Methods of Teaching English

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It is a book on how to teach learners of English as a foreign language. It can be used as a textbook for university students (the English Department).

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Published 01 January 2006
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EAN13 9796500022727
Language English
Document size 1 MB

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 Publisher: DAR ALFALAH  P.O.Box 818  Swaileh11910  Jordan  Tel & Fax 009626-5411547  E-mail: books@daralfalah.com  Website: www.daralfalah.com
 METHODS  OF  TEACHING  ENGLISH  Dr. Muhammad Ali Alkhuli
ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاو ﴩﻨﻠﻟ حﻼﻔﻟا راد :ﴍﺎﻨﻟا  818 ب.ص  11910 ﺢﻠﻳﻮﺻ  ندرﻷا  009626-5411547 ﺲﻛﺎﻓو ﻒﺗﺎﻫ
 .ﻪﻨﻣ ءﺰﺟ يأ وأ بﺎﺘﻜﻟا ﺮﻳﻮﺼﺗ ﻊﻨ ,نﻮﻧﺎﻘﻟا ﺐﺟﻮم  ﴍﺎﻨﻠﻟ ﺔﻇﻮﻔﺤﻣ قﻮﻘﺤﻟا ﻊﻴﻤﺟ
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 Copyright: by the Publisher  All rights are reserved. No part of this book may be translated, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy and recording, without the prior written permission of the publisher.  2006 Edition  Publisher: DAR ALFALAH ﻊﻳزﻮﺘﻟاو ﴩﻨﻠﻟ حﻼﻔﻟا راد :ﴍﺎﻨﻟا  P.O.Box 818 818 ب.ص  Swaileh11910 11910 ﺢﻠﻳﻮﺻ  Jordan ندرﻷا  Tel & Fax 009626-5411547 009626-5411547 ﺲﻛﺎﻓو ﻒﺗﺎﻫ  E-mail: books@daralfalah.com  Website: www.daralfalah.com ﺔﻴﻨﻃﻮﻟا ﺔﺒﺘﻜﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ عاﺪﻳﻹا ﻢﻗر  2033/11/1999  Class No. 420.7  Author: Muhammad Ali Alkhuli Title: Methods of Teaching English Subject Heading: 1. English Language  2.Teaching Notes: Prepared by National Library, Jordan  ١٩٩٩ /١١ /١٥١٥ (ندرﻷا) ﴩﻨﻟاو تﺎﻋﻮﺒﻄﳌا ةﺮﺋاد ىﺪﻟ ﻞﺴﻠﺴﺘﳌا ةزﺎﺟﻹا ﻢﻗر
 ISBN 9 9 5 7-- 4 0 1-- 1 3 -- 9 (ﻚﻣدر)
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 PREFACE This book is written with the purpose of helping university students majoring in English and who are planning to teach English as a foreign language after their graduation. It can also be beneficial to English teachers in service. Further, a great deal of material included in this book applies to teaching any foreign language.  The book starts with a general introduction to language, linguistics, teaching approaches , and other topics of an introductory nature . Then it devotes separate chapters to deal with the methods of teaching pronuncia-tion, grammar, vocabulary, reading, and writing of the foreign language in general and English in particular. Moreover, the book deals with how to test each language skill and how to make use of audio-visuals aids.  It has been made clear on many occasions in this book that the ideas given are not inevitable imperatives, but they are merely suggestions. In other words, teachers are encouraged to feel free to try other methods if they wish since it is not among our goals to chain student teachers or regular teachers, but to offer them a variety of methods which may be helpful.  In addition, each chapter is followed by some questions or exercises, the purposes of which are to stimulate students to think creatively, read critically, and evaluate objectively. Students are advised to do those exercises and give them the attention they require.  Finally, I would like to thank Dr. Tawfeek Yousef and Mr. Bruce E. Mellon for their valuable comments.  Dr. Muhammad Ali Alkhuli
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 CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………… 9 1. Language……………………………………………………………………………… 9 2. inguistics……………………………………………………………………………… 10 3. Why English?.................................................................. 11 4. FLT approaches………………………………………………………………12  1. The Grammar-Translation Approach…………………………………….. 12  2. The Direct Approach………………………………………………………… 13  3. The Aural-Oral Approach…………………………………………………… 14  4. The Eclectic Approach……………………………………………………….. 15 5. Factors Influencing Methods……………………………………………………… 16 6. Program Types……………………………………………………………………... 17 7. Effective Teaching……………………………………………………………….… 18 8. Discussion……………………………………………………………………………. 20 CHAPTER II. TEACHING PRONUNCIATION…………………………….