Kingdom of Mankon
372 Pages
English
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372 Pages
English

Description

This book is a descriptive and documentary analysis of the Mankon I-language and E-language mirrored through aspects of history, geography, flora and fauna. These aspects manifest in the taxonomic nomenclatures attributed to referents in society. Because these referents were hitherto transmitted orally from generation to generation, the author has painstakingly analysed and documented aspects of Mankon culture for posterity. The work focuses in particular on Mankon proverbs for insights into the structure and function of the language. As a vehicle of communication, language plays a primordial role in encoding and decoding �metalinguistic� data. Through thorough scientific linguistic universals and principals, Chi Che has proposed orthography for Mankon pedagogy that is simple, tenable and practicable. This book is the answer to the international clarion call for societies to analyse and document their endangered indigenous cultures. Schools, linguists, sociolinguists, anthropologists, historians and others will find this book especially useful.

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Published by
Published 01 December 2010
Reads 2
EAN13 9789956579747
Language English
Document size 3 MB

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Exrait

Kingdomof Mankon: AspectsofHistory,Language,Culture,FloraandFauna ChristopherChiChe
Kingdom of Mankon
Kingdom of Mankon Aspect of History, Language, Culture, Flora and Fauna
Christopher Che Chi
Langaa Research & Publishing CIG Mankon,Bamenda
Publisher: LangaaRPCIG Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group P.O. Box 902 Mankon Bamenda North West Region Cameroon Langaagrp@gmail.com www.langaa-rpcig.net
Distributed outside N. America by African Books Collective orders@africanbookscollective.com www.africanbookscollective.com
Distributed in N. America by Michigan State University Press msupress@msu.edu www.msupress.msu.edu
DISCLAIMER
ISBN: 9956-578-09-6
© Christopher Che Chi 201
All views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Langaa RPCIG.
Content
Mankon in Cameroon ---------------------------------------------------------ii Tables and Figures ------------------------------------------------------------xi Signs and sounds used -----------------------------------------------------xiii Signs ---------------------------------------------------------------------xiii Mankon sounds compared to English sounds ------------------xiv
Preface -------------------------------------------------------------------------xix Introduction -------------------------------------------------------------------xxv
Chapter One:Mankon geographical location and history 1.1. Origin of the word ‘Mankon’ -------------------------------------------- 1 1.2. Geographical setting ---------------------------------------------------- 2 1.3. Origin and migration of the people ----------------------------------- 4 1.4. The Mankon confederacy -------------------------------------------- 12 1.5. Mankon colonial contacts--------------------------------------------- 13 1.6. Migrant settlers in Mankon ------------------------------------------- 17
Chapter Two:Mankon political, economic and social structure 2.1. Mankon traditional rule ------------------------------------------------ 21 2.2. Enstoolment-------------------------------------------------------------- 24 2.3. Economy------------------------------------------------------------------ 26 2.4. Social aspect ------------------------------------------------------------ 34 2.5. Religion ------------------------------------------------------------------- 36 2.5.1. A ritual: From Ala’nkyi to SaɩmnǷɨ--------------------------- 372.5.2. A brief history of Ala’nkyi------------------------------- 372.5.3. The NkyìmaliɎǨ----------------------------------------------- 392.5.4. Back on the hill---------------------------------------------- 392.5.5. After Ala’nkyi------------------------------------------------- 402.5.6. The Musongong rite------------------------------------------- 41 2.5.7. The Dance proper --------------------------------------------- 442.6. The Mankon language--------------------------------------------- 46v
Chapter Three:Mankon phonology 3.1. Phonetics ----------------------------------------------------------------- 49 3.1.1. Identification and classification of sounds --------------- 50 3.1.2. Description of sounds----------------------------------------- 57 3.1.3. Position of sound occurrence in a word ------------------ 62 3.1.4. Comments ------------------------------------------------------- 64 3.1.5. Mankon alphabet ---------------------------------------------- 65
3.2. Distinctive features: phonemes ------------------------------------- 66 3.3. Phonemes vs. Allophones-------------------------------------------- 72 3.4. Assimilation, elision and deletion ----------------------------------- 74
3.5. A review of sound distributions-------------------------------------- 76 3.5.1 C1and C278consonants ----------------------------------------- 3.5.2. Vowels------------------------------------------------------------ 86
3.6. Vowel elision and deletion-------------------------------------------- 91 3.6.1. Elision ------------------------------------------------------------ 92 3.6.2. Deletion ---------------------------------------------------------- 92
3.7. Some Mankon morphophonemic rules ---------------------------- 96 3.7.1. Rules concerning nouns ------------------------------------- 96 3.7.2. Rules concerning verbs -------------------------------------- 98
3.8. Reduplication ----------------------------------------------------------- 102 3.9. Morphological function of Mankon reduplicants---------------- 106 3.10. Mankon phonotactics ----------------------------------------------- 108 3.10.1. The concept of phonotactics ----------------------------- 108 3.10.2. Mankon syllabic structure --------------------------------- 111
3.11. Mankon tonology----------------------------------------------------- 112 3.11.1. Level tones --------------------------------------------------- 113 3.11.2. Grammatical tones------------------------------------------ 114 3.11.3. Super high tones -------------------------------------------- 114 3.11.4. Contour tones ------------------------------------------------ 115 3.11.5. Some uses of tone ------------------------------------------ 121
3.12.Autosegmentalphonology ----------------------------------------- 122
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Chapter Four: Mankon orthography 4.1. Introduction-------------------------------------------------------------- 131 4.2. Orthographic principles ---------------------------------------------- 132 4.3. Mankon tone orthography ------------------------------------------- 137 4.4. Ways of limiting tone marking in Mankon------------------------ 146 4.5. Orthographic Depth and Grain Size Theory -------------------- 150
