General Translation Two

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يهدف هذا الكتاب ليكون مقدمة للترجمة من اللغة العربية إلى اللغة الإنجليزية، هذا يمكن أن تكون إما دورة تمهيدية في الترجمة أو دورة التركيز على الترجمة من اللغة العربية إلى اللغة الإنجليزية، وقد جاء فيه تمارين كافية لترجمة نصوص عامة (من حقول متنوعة يزيد عددها عن أربعة عشر حقلا) (المتنوعة) من العربية إلى الإنجليزية، ويصلح الكتاب أن يكون مُقررا لطلاب الجامعة قسم اللغة الإنجليزية أو قسم الترجمة.

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General
Translation Two:

From Arabic into English

Dr. Muhammad Ali Alkhuli

:(2) ﺔـﻣﺎـﻌﻟاﺔـﻤﺟﱰﻟا
ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﱃإ ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﻦﻣ
ﱄﻮﺨﻟا ﲇﻋ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ رﻮﺘﻛﺪﻟا ذﺎﺘﺳﻷا

Publisher: DARALFALAH ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاوﴩﻨﻠﻟ حﻼﻔﻟا راد :ﴍﺎﻨﻟا
P. O. Box 818818 ب .ص
Swaileh 1191011910 ﺢﻠﻳﻮﺻ
Jordan ندرﻷا
Tel & Fax 009626-5411547009626-5411547 ﺲﻛﺎﻓو ﻒﺗﺎﻫ
E-mail: books@daralfalah.com
Website: www.daralfalah.com

.ﻪﻨﻣ ءﺰﺟ يأ وأ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا ﺮﻳﻮﺼﺗ ﻊﻨ ُم ،نﻮﻧﺎﻘﻟا ﺐﺟﻮم

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA

Copyright: by the Publisher
All rights are reserved.

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transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying
and recording, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

2005 Edition

Publisher: DAR ALFALAH ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاوﴩﻨﻠﻟ حﻼﻔﻟا راد :ﴍﺎﻨﻟا
P. O. Box818
818 ب .ص
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11910 ﺢﻠﻳﻮﺻ
Jordan
ندرﻷا
Tel & Fax009626-5411547
009626-5411547 ﺲﻛﺎﻓو ﻒﺗﺎﻫ
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Website: www.daralfalah.com

(ندرﻷا) ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ عاﺪﻳﻹا ﻢﻗر
2005/7/1593
418.022
Al-Khuli,Muhammad Ali
General Translation Two: From Arabic into English,
Muhammad Ali Al-Khuli.
Amman:Dar Alfalah , 2005.
(215)P
DepositNo. : 1593/7/2005.
Descriptors:Translation, Ar abicLanguage, English
Language


ندرﻷا ،ناﱠ ﻋ ،ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ﻞﺒﻗ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﻟوﻷا ﻒﻴﻨﺼﺘﻟاو ﺔﺳﺮﻬﻔﻟا تﺎﻧﺎﻴﺑ داﺪﻋإ ﻢﺗ**
2005 /7/1559(ندرﻷا) ﴩﻨﻟاو تﺎﻋﻮﺒﻄﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ ﻞﺴﻠﺴﺘﳌا ةزﺎﺟﻹا ﻢﻗر
ISBN9957 – 401 – 59 –9( ﻚﻣدر)

- 2

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA


ﻢﻴﺣﺮﻟا ﻦﻤﺣﺮﻟا ﷲ ﻢﺴﺑ

CONTENTS

Contents


Contents 3
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
CHAPTER 1:Determiners.......................................................................................................................................................................5
CHAPTER 2:Nouns......... ...........................................................................................................................................21
................................
CHAPTER 3:Pronouns..........................27
.................................................................................................................................................
CHAPTER 4:Prepositions35
....................................................................................................................................................................
CHAPTER 5:Adjectives and Adverbs...................................................................................................................................55
CHAPTER 6:Auxiliaries69
........................................................................................................................................................................
CHAPTER 7:Lexical Verbs79
................................................................................................................................................................
CHAPTER 8:Different Sentence Structures...............................................................................................................103
CHAPTER 9:Adjective Clauses115
..................................................................................................................................................
CHAPTER 10:Noun Clauses............................................................................................................................................................127
CHAPTER 11:Conjunctions and Adverb Clauses................................. ........ ........................................................135
CHAPTER 12:Proverbs and Sayings153
.......................................................................................................................................
CHAPTER 13:FromThe Holy Quran...................................................................................................................................163
CHAPTER 14:A Variety of Sentences175
...................................................................................................................................
CHAPTER 15:Review................................................................................................................................................................................185
CHAPTER 16:Paragraphs.....................................................................................................................................................................203
The Author’s Books.........................................................................................................................................................................................213

