Zeh Lo Nora: Reference Book for Students of Hebrew
410 Pages
English

Zeh Lo Nora: Reference Book for Students of Hebrew

-

410 Pages
English

Description

Ze Lo Nora was designed with two different readerships in mind--newcomers and old pros. Beginning and intermediate Hebrew language students will find in Ze Lo Nora clear, reliable explanations and memorable examples of all points of Hebrew grammar. It is an indispensable supplement to any Hebrew textbook.
Rules and comments on style and use are presented in a simple, informative, and non-dogmatic manner, with examples from the language as it is actually spoken. In addition to the usual staple of verbs, nouns, and adjectives, the book covers "little items" such as pronouns, prepositions, prefixes, and discourse ties and "big ones" such as clauses, and sentences. It also touches upon a variety of "how to" questions of use.
Students and readers more conversant with Hebrew will find interspersed in the text, in clearly demarcated sections, more complex structures and structural explanations, more nuanced discussions of linguistic issues, instructive historical notes and sample texts of diverse genres.
Each unit in the book is self-contained, making it possible for the user or reader to pick and choose a topic independent of place and sequence of the book. All simple examples are voweled and translated whereas the more advanced ones are not.

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 06 August 2012
Reads 0
EAN13 9781725247802
Language English
Document size 2 MB

Legal information: rental price per page €. This information is given for information only in accordance with current legislation.

