Expression and Literature

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Tumbuka is the dominant language in the Northern Region of Malawi. It is, however, also spoken in large pockets of Kasungu District in the Central Region and also in the Eastern Province of Zambia, and in Lundazi District in particular. Tonga, spoken in Nkhatabay and Nkhotakota, is like a cousin to Tumbuka with a close resemblance in their phonetics. Like other Bantu languages, Tumbuka is very expressive, but can also be very economic in communication or use of words, and yet clearly delivering the desired message. This can be done through the use of idioms, proverbs, or ideophones. This collection is on commonly used Tumbuka ideophones, where an ideophone shall mean "a word describing a situation, or a state of affairs, or a set of actions - all in one word." It is the intention of this collection to provoke both interest in the use of ideophones as a form of expression in literature and to expound on the richness of Bantu languages.

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Published 13 December 2015
Reads 2
EAN13 9789990804027
Language English
Document size 3 MB

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Expression and Literature: Common Tumbuka Ideophones and their Usage
Copyright 2015 Songiso Mvalo
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission from the publishers. Published by Mzuni Press P/Bag 201 Luwinga, Mzuzu 2 ISBN 978-99908-0243-6
Mzuni Press is represented outside Africa by: African Books Collective Oxford (orders@africanbookscollective.com) www.mzunipress.luviri.com www.mzunipress.blogspot.com www.africanbookscollective.com
Printed in Malawi by Baptist Publications, P.O. Box 444, Lilongwe
Expression and Literature: Common Tumbuka Ideophones and their Usage
William Edward Songiso Mvalo Mzuni Books no. 19 Mzuzu 2015
PREFACE Tumbuka is the dominant language in the Northern Region of Malawi. It is, however, also spoken in large pockets of Kasungu District in the Central Region and also in the Eastern Province of Zambia, and in Lundazi District in particular. Tonga, spoken in Nkhatabay and Nkhotakota, is like a cousin to Tumbuka with a close resemblance in their phonetics.
Although Tumbuka is spoken that widely in the North, there are a lot more languages in Karonga and Chitipa apart from Tumbuka. In Karonga there are Nyakyusa and Nkhonde, in Chitipa we find Namwanga, Lambya, Sukwa, Nyiha and Ndali, amongst others.
Rumphi District, however, can boast of unadulterated Tumbuka, though a small pocket speaks Phoka which, however, is clearly understood by any Tumbuka speaker. A large portion of Mzimba District has a mixture of Tumbuka, Nguni, and Tonga resulting, at times, in formulation of words said in one area with a different intonation, but meaning the same thing, e.g.nikhumba and ndikhumbain Mzimba South and Nkhata Bay (where there is a lot of language interface with Tonga) and nkhukhumba in Mzimba North and Rumphi, ornihamba (in Mzimba South) and nkhuhambaMzimba North) where there is also a lot of Tumbuka and Nguni (in interface – adopted from the Nguni verbkuhamba – to go. In some instances, there are formulations of words that are peculiar to some limited area within the district (e.g.uyankhuMzimba South as opposed to in ukuyankhu in Rumphi), but meaning the same: "where are you going?" The result is that some Tumbuka words used in one part of Mzimba may seem strange to words used in Rumphi.
Like other Bantu languages, Tumbuka is also very expressive, but can also be very economic in communication or use of words, and yet clearly delivering the desired message. This can be done through the use of idioms, proverbs, or ideophones. This collection is on commonly used Tumbuka ideophones, where an ideophone shall mean "a word describing a situation, or a state of affairs, or a set of actions – all in one word."These words are derived mostly from verbs and sometimes from nouns –e.g. lingu/lingizge (from the verbs –kulingizga or kulingula – to peep), orlwahathe act of inattentiveness (from the noun – chilwaha). Some ideophones, however, stand on their own –e.g. beng'ende (being nude). Other 2 ideophones can be repeatede.g. bilinkhinyu.Said once, it denotes a single act of 2wriggling. If repeated –bilinkhinyu-bilinkhinyu (or bilinkhinyu )– it is in reference to continued motions of wriggling as in the movement of a worm.
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The letters "l" and "r" are easily interchangeable in Tumbuka –e.g. "lopolopo"and"roporopo," "lakalaka"and "rakaraka."Both mean the same thing – dropping in abundance. Because some ideophones do not have a direct English translation, it is hoped that where these occur, the explanations given will closely relate to some English meaning, for instance, in the ideophone"pyepyetu"from the verb "kupyepyetula,"to knock down someone from their feet. Notes: 2 3 (1) A superscriptor indicates that the ideophone has a single expression and a double or triple one.
(2) Pronunciation: The Tumbuka language distinguishes between a soft and a hard b. In this book the soft b is expressed as ŵ, and in the alphabetical sequence of the ideophones it follows directly after the hard b.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am indebted to Late Tito Banda, then from the Department of Languages and Literature who, after reviewing the very first raw manuscript, encouraged me to forge ahead as what I had started would be a rich and unique contribution to Tumbuka Literature. Professor Boston Soko and Associate Professor Fred Nkhwendavibe Msiska both examined the final manuscript and they too encouraged me to ensure that the collection is published as it was both inspiring and stimulating and that the methodology was good. Colleagues at the Mzuzu Golf Club, thank you all as, without your knowledge, I was collecting these ideophones as we laughed and joked over social and political issues. I also wish to thank Ms. Linda Golosi for her meticulous efforts in the setting and typing the manuscript. Lastly, I am particularly indebted to Professor Klaus Fiedler who formatted the book with a professional editorial comb to ensure that both presentation and readability flow.
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Ba or Bamu These are derived from the verb 'kubamuka' to suddenly get through a barrier to clearance – as in going through a forest and suddenly onto a clearance or road.
'ba'or 'bamu'is in reference to breaking through. "Uko tikuchimbira nkhalamo muthengele, mbwenu mwamwawi mumusewu ba/bamu."
Babaku This comes from the verbs "kubabakula" or "kubabakuka" to pull in one's stomach. "babaku" is in reference to that retraction of one's stomach, or as with a cobra, its neck when it is ready to spit.
"Uyu mwana njala yakoma – awonani kumutima kuli babaku."
"Awonani vuvi wachita kuti singo babaku!"
Bafu This comes from the verb "kubafula" to kick with the foot.
"bafu" refers to that act of kicking or striking something with the foot. "Apo Lazalo wakati wayezge kukaka ng'ombe na goda, mbwenu yili naye bafu."
Bagada-bagada "bagada-bagada" is in reference to the unsteady or unstable walk either in a person or as with a duck. "Chifukwa cha matekenya, Chiukepo pakwenda sono ni bagada-bagada."
Bagadale This is from the verb "kubagadala" to be out of form, or not in a straight neat row or line because of being in excess – as in teeth(also see "pangalale").
"bagadale"is in reference to teeth or stakes or feet not being straight or not being in a neat row because they are too many.
"Achiwoneni ŵati, mumulomo mino bagadale ngati ŵali kuchita kufwindamo!"
"Tamala watowelechi, kweni mbwenu malundi bagadale!"
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