- 3

General Translation (2):Preface(A-E), MA, DA

PREFACE
This book is meant to be an introduction to translation from Arabic into English. It
can serve either as an introductory course in translation or a course focusing on
translation from Arabic into English.
The book is based on the grammatical structures of English, the target language, since
most errors in Arabic-English translation are grammar errors. Most sentences are selected
due to the fact that they include a special case or a special problem area in light of
ArabicEnglish contrastive grammatical analysis.
Chapter1 deals with determiners, Chapter 2 with special problem nouns, and Chapter
3 with pronouns. Chapter 4 deals with prepositions, which cause a big headache to Arab
students translating from Arabic into English. Chapter 5 deals with special cases of
adjectives and adverbs. Chapter 6 focuses on auxiliaries, Chapter 7 on verbs and tenses,
and Chapter 8 on a variety of problem sentence structures.
In addition, Chapter 9 deals with adjective clauses, Chapter 10 with noun clauses, and
Chapter 11 with adverb clauses. Chapter 12 gives some proverbs and famous sayings.
Chapter 13 gives some sentences fromThe Holy Quran. Finally, Chapter 14 gives a variety
of sentences, Chapter 15 is a review, and Chapter 16 focuses on paragraph translation.
To help the student translator, some grammar rules are given from time to time, and
a translation exercise is made to follow the rule immediately. In most cases, a key word is
given between brackets to help the student get at the correct translation. Enough space is
always provided for writing down the translation.
The author hopes that such a book will be of great help to students majoring in
translation or students taking introductory courses in translation.
Author
Dr. Muhammad Ali Alkhuli

- 4

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA
CHAPTER 1

DETERMINERS

Chapter 1

Exercise 1

a / an
Weusea / anbefore jobs.

Translate these sentences into English.
أﺣ . ﻳﻤﺪﻞ ﻌﻤارﻣﺰﺎﻋ ً
Ahmad works as a farmer.
(as a) .ﺔﺻﺎﺧﺔﺳرﺪﻣ ﰲ ﺔﻤﻠﻌﻣ ﻞﻤﻌﺗ ﺎﻬﻧإ

(a photographerىﺪﻟ ﻞﻤﻌﻳ رﻮﺼﻣ ﻪﻧإ) .ةﺪﻳﺮﺟ



.راّﺰﺟويﺎﺑﺮﻬﻛو ءﺎﻨﺑ :ةﻮﺧأ ﺔﺛﻼﺛ ﻢﻬﻧإ
(a builder, an electrician, and a butcher)


.ﻲﻘﻴﺳﻮﻣوﻖﺋﺎﺳو ﻲﻨﺋﺎﻨﺟ :ءﺎﻗﺪﺻأ ﺔﺛﻼﺛ ﻢﻬﻧإ
(a gardener, a driver, and a musician)

- 5

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA
Exercise 2

a / an
Weusea / anto mean ‘any example of something’.

Translate these sentences into English.

(is used)

(an axe)

(a dictionary)

(a lawyer)

Chapter 1


.ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﻠﻟ مﺪﺨﺘﺴُﻳ ﻢﻠﻘﻟا

.ضرﻷا قﺰﻌﻟ مﺪﺨﺘﺴُ ﺗ سﺄﻔﻟا


.تاﻠﻜﻟا يﺎﻌﻣ جاﺮﺨﺘﺳﻻ مﺪﺨﺘﺴُﻳ سﻮﻣﺎﻘﻟا

Exercise 3


.ﻢﻛﺎﺤﳌا مﺎﻣأ سﺎﻨﻟا ﺪﻋﺎﺴُﻳ ﻲﻣﺎﺤﳌا

a / an
A/ anis used before described singular nouns, e.g.,a long nose.
Translate these sentences into English.
.رﻐﺻﻒﻧأ ﺎﻬﻟ
Shehasa small nose.
Shehas gota small nose.
(a) .ﺮﻳﺪﺘﺴﻣﻪﺟو ﺎﻬﻟ