… 211.English Consonants……………………………………………………………... 22 2.English Vowels…………………………………………………………………... 24 3.English Stress…………………………………………………………………..… 25 1. Word Stress…………………………………………………………………... 25  2. Sentence Stress……………………………………………………………….. 26  3. Contrastive Stress…………………………………………………………….. 27 4.English Junctures………………………………………………………………… 28 5.English Pitches…………………………………………………………………… 28 6.English Intonation………………………………………………………………… 29 7.English-Arabic Contrast………………………………………………………… 29 8.Transfer of Learning……………………………………………………………. 30 9.Presentation and Practice………………………………………………………. 31 1.Phonetic and Phonemic Differences………………………………….. 31 2.Minimal Pairs………………………………………………………………… 31 3.Pronunciation………………………………………………………………… 32 4.Signals………………………………………………………………………… 33 5.Props………………………………………………………………………..… 33 6.Partials……………………………………………………………………..… 34 10.Special Problems………………………………………………………………… 34
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1. The Plural Morpheme……………………………………………………… 34  2. The Present Morpheme…………………………………………………… 35 3.The Past Morpheme………………………………………………………. 36 4.American-British Differences…………………………………………….. 37 11.Minimizing Difficulties…………………………………………………………… 38 12.Discussion…………………………………………………………………………. 39
CHAPTER III.TEACHING GRAMMAR…………………………………………. 40 1. Definitions of Grammar………………………………………………………….. 40 2. Grammar Theories………………………………………………………………… 40  1. Traditional Grammar…………………………………………………………… 41  2. Immediate-Constituent Grammar………………………………………….. 42  3. Tagmemic Grammar…………………………………………………………… 42  4. Transformational Grammar…………………………………………………… 43 3. Grammatical Meaning……………………………………………………………… 43  1. Syntax……………………………………………………………………………… 44  2. Function Words…………………………………………………………………. 44  3. Intonation…………………………………………………………………………… 45  4. Inflection…………………………………………………………………………… 46 4. Sentence and Pattern…………………………………………………………….. 47 5. Pattern Practice……………………………………………………………………. 48  1. Substitution Drills……………………………………………………………….. 49  2. Loop Drill…………………………………………………………………………. 52  3. Chain Drill……………………………………………………………………….. 52  4. Four-Phased Drill……………………………………………………………... 53 6. Grammar Exercises……………………………………………………………….. 54 7. Situational Grammar……………………………………………………………... 55 8. Visual Grammar……………………………………………………………………. 56 9. General Remarks………………………………………………………………….. 57 10. Presentation………………………………………………………………………… 58 11. Discussion…………………………………………………………………………… 59 CHAPTER IV.TEACHING VOCABULARY……………………………………… 601. A Word……………………………………………………………………………….. 60 2. Passive and Active Vocabulary…………………………………………………. 61 3. Function and Content Words………………………………………………….. 62 4. Word Meaning………………………………………………………………………. 63
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1. Types of Meaning………………………………………………………………. 63  2. Presentation of Meaning……………………………………………………… 64 5. Word Form…………………………………………………………………………… 65 6. Vocabulary Counts…………………………………………………………………… 66 7. Difficulty levels………………………………………………………………………. 67 Selection………………………………………………………………. 688. Vocabulary 9. Knowing a Word……………………………………………………………………. 69 10. Teaching Steps……………………………………………………………………… 69 11. Discussion…………………………………………………………………………….70CHAPTER V.TEACHING READING……………………………………………….….. 711. Language Systems……………………………………………………………..….. 71 2. Methods of Teaching Reading…………………………………………………. 72  1. The Letter Method……………………………………………………………… 72  2. The Global Method……………………………………………………………. 72  3. The Linguistic Method………………………………………………………… 72  4. The Eclectic Method………………………………………………………..… 73 3. Reading Purposes…………………………………………………………………. 73 4. Types of Reading…………………………………………………………………. 74  1. Intensive Reading………………………………………………………………. 74  2. Extensive Reading……………………………………………………………… 75  3. Silent Reading…………………………………………………………………… 76  4. Oral Reading…………………………………………………………………….. 76  5. Model Reading………………………………………………………………….. 77  6. SQ3R………………………………………………………………………………. 78  7. Skimming…………………………………………………………………………… 79 5. Reading Stage………………………………………………………………………. 79 6. Planning a Reading Lesson…………………………………………………….. 79 7. Reading Problems…………………………………………………………………… 81 8. Improvement of Reading…………………………………………………………. 82 9. Discussion…………………………………………………………………………..… 83 CHAPTER VI.TEACHING WRITING……………………………………………………. 85851. Gradation………………………………………………………………………………. 2. Pre-writing………………………………………………………………………..….. 86 3. Copying………………………………………………………………………………… 87 4. Dictation……………………………………………………………………………….. 87 5. Controlled Writing…………………………………………………………………… 79
