Politics of Second Language Writing, The


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The Politics of Second Language Writing: In Search of the Promised Land is the first edited collection to present a sustained discussion of classroom practices in larger contexts of institutional politics and policies.



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Published 04 August 2006
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EAN13 9781932559378
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The Politics of Second Language Writing
In Search of the Promised Land
Edited by Paul Kei Matsuda Christina Ortmeier-Hooper Xiaoye You
Second Language Writing Series Editor, Paul Kei Matsuda
S L W Series Editor, Paul Kei Matsuda
Second language writing emerged in te late twentiet century as an interdisciplinary field of inquiry, and an increasing number of researcers from various related fields—including applied linguistics, communication, composition studies, and education—ave come to iden-tify temselves as second language writing specialists. Te Second Language Writing series aims to facilitate te ad-vancement of knowledge in te field of second language writing by publising scolarly and researc-based mono-graps and edited collections tat provide significant new insigts into central topics and issues in te field.
he Politics of Second Language Writing
In Searc of te Promised Land
Editors Paul Kei Matsuda Cristina Ortmeier-Hooper Xiaoye You
Parlor Press West Lafayette, Indiana www.parlorpress.com
Parlor Press LLC, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906
© 006 by Parlor Press All rigts reserved. Printed in te United States of America
S A N:  5 4 - 8 8 7 9
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Te politics of second language writing : in searc of te promised land / editors, Paul Kei Matsuda, Cristina Ortmeier-Hooper, Xiaoye You.  p. cm. -- (Second language writing)  Includes bibliograpical references and index.  ISBN 1-93559-33-7 (ardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 1-93559-11-6 (pbk. : alk. paper) -- ISBN 1-93559-37-X (adobe ebook) 1. Language and languages--Study and teacing. . Retoric--Study and teacing. I. Matsuda, Paul Kei. II. Ortmeier-Hooper, Cristina, 197- III. You, Xiaoye, 1974- P53.7.P65 006  808’.040711--dc  00600017
Cover design by Paul Kei Matsuda Printed on acid-free paper.
Parlor Press, LLC is an independent publiser of scolarly and trade titles in print and multimedia formats. Tis book is available in paper, clot and Adobe eBook formats from Parlor Press on te World Wide Web at ttp://www.parlorpress.com or troug online and brick-and mortar bookstores. For submission information or to find out about Parlor Press publications, write to Parlor Press, 816 Robinson St., West Lafayette, Indiana, 47906, or e-mail editor@parlorpress.com.
Prefacevii The Politics of L2 Writers in U.S. K12 Schools3 1 Writing Development and Biliteracy5 Danling Fu and Marylou Matous Reforming Hig Scool Writing: Opportunities and Constraints for Generation 1.5 Writers30 Kerry Enrigt Villalva The Politics of L2 Writing Support Programs57 3 Te Legacy of First-Year Composition59 Ilona Leki 4 Improving Institutional ESL/EAP Support for International Students: Seeking te Promised Land75 Ryuko Kubota and Kimberly Abels 5 No ESL Allowed: A Case Exploring University and College Writing Program Practices94 Angela M. Dadak 6 Te Role(s) of Writing Centers in Second Language Writing Instruction109 Jessica Williams The Politics of English Writing for Academic and Professional Purposes127 7 Understanding Context for Writing in University Content Classrooms129 Wei Zu
vi Contents 8 EAP and Tecnical Writing Witout Borders: Te Impact of Departmentalization on te Teacing and Learning of Academic Writing in a First and Second Language147 Guillaume Gentil 9 Different Writers, Different Writing: Preparing International Teacing Assistants for Instructional Literacy168 Kevin Eric DePew 10 Globalization and te Politics of Teacing EFL Writing188 Xiaoye You The Politics of Second Language Writing Assessment203 11 Te Politics of Implementing Online Directed Self-Placement for Second Language Writers205 Debora Crusan 1 Investing in Assessment: Designing Tests to Promote Positive Wasback222 Sara Cusing Weigle The Politics of the Profession245 13 Mapping Postsecondary Classifications and Second Language Writing Researc in te United States247 Jessie Moore Kapper 14 Institutional Politics in te Teacing of Advanced Academic Writing: A Teacer-Researcer Dialogue262 Cristine Norris and Cristine Tardy 15 Sifting Sites, Sifting Identities: A Tirty-Year Perspective280 Stepanie Vandrick Coda295 16 Toward a Promised Land of Writing: At te Intersection of Hope and Reality297 Barbara Kroll Contributors306 Editors310 Index311
Te “Promised Land” . . . is one in wic eac and every NNES [Nonnative Englis-Speaking] student at an Englis-medium campus would ave access to programs of study and support sys-tems tat are designed to promote mastery and excellence in aca-demic Englis in ways tat most address te local and specific needs of tose students, woever tey may be and at wicever campus tey are studying.