- 6


.1

.2

.3

.4

.1

.2

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA
(has)

(a moustache)

(a)

(a)

(hair) [NOT a hair]


Exercise 4

Chapter 1

.ﺔﻠﻴﻤﺟ ﺔﻣﺎﺴﺘﺑا ﻪﻟ .3

.رﺒﻛ برﺎﺷ ﻪﻟ

.ﻞﻳﻮﻃ ﻖﻨﻋ ﺔﻓارﺰﻠﻟ

.ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻋ ﺔﻜﺤﺿ ﺖﻌﻤﺳ

.ﺾﻴﺑأ ﺮﻌﺷ ﻪﻟ

.4

.5

.6

.7


the
The isused with definite nouns, whether singular or plural. It isalso used
beforeonlyand superlatives.


Translate these sentences into English.
ِ
(theﻦﻣ ،ةﺬﻓﺎﻨﻟا ﺢﺘﻓا) .ﻚﻠﻀﻓ.1

(in the center of) .ﺔﻤﺻﺎﻌﻟاﻂﺳو ﰲ ﻦﻜﺴﻳ .2

(the girlْﻦَﻣﺖﺤﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ةﺎﺘﻔﻟا) ؟ةﺮﺠﺸﻟا .3

(the only friendﻖﺜﻳ يﺬﻟا ﺪﻴﺣﻮﻟا ﻖﻳﺪﺼﻟا ﻪﻧإ) .ﻪﺑ .4

- 7

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA
(the best book)

(a glass)

(the easiest)

Chapter 1

.ﻪُﺗأﺮﻗ بﺎﺘﻛ ﻞﻀﻓأ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ .5

.ءﺎﻣ سﺄﻛ ﻲﻨﻄﻋأ

.نﺎﺤﺘﻣﻻا ﰲ لاﺆﺳ ﻞﻬﺳأ اﺬﻫ

.6

.7


Exercise 5

Genericthe
Ifthe countable singular is general, we may usea / anorthewhich is called the

genericthe, e.g.,The cat is like the tiger.


Translate these sentences into English.
(the cowﺎﻨﻴﻄﻌﺗ ةﺮﻘﺒﻟا) .ًﺎﺒﻴﻠﺣ .1

(the lion) .تﺎﺑﺎﻐﻟاﻦﻜﺴﻳ يﺮﺑ ناﻮﻴﺣ ﺪﺳﻷا .2
ﱢ َ

(the dogﻪﺒﺸﻳ ﺐﻠﻜﻟا) .ﺐﺋﺬﻟا .3


Exercise 6

General Plural Nouns
Ifthe plural is general, notheis used, e.g.,Cats are like tigers.

Translate these sentences into English.

- 8

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA
(cows)

(lions) [NOT the lions]

(dogs) [NOT the dogs]

(hens) [NOT the hens]

Exercise 7

Chapter 1

.ًﺎﺒﻴﻠﺣ ﺎﻨﻴﻄﻌﺗ رﺎﻘﺑﻷا .1

.تﺎﺑﺎﻐﻟا ﻦﻜﺴﺗ تﺎﻧاﻮﻴﺣ دﻮﺳﻷا

.بﺎﺋﺬﻟا ﻪﺒﺸﺗ بﻼﻜﻟا

.ﺔﻨﺟاﺪﻟا رﻮﻴﻄﻟا ﻦﻣ عﻮﻧ جﺎﺟﺪﻟا

.2

.3

.4


General Mass Nouns
Ifthe noun is general and uncountable, notheis used, e.g.,Water is colorless.
Such nouns are called mass nouns.