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6. Free Writing…………………………………………………………………………… 91  1. Meaning of Free Writing………………………………………………………. 91  2. Composition Topics……………………………………………………………… 92  3. An Effective Paragraph………………………………………………………… 93  4. A Long Composition…………………………………………………………… 94 7. Writing Scheme……………………………………………………………………… 94 8. Focused Method…………………………………………………………………….. 96 9. A Writing-Lesson Plan……………………………………………………………. 97  1. Preparation………………………………………………………………………… 97  2. Actual Writing……………………………………………………………………. 98  3. Correction…………………………………………………………………………. 98  4. Re-learning……………………………………………………………………….. 99 10. Discussion……………………………………………………………………………. 99 CHAPTER VII.LANGUAGE TESTING………………………………………………… 1001. Purposes of Testing……………………………………………………………... 100 2. Test Types………………………………………………………………………….. 102 3. What to Test………………………………………………………………………. 104 4. Testing Each Skill………………………………………………………………… 105  1. Pronunciation Tests……………………………………………………………. 105  2. Grammar Tests…………………………………………………………………. 106  3. Vocabulary Tests………………………………………………………………. 107  4. Spelling Tests………………………………………………………………….. 108  5. Handwriting Tests………………………………………………………….….. 108  6. Comprehension Tests…………………………………………………………. 109  7. Composition Tests……………………………………………………………... 110  8. Precis Tests……………………………………………………………………... 111  9. Translation Tests……………………………………………………………….. 111  10. Punctuation Tests……………………………………………………………... 111  11. Speech Tests………………………………………………………………..…. 112 5. Making Tests………………………………………………………………………… 112 6. Giving Tests…………………………………………………………………………. 113 7. A Good Tests………………………………………………………………………. 114  1. Validity……………………………………………………………………………… 115  2. Reliability………………………………………………………………………….. 116 8. Discussion………………………………………………………………………..….. 118
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CHAPTER VIII.TEACHING AIDS…………………………………………………..….. 119 1. Chalkboard……………………………………………………………….…………… 119 2. Pictures……………………………………………………………………………….. 121 3. Flash Cards………………………………………………………….…………….. 122 4. Charts………………………………………………………………….…………….. 122 5. Tapes………………………………………………………………….……………… 123 6. Other Aids…………………………………………………………….……………. 125 7. Discussion……………………………………………………………….……… 125 ABBREVIATIONS…………………………………………………………………. 125SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………...….…… 127INDEX…………………………………………………………………….………… 138
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CHAPTER  1 INTRODUCTION  In this introductory chapter, there will be a brief discussion of lan-guage in general concerning its nature and definition. Further, this chapter will introduce the different branches of linguistics because related terms will be frequently used in this book.  In addition, the chapter will explain the importance of English in the Arab world and the different approaches and theories used in teaching foreign languages. It will also deal with other topics related to the field of foreign language teaching such as program types and influential variables.  I. 1. Language: There are several possible definitions of language, but there is one particular definition that may be most related to our purposes here. Accord-ing to this definition, language is an arbitrary system of vocal symbols used to communicate ideas and express feelings among the members of a cer-tain social community.  This definition emphasizes several points:  1. Language is a system. This indicates that language is systematic at phonetic, phonemic, morphemic, morphological, syntactic, and semantic levels.  2. The system of language is arbitrary. This arbitrariness means that there is no logical reason why a certain language behaves as it does. For example, there is no reason why the subject or the doer in an English state-
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