPTER 7. LANGUAGE AND TIME…... 128  Origin of Language………………………..…. 128  Classification of Languages………………….. 129  Geographical classification………………..…. 130  Grammatical Classification………………….. 130  Genetic Classification…………………….….. 132  Phonetic Change……………………………... 135  Grammatical Change………………………….. 135  Lexical Change…………………………….….. 136  Semantic Change……………………………… 137  Questions and Exercises………………………. 139 CHAPTER 8. LANGUAGE AND COMMUNITY….142 Geographical Dialects………………………… 142  Social Dialects………………………………… 143  Individual Dialects…………………………….. 144
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 Racial Dialects………………………………... 144  Professional Dialects…………………………. 145  Age Dialects……………………………..…… 145  Sex Dialects………………………………..…. 145  Temporal Dialects……………………….…… 146  Rural and Urban Dialects…………………..… 146  Colloquial and Standard Dialects……………. 146  Inter-dialectal Differences…………………..... 147  Language Taboos…………………………….. 148  Language Types ……………………………... 148  Conversers’ Roles…………………...………… 151  Language Interference…………………………. 151  Bilingualism and Community……………….… 152  Bilingualism and Distribution………………… 153  Societal Bilingualism………………………..… 153  Language Selection……………………….….. 154  Language Switch……………………………… 155  Questions and Exercises…………………….… 157 CHAPTER 9. WRITING….………………….… 160  Development of Writing…………………..… 160  Direction of Writing……………………..….. 161  Types of Writing……………………………. 161  Phonemic-Graphemic Differences………….. 163  Consonantal Writing………………………... 164  Pronunciation Rules………………………… 164  Spelling Rules………………………………. 167
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