Translate these sentences into English.
(music) [NOT the music] .ﺔﻤﻋﺎﻨﻟاﻰﻘﻴﺳﻮﳌا ﻊﻤﺳأ نأ ﺐﺣأ .1

(courage) [NOT the courage] .ﻞﺋﺎﻀﻔﻟاىﺪﺣإ ﺔﻋﺎﺠﺸﻟا .2

(iron) [NOT the iron] .ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟاﰲ مﺎﻫ نﺪﻌﻣ ﺪﻳﺪﺤﻟا .3

(the ironﰲ يﺬﻟا ﺪﻳﺪﺤﻟا جﺎﺘﺤﻧ) .نزﺎﺨﳌا .4

(the music) .ًاﺪﺟﺔﻠﻴﻤﺟ ﺲﻣأ ﺎﻬﻓﺰﻋ ﻲﺘﻟا ﻰﻘﻴﺳﻮﳌا .5

- 9

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA

Exercise 8

Chapter 1


No Article
Withsome common expressions, no article is used after a preposition, e. g.,He
went to school.

Translate these sentences into English.

(in prison) [NOT the prison]

(to the prison)

(to bed)

(by the bed) [NOT by bed]

(to school) [NOT the school]

(to the school)

(by bus, by plane)

(from university, from college)

.تاﻮﻨﺳ ﻊﺒﺳ ﺬﻨﻣ ﻦﺠﺴﻟا ﰲ ﻪﻧإ

.ﻪﻴﺧأ ةرﺎﻳﺰﻟ ﻦﺠﺴﻟا ﱃإ ﺐﻫذ

.ﺔﻌﺳﺎﺘﻟا ﺔﻋﺎﺴﻟا مﺎﻨﻴﻟ ﺮﻳﴪﻟا ﱃإ ﺐﻫذ

.ﺔﻠﻳﻮﻃ ةﺪﻣ ﺮﻳﴪﻟا ﺐﻧﺎﺠﺑ ﻒﻗو

.مﻮﻳ ﻞﻛ ﺔﺳرﺪﳌا ﱃإ ﺪﻟﻮﻟا ﺐﻫﺬﻳ

.ﺮﻳﺪﳌا روﺰﻴﻟ ﺔﺳرﺪﳌا ﱃإ هﺪﻟاو ﺐﻫذ

.ةﺮﺋﺎﻄﻟﺎﺑ ﺮﻓﺎﺳ هﻮﺧأو صﺎﺒﻟﺎﺑ ﻮﻫ ﺮﻓﺎﺳ

.ﺔﻴﻠﻜﻟا ﻦﻣ هﻮﺧأو ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺠﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻟا دﺎﻋ

- 10

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DAChapter 1

Exercise 9

No Article
Noarticle (a, an, the) is used with continents, most countries, towns, most
streets, lakes, and most mountains.


Translate these sentences into English.
(Asia, Africa) .ﻢﻳﺪﻘﻟامﺎﻌﻟا ﱃإ ﻲﻤﺘﻨﺗ ﺎﺑوروأو ﺎﻴﻘﻳﺮﻓإو ﺎﻴﺳآ نإ .1

(Egypt, Libyaلاﺷ ﰲ ﻊﻘﺗ ﺲﻧﻮﺗو ﺎﻴﺒﻴﻟو ﴫﻣ) .ﺎﻴﻘﻳﺮﻓإ .2

(the capital ofﺔﻤﺻﺎﻋ ﺲﻳرﺎﺑ) .ﺎﺴﻧﺮﻓ .3

(London Airport) .تاﺮﺋﺎﻄﻟﺎﺑﻢﺣدﺰﻣ نﺪﻨﻟ رﺎﻄﻣ .4

(Damascus and Aleppoﰲ نﺎﺘﻨﻳﺪﻣ ﺐﻠﺣو ﻖﺸﻣد) .ﺎﻳرﻮﺳ .5


Exercise 10

Place Names
Theseplace names takethe: modified common nouns, seas, rivers, deserts,
mountain groups, island groups, most geographical regions, hotels, cinemas, and
theaters. Notice that the mountain’s name takes nothe, but the mountain group
takesthe.

Translate these sentences into English.