Chapter Five:Morphology 5.1. The notion of morphology ------------------------------------------- 155 5.1.1. Derivational morpheme ------------------------------------- 155 5.1.2 Inflectional morpheme/declension------------------------- 156 5.1.3. Free morpheme ----------------------------------------------- 156 5.1.4. Bound morpheme--------------------------------------------- 156 5.1.5. Lexical morpheme -------------------------------------------- 157 5.1.6. Functional morpheme --------------------------------------- 157 5.1.7. Affixation -------------------------------------------------------- 158
5.2. Word formation--------------------------------------------------------- 159 5.2.1. Through loaning/borrowing --------------------------------- 160 5.2.2. Through compounding -------------------------------------- 161 5.2.3. Through affixation -------------------------------------------- 163
5.3. Parts of speech/word classes -------------------------------------- 166 5.3.1. Nouns (including demonstratives and plurals)--------- 166 5.3.2. Quantifiers ------------------------------------------------------ 180 5.3.3. Partitives -------------------------------------------------------- 182 5.3.4. Articles ---------------------------------------------------------- 183 5.3.5. Quantity: every, all, the whole ----------------------------- 185 5.3.6. Quantity: small, a little --------------------------------------- 185 5.3.7. Quantity: much, a lot of, plenty of ------------------------ 185 5.3.8. Quantity: enough --------------------------------------------- 186 5.3.9. Quantity (negation: no/nothing) --------------------------- 186
5.4. Noun classes and pronouns ---------------------------------------- 187 5.5. Pronouns ---------------------------------------------------------------- 188 5.6. Noun agreement with adjectives----------------------------------- 198 5.7. Associative or genitive constructions ----------------------------- 200 5.7.1. Singular associative markers ------------------------------ 202 5.7.2. Plural associative markers --------------------------------- 204
5.8. Verbs --------------------------------------------------------------------- 206 5.9. Adverbs ------------------------------------------------------------------ 211 vii
5.10. Preposition------------------------------------------------------------- 212 5.11. Negation --------------------------------------------------------------- 213 5.12. Only --------------------------------------------------------------------- 214 5.13. Mood -------------------------------------------------------------------- 215 5.14. What/Which ----------------------------------------------------------- 215 5.15. Colours ----------------------------------------------------------------- 216
Chapter Six:The proverb in Mankon 6.1. Purpose of study------------------------------------------------------- 219 6.2. Methodology, data collection, and analysis --------------------- 220 6.2.1. Methodology---------------------------------------------------------- 220 6.2.2 Data analysis---------------------------------------------------------- 221 6.3. Review of literature---------------------------------------------------- 221 6.4. Origin and meaning of the Mankon ‘proverb’ ------------------- 225 6.5. Semantic structural analysis of the proverbs according to typology ------------------------------------------------ 230 6.5.1. Instructive/Declarative; Informative/Advisory types -- 231 6.5.2. Curse types ---------------------------------------------------- 237 6.5.3. Rhetorical types ----------------------------------------------- 239 6.5.4. Retributive types ---------------------------------------------- 240 6.5.5. Descriptive types---------------------------------------------- 241 6.5.6. Remunerative types ------------------------------------------ 242 6.5.7. Personificative types ----------------------------------------- 243 6.5.8. Other proverbs ------------------------------------------------ 243
Chapter Seven:Mankon proverbial syntax 7.1. Traditional grammar subject-verb-object (SVO) order-------- 259 7.2. Immediate constituent (IC) analysis------------------------------- 262 7.2.1. At word level; at phrase level ------------------------------ 263 7.2.2. At sentence level---------------------------------------------- 264
7.3. Deep and surface structures---------------------------------------- 267 7.4. Binary division ---------------------------------------------------------- 270 7.4.1. Positive equivalence ----------------------------------------- 272 7.4.2. Negative equivalence ---------------------------------------- 272 7.4.3. Positive causational ------------------------------------------ 272 7.4.4. Negative causational----------------------------------------- 272
7.5. Paradigmatic and ‘syntagmatic’ (syntactic) relations --------- 273 7.5.1. Characterisation----------------------------------------------- 274 7.5.2. Generativism--------------------------------------------------- 276
viii
7.6. The negative and the adjective------------------------------------- 278 7.7. Style ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 279 7.7.1. Pictorial expressions and hyperbole --------------------- 280 7.7.2. Dialogue -------------------------------------------------------- 280 7.7.3. Onomatopoeia------------------------------------------------- 281 7.7.4. Alliteration; assonance and rhyme ----------------------- 282 7.7.5. Use of homely images --------------------------------------- 282 7.7.6. Man as a false generic -------------------------------------- 282 7.7.7. Metonymy------------------------------------------------------- 283
Chapter Eight:Functional analysis 8.1. Preliminaries ------------------------------------------------------------ 285 8.1.1. Linguistic communication ----------------------------------- 286 8.1.2. Judicial function ----------------------------------------------- 288 8.1.3. Educative function -------------------------------------------- 292 8.1.4. Aesthetic function--------------------------------------------- 294
Chapter Nine:Nȳìalaɩȣa (Stories) 9.1. NȳìalaɩȣaɨzǷsaɪ(Myths and legends) ---------------------------- 301 9.1.1. Myths ------------------------------------------------------------ 302 9.1.2. Legends --------------------------------------------------------- 305
9.2. A joke (humour and entertainment) ------------------------------- 309 9.3.ƅɨkóm ndì muǨ(The lullaby)-------------------------------------- 310 Appendix---------------------------------------------------------------------313References-------------------------------------------------------------------329
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