—Barbara Kroll
Scolarsip on second language writing as grown exponentially over te last few decades. Wile a majority of work done in second lan-guage writing addresses instructional issues, te focus of muc of tis scolarsip is on wat appens in te classroom as opposed to ow te institutional contexts outside te classroom sape instructional prac-tices. Altoug classroom issues are important, suc narrow focus on te classroom is problematic because instruction is always situated in and saped by larger institutional contexts. No amount of teoretical knowledge will be useful in saping classroom practice unless we also understand ow classroom practices are saped by institutional poli-cies and politics. To elp remedy tis imbalance, te 004 Symposium on Second Language Writing brougt togeter second language writ-ing specialists in te United States and Canada to explore te intersec-tion of institutional policies and politics and classroom practices. As we eard te reports of various efforts and struggles involved in negotiating te balance between teoretically sound and etical instructional practices on te one and and te demands of institu-tional policies and politics on te oter and, we came to realize tat none of us ad it easy; we were not alone as we searced desperately
for te Promised Land, to borrow Barbara Kroll’s prase from er Symposium presentation, wic quickly became te running teme of te two-day event. After te Symposium, we asked te presenters to develop teir presentations into manuscripts suitable for print publica-tion, and tis volume is te result. Te Politics of Second Language Writing: In Searc of te Promised Landis te first edited collection to present a sustained discussion of classroom practices in larger contexts of institutional politics and policies. We refer ere to policies on assessment, placement, credit, class size, course content, instructional practices, teacer preparation, and teacer support and to politics in terms of te relationsips and interaction between second language writing professionals and teir colleagues at te program, department, scool, college, and university levels and beyond. Autors in tis collection explore—troug criti-cal reflections and situated descriptions of teir instructional practices in larger institutional contexts—ow instructional policies and poli-tics affect instructional practices. Suc descriptions would provide an understanding of ow classroom practices are not neutral, pragmatic spaces but ideologically saturated sites of negotiation. Te primary audience forTe Politics of Second Language Writ-ingincludes tose wo are involved in te teacing, researc, and ad-ministration of second language writing. By including contextualized descriptions and discussions, tis collection provides insigts tat will elp second language writing specialists understand and critically re-examine ow institutional policies and politics sape instructional practices. Te secondary audience includes members of programs and departments were second language writing courses and programs are located—wic include second language specialists and compo-sition specialists wo do not necessarily see second language writing as teir area of expertise. Tis book focuses largely on situations at Nort American institutions, were, peraps because of te influence of composition studies, te interest in exploring issues of institutional contexts as been most conspicuous. However, we ope tis publi-cation will inspire similar discussions focusing on oter parts of te world. As we prepare tis volume, we ave also come to a greater aware-ness of te politics of second language writing researc: Te field as grown most significantly in te United States over te last tree de-cades; it as predominantly dealt wit writing in Englis rater tan
in oter second languages; and all contributors to tis first volume on te politics of te profession are based largely in te United States. Wile we address tis political imbalance in a small way wit te inclusion of capters by Guillaume Gentil and Xiaoye You, we ac-knowledge te limitation of tis volume and ope more efforts will be made to consider te politics of second language writing in oter geopolitical contexts.
Tis volume is organized rougly by te level of instruction: K-1 education, language support programs in iger education, Englis for academic and professional purposes, assessment, and te politics of te profession. Part 1, “L Writers in U.S. K-1 Scools” explores te dynamics and politics tat affect te writing development and writing opportunities of second language writers in middle scool and ig scool. In Capter 1, Danling Fu and Marylou Matous argue tat political pressure of te “Englis Only” movement as undermined te value of biliteracy for nonnative Englis speaking students. Te capter describes Fu’s researc on te writing development of te Cinese-speaking students in a middle scool located in New York’s Cinatown, demonstrating ow first language literacy can elp stu-dents in teir second language writing development, noting tat writ-ing development takes place in four transitions, as students progress from teir first language to second language writing proficiency. In Capter , Kerry Enrigt Villalva explores te dynamics and politics tat are at play in a U.S. ig scool and te effects of tose elements on te writing opportunities given to Generation 1.5 students. Using an ecological framework, Villalva demonstrates te various facets of te institutional ecology of one ig scool, and examines ow te systems witin te scool provide bot opportunities and constraints for te student writers in er researc study. Se concludes tat, even as te scool strove to reform some of its practices to provide ricer opportunities for its students, te strengts and callenges tat were unique to second language writers were not taken into account. Tese neglected opportunities ave important ramifications for ow tese students will develop te advanced academic writing skills tat tey will need to furter teir education beyond ig scool.