- 11

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DAChapter 1

.اﺪﻨﻟﺮﻳإو ﺰﻠﻳوو اﺪﻨﻠﺘﻜﺳأو اﱰﻠﺠﻧإ ﻦﻣ نﻮﻜﺘﺗ ةﺪﺤﺘﳌا ﺔﻜﻠﻤﳌا .1
The United Kingdom

.قرﺎﻃ ﻞﺒﺟ ﻖﻴﻀﻣ ﱪﻋ ﻂﺳﻮﺘﳌا ﺾﻴﺑﻷا ﺮﺤﺒﻟﺎﺑ ﻞﺼﺘﻣ ﴘﻠﻃﻷا ﻂﻴﺤﳌا .2
The Atlantic Ocean

(The Dead Sea) .ﺎﻴﺳآةرﺎﻗ ﰲ نﺎﻌﻘﻳ ﻦﻳوﺰﻗ ﺮﺤﺑو ﺖﻴﳌا ﺮﺤﺒﻟا .3

(The Nile) .ﺎﻴﻘﻳﺮﻓإﻂﺳاوأ ﻦﻣ ﻞﻴﻨﻟا ﺮﻬﻧ ﻊﺒﻨﻳ .4

(The Alpsلاﺷ ﻊﻘﺗ ﺐﻟﻷا لﺎﺒﺟ) .ﺎﻴﻟﺎﻄﻳإ .5


.(the Himalayas) ﺎﻳﻼﻤﻫ ﰲ ﻞﺒﺟ ﲆﻋأ (Everest) ﺖﺳﺮﻓإ .6

(The Philippines) .نﺼﻟاقﴍ ﻊﻘﺗ نﺒﻴﻠﻔﻟا .7

(The Middle East).ﺔﻴﻣﻼـﺳﻹاو ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا دﻼﺒﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ ﲆﻋ نﻮﻴﺑﺮﻐﻟا ﻪﻘﻠﻃأ حﻼﻄﺻا ﻂﺳوﻷا قﴩﻟا .8



Exercise 11

Possessives
Possessivesincludemy, our, your, his, her, its, their, mine, ours, yours, his, hers,
theirs.

- 12

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA
Translate these sentences into English.

This book belongs to me.
This book is my book.
This book is mine.
(put on)

(took off)

(her hand)

(my own book)

(their own reports)

Chapter 1

.ﱄ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ

.جﺮﺧو ﺔﻋﴪﺑ ﻪﻔﻄﻌﻣ ىﺪﺗراو ةﺄﺠﻓ ﻒﻗو
َ

.اﻮﺴﻠﺟو ﻢﻬﺗﺎﻌﺒﻗ اﻮﻌﻠﺧ

.ﺞﻟﺰﺘﻟا ءﺎﻨﺛأ ﰲ ﺎﻫﺪﻳ تﴪﻛ

.ي صﺎﺨﻟا يﺎﺘﻛ ْتﺬﺧأ

ِ
.ﻢﻬﺑ ﺔﺻﺎﺨﻟا ﻢﻫﺮﻳرﺎﻘﺗ ﲆﻋ ُﺖﻌﻠﻃا

.ﻪﺑ ﺔﺻﺎﺨﻟا ﻪﺗرﺎﻴﺳ هﺬﻫ

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7


Exercise 12


Demonstratives
Demonstrativesare also used as determiners:thisاﺬﻫ,that ﻚﻟذ,these ءﻻﺆﻫ,those
ﻚﺌﻟوأ.

- 13

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DAChapter 1

Translate these sentences into English.
.ﳼﺮﻜﻟا (that) ﻚﻟذ ﲆﻋ ﺲﻠﺟاو بﺎﺘﻜﻟا (this) اﺬﻫ ﻲﻨﻄﻋأ .1
ْ

.بﻼﻄﻟا (those) ﻚﺌﻟوﻷ ﺎﻬﻄﻋأو تﺎﻔﻠﳌا (these) هﺬﻫ هﺬﺧ .2

.ﺔﺒﻌﺻ (those) ﻚﻠﺗو ﺔﻠﻬﺳ ﺔﻠﺌﺳﻷا (these) هﺬﻫ

.3

َ
.ﻞﻤﺟأ (that) ﻚﻠﺗو ،ﺔﻠﻴﻤﺟ ةرﺤﺒﻟا (this) هﺬﻫ .4
ْ


Exercise 13

Which? What?
Withlimited choices, usewhichto make a question:Which book is yours? With
a wide choice, use what:What day can you come?

Translate these sentences into English.
َ
؟ﻚﻤﺳا ﱞيأ .1
Which is your name?

Which team

Which boxer

What kind of car

- 14


ﱡيأ؟ةارﺎﺒﳌا ﰲ زﻮﻔﻴﺳ ﻖﻳﺮﻓ
?
؟ز
ﺎﻓ ٍﻢﻛﻼﻣ ﱡيأ
?

؟ َﺖﻳﱰﺷا تارﺎﻴﺴﻟا ﻦﻣ عﻮﻧﱡيأ
?

.2

.3

.4

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA


(who) [NOT which]

Chapter 1

؟ﻚﻟ ﺑﺎﺘﻜ .5
نْ َﻟا ﱡيأ


؟زﺎﻓ ْﻦَﻣ

.6


ﺸﻟاأ يﺎ؟: ﴍاب ﺗم اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﱡﻔُﱢﻀ ﻞيأ.7

(what booksﺑﺸﺎ ﻋﻜﻞُﻔ ﺗﻠﻬﻀﱢ؟مﺎﻟاﻲﺘﺘﻜ ﺐ ﺎﻟا )ﻣ .8


Exercise 14

someandany
Usesomeﺾـﻌﺑ with positive sentences, andanyﺔـﱠﻳأ ، ﱡيأ with negative sentences
and questions. Notice thatsomeone, somebody, something, anyone, anybody,
anything, none, nobody, nothing, everyone, everybody, everythingas oneare written
word, not two words.


Translate these sentences into English.
(some of) .ةﺪﻴﺟﻪﺗﺎﺣاﱰﻗا ﺾﻌﺑ .1

(somebody) [NOT some body] .جرﺎﺨﻟاﰲ ﺎﻣ ﺺﺨﺷ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ .2

(nobody) .جرﺎﺨﻟاﰲ ﺪﺣأ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ ﻻ .3

(not … anybody) .كﺎﻨﻫًاﺪﺣأ ﺪﺟأ م .4

- 15

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA
(any fishes)

(any mistakes)

(anything)

Chapter 1

.كﺎﻨﻫ كاﺳأ ﺔﻳأ نوﺪﺠﻳ ﺎﻣ ًاردﺎﻧ .5

.يﱪﺧأ ،ءﺎﻄﺧأ ﺔﻳأَتﺪﺟو اذإ

؟ َﻚﻟﻪﻠﻤﻋأ نأ ﻊﻴﻄﺘﺳأ ءﳾ يأ كﺎﻨﻫ ﻞﻫ

Exercise 15

.6

.7


Positiveany
Anyis sometimes not negative; it can be used in positive sentences, e.g.,Anyone
can do it ﻚﻟذ ﻞﻌﻔﻳ نأ ﻊﻴﻄﺘﺴﻳ ﺺﺨﺷ يأ .


Translate these sentences into English.
(anythingيأ ﻞﻛﺄﻳ نأ ﺪﻌﺘﺴﻣ ﻪﻧإ ؛ﻊﺋﺎﺟ ﻪﻧإ) .ءﳾ .1

(anythingيأ ﻞﻗ ؛ﻢﻠﻜﺗ) .ءﳾ .2

ِ
(any) .ﺐﻴﺒﻃّيأ ﴩﺘﺳا.3
ْ


Exercise 16

many, much
Much isused with singular mass nouns, andmanywith plurals, e.g.,much
money, many books.A lot ofcan replace bothmuchandmanyin some cases.

- 16

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA
Translate these sentences into English.

How much money

How many books
(much ambition)

(many problems)

(a lot of work)

(as many chairs as)

(very much)

(as much as)

Exercise 17

Chapter 1

؟ﻚﻳﺪﻟ لﺎﳌا ﻦﻣ ﻢﻛ
?
؟ﻚﺘﺒﺘﻜﻣ ﰲ ﻚﻳﺪﻟ ًﺎﺑﺎﺘﻛ ﻢﻛ
?
.رﺜﻛ حﻮﻤﻃ ﻪﻳﺪﻟ

.ﻪﺗرﺎﺠﺗ ﰲ ةﺪﻳﺪﻋ تﻼﻜﺸﻣ ﻪﺟاﻮﻳ

.رﺜﻛ ﻞﻤﻋ هﺮﻈﺘﻨﻳ

؟بﻼﻄﻟا دﺪﻌﺑ ﳼاﺮﻛ كﺎﻨﻫ ﻞﻫ

.مﺎﻌﻄﻟا ﻦﻣ ًاﺪﺟ ًارﺜﻛ ﻞﻛأ

.ءﺎﺸﺗ ﺎﻣ رﺪﻘﺑ ﺬُﺧ

a little, a few
x (a)little ءﺎﳌا ﻦﻣ ﻞﻴﻠﻗ

few copybooks ﺮﺗﺎﻓﺪﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻞﻴﻠﻗ
x (a)
Alittleis positive, butlittleis rather negative. So area fewandfew.

- 17

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

General Translation (2):Chapter 1(A-E), MA, DA

Translate these sentences into English.
(a littleﺮﻜﺴﻟا ﻦﻣ ًﻼﻴﻠﻗ ﺪﻳرأ) .يﺎﺸﻟاو .1

(a few, muchاﱪﺻوﺜﻛ ًﻠﻗ ﻖ ﺔﻠﻴﺘﺎج دﻗﺎﺋً )ر ا .ﻳﺤ .2

.ﻞﻤﻌﻟا ﻦﻣ رﺜﻜﻟاو ﺖﻗﻮﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻞﻴﻠﻘﻟا ﻪﻳﺪﻟ .3


Exercise 18

less, fewer
x less(water)ﻞﻗأ

fewer(pens)
x the least(work)ﻞﻗﻷا

the fewest(mistakes)
Less andleastthe other degrees of arelittle, i.e., comparative and
superlative.
Fewer andfewest arethe other degrees offew, i.e., comparative and
superlative.

Translate these sentences into English.
(less money thanاﻣ ﻞﻗأ لﺎﻣ ﻪﻳﺪﻟ) .ﺎﻨﻌﻗﻮﺗ

ار ِ
(fewer horses thanد) .اﺷﱰ ىﻴﺧﻻﻮ ًﻗأ ﻞاﻣأ

(the least work) .ﻞﻗﻷاﻞﻤﻌﻟﺎﺑ مﻮﻘﻳ ﻪﻧإ

- 18

.1

.2

.3

.ﻚﻠﺗ ﻦﻣ ًﻻﻮﻃ ﻞﻗأ ﺔﻓﺮﻐﻟا هﺬﻫ

.5

.ًﺎﺣﺎﺠﻧ تﻼﻔﺤﻟا ﻞﻗأ ﺔﻠﻔﺤﻟا ﻚﻠﺗ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ

.6

.8

.ﻞﻗأ ءﻂﺒﺑ مﺪﻘﺗ

.ﻪﺋﻼﻣﺰﺑ ﺔﻧرﺎﻘﻣ ءﺎﻄﺧﻷا ﻦﻣ دﺪﻋ ﻞﻗأ ﻞﻤﻋ ﺪﻘﻟ

- 19


Exercise 19

Chapter 1

.ﻖﺑﺎﺴﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻞﻗأ تﻼﻜﺸﻣ ﻪﺟاﻮﻳ ﻪﻧإ .4

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA
(fewer problems than)

(the fewest mistakes)

(less long)

(the least successful party)

(less slowly)

ُ ِ
.فﴫﻟا ﻢﻠﻋ ﰲ ىﺮﺧأ ًﺎﺒﺘﻛ أﺮﻗا

.2

.7

؟ﺮَﺧﻵا حﺎﺘﻔﳌا ﻦﻳأ

.3

ِ
.ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﻢﻠﻋ ﰲ ﺮﺧآ ًﺎﺑﺎﺘﻛ أﺮﻗا

.1

ﺮَﺧآ
ﺮَﺧﻵا

نوﺮَﺧﻵا

نوﺮَﺧآ

other, others, another
x another
x the other
x the others
x others

Translate these sentences into English.
(another)

(other, morphology)

(the other)

General Translation (2):(A-E), MA, DA
(another ten…)

(some other)

(the others)

Chapter 1

.ﻞﻤﻌﻟا زﺎﺠﻧﻹ ىﺮﺧأ مﺎﻳأ ةﴩﻋ جﺎﺘﺤﻳ .4

.ﻮﺤﻨﻟا ﻢﻠﻋ ﰲ ىﺮﺧﻷا ﻊﺟاﺮﳌا ﺾﻌﺑ ﻦﻋ ﺚﺤﺒﻳ

- 20

؟نوﺮﺧﻵا ﻦﻳأ

.5

.6