Exrait

Zeh Lo NoraZeh Lo Nora
Reference Book for Students of Hebrew
SECOND EDITION
Rutie Adler
WIPF & STOCK• Eugene, Oregon ZEH LO NORA
Reference Book for Students of Hebrew, Second Edition
Copyright © 2012 Rutie Adler. All rights reserved. Except for brief quotations in critical publications or reviews, no part of
this book may be reproduced in any manner without prior written permission from the publisher. Write: Permissions, Wipf and
Stock Publishers, 199 W. 8th Ave., Suite 3, Eugene, OR 97401.
Wipf & Stock
An Imprint of Wipf and Stock Publishers
199 W. 8th Ave., Suite 3
Eugene, OR 97401
www.wipfandstock.com
ISBN 13: 978-1-62032-495-0
Manufactured in the U.S.A.TABLE OF CONTENTS
User's Manual ..................................................................................................................................................................................................1
1.0 History and Features of Israeli Hebrew (IH)
1.1 Israeli Hebrew and the Family of Languages ................................................................................................................................5
1.2 Notes on the Revival of Hebrew ..........................................................................................................................................................5
1.3 Illustrations of the Historical Layers of Hebrew ..........................................................................................................................8
1.3.1 Text Marking the Layers of Israeli .........................................................................................................................8
1.3.2 Biblical Hebrew (BH) — Genesis 11:1-9 ..................................................................................................................................9
1.3.3 Post-Biblical Hebrew ......................................................................................................................................................................10
1.4 The Spelling of Israeli Hebrew ............................................................................................................................................................10
1.5 The Morphology of Israeli Hebrew ..................................................................................................................................................11
1.6 The Sound System of Israeli ..............................................................................................................................................11
1.6.1 The Five Audible Vowels..............................................................................................................................................................12
1.6.2 The Four Diphthongs .....................................................................................................................................................................12
1.6.3 About the Consolidation of Diacritical (Vowel) Marks ................................................................................................12
1.6.4 רוק םולשבא ,"חתמ רופיס :תירבע לש עגר".............................................................................................................................................13
1.7 Remarks about IH Syntax ........................................................................................................................................................................13
1.8 IH Lexicon ..................................................................................................................................................................................................14
1.8.1 Verbs of the Root √ב-ש-ח................................................................................................................................................................15
1.8.2 Nouns and Adjectives of the Root √ב-ש-ח.............................................................................................................................15
1.8.3 New Coinage in Israeli Hebrew ...............................................................................................................................................15
1.8.3.1 From Root to Verb to Non-Verb .................................................................................................................................16
1.8.3.2 From Word to Root to Verb ...........................................................................................................................................16
1.9 What Do Israelis Think of their Language? ..................................................................................................................................17
1.9.1 יקסבונרב םרוי ,"לארשיב ך"נתה לש ובצמ לע" .......................................................................................................................................18
1.9.2 הדוהי ןב הביתנ ,"תירבעה תרטשמ תיב לכ לעו !ךילע תקחוצ ינא"..........................................................................................................19
2.0 Agreement
2.1 Agreement of Adjectives and Nouns .................................................................................................................................................21
2.1.1 Noun-Adjective Agreement with Animate Nouns .........................................................................................................21
2.1.2 Noun- with Inanimate Nouns .....................................................................................................21
2.2 Subject-Verb Agreement ...........................................................................................................................................................................22
2.2.1 Agreement between Present-Tense Verbs and their Subjects ...................................................................................22
2.2.2 Past and Future-Tense Verbs and their Subjects .................................................................22
2.3 Texts Illustrating Agreement of Nouns and their Modifiers .................................................................................................23
2.3.1 ?"ידוהי אוה ימ"..........................................................................................................................................................................................23
2.3.2 רומ ירוא ,"הגיהנו םישנ לע"......................................................................................................................................................................24
2.4 Texts Illustrating Subject-Verb Agreement .....................................................................................................................................24
2.4.1 הליש המונ ,"ילש ךאלמה"..........................................................................................................................................................................24
2.4.2 "תונויצה לע" ..............................................................................................................................................................................................25
3.0 Pronouns
3.1 Personal Pronouns .......................................................................................................................................................................................27
3.1.1 Subject Pronouns ...............................................................................................................................................................................29
3.1.1.1 Optional and Obligatory Use of Subject Pronouns ...........................................................................................303.1.1.2 Formal Alternatives to Subject Pronouns ...............................................................................................................33
3.1.2 Object Pronouns ................................................................................................................................................................................33
3.1.2.1 The Direct Object Pronoun תא........................................................................................................................................34
3.1.2.1.1 The Conjugation of the Direct Object Pronoun .......................................................................................34
3.1.2.2 The Indirect Object Pronoun [-ל] .................................................................................................................................36
3.1.2.2.1 The Conjugation of the Indirect Pronoun [-ל] ...................................................................................................37
3.1.3 Possessive Pronouns 38
3.1.4 Reflexive ...................................................................................................................................................................................38
3.1.4.1 The Conjugation of the Reflexive Pronoun ............................................................................................................39
3.1.4.2 A Quasi Reflexive: ומב ........................................................................................................................................................41
3.1.5 The Non-Interchangeability of Pronoun Types................................................................................................................. 41
3.2 The Anaphoric and Cataphoric Use of Pronouns ........................................................................................................................41
3.2.1 Use 41
3.2.2 Cataphoric Use ..................................................................................................................................................................................42
3.3 Pronouns of Time, Place and Manner ................................................................................................................................................43
3.3.1 Time ..................................................................................................................................................................................................43
3.3.2 Place43
3.3.2.1 ?המשל וא ,המש ,םש.....................................................................................................................................................................43
3.3.3 Manner44
3.4 Text Illustrating the Use of Pronouns and Pronominal Suffixes: לטרז תיריע ,"טדנרא הנח".............................................45
4.0 Determiners
4.1 Articles47
4.1.1 The Definite Article..........................................................................................................................................................................47
4.1.2 The Uses of the Hebrew Definite Article [-ה] .....................................................................................................................48
4.1.2.1 Reference to Unique Entities .........................................................................................................................................48
4.1.2.2 Anaphoric Reference .........................................................................................................................................................48
4.1.2.3 Generic ...............................................................................................................................................................49
4.1.2.4 How Hebrew and English Differ in their Use of the Definite Article ......................................................50
4.1.3 The Definite Article in Noun-Noun (תוכימס) Structure ..................................................................................................50
4.1.4 The and Proper Names ...............................................................................................................................51
4.1.4.1 The Definite Article and Last Names ........................................................................................................................51
4.1.4.2 The and Names of Geographical Locations ........................................................................51
4.1.5 Words Functioning as Indefinite Articles: וליא יא ,ןימ ,הזיא.............................................................................................52
4.2 Text Illustrating the Definite Article: תכרעמ רמאמ ,ץראה ,"העבצהב ןכוסמ קחשמ"......................................................................54
5.0 Demonstratives
5.1 The Demonstrative הז...................................................................................................................................................................................55
5.1.1 The Various Functions of הז .........................................................................................................................................................56
5.1.1.1 To Point at and/or Introduce a Person or Thing into the Scene ..................................................................56
5.1.1.2 Anaphoric, Cataphoric and Exophoric Reference ...............................................................................................56
5.1.1.2.1 Anaphoric Reference ............................................................................................................................................56
5.1.1.2.1.1 Comparing the Use of הז and אוה in Anaphoric Reference ....................................................57
5.1.1.2.2 Cataphoric Reference 57
ii5.1.1.2.3 Exophoric Reference .............................................................................................................................................58
5.1.2 הז or תאז as "The Former" and "The Latter" .........................................................................................................................58
5.1.3 הז as Copula (Linking Subject and Predicate) .....................................................................................................................58
5.1.4 Adjectival Use of הזה ........................................................................................................................................................................59
5.1.5 הז as "The Fact That"60
5.1.6 The Use of הז and תאז as a Pro-Clause or Pro-Sentence ................................................................................................61
5.2 The Demonstrative ותוא...............................................................................................................................................................................62
5.2.1 The Use of ותוא to Express Sameness .....................................................................................................................................63
5.3 The אוהה and its Variants ןהה ,םהה ,איהה ...............................................................................................................63
5.3.1 Marking Contrast .............................................................................................................................................................................64
5.3.2 Temporal Distance .......................................................................................................................................................64
5.3.3 Masking a Referent .........................................................................................................................................................................64
5.4 The Demonstrative זלה and its Variants תאזלה/וזלה and הלה.......................................................................................................65
5.5 Text Illustrating Pronouns, Prepositions and Demonstratives: הליש ימענ ,"ילש ךאלמה" .................................................66
6.0 Nouns
6.1 Noun Categorization ..................................................................................................................................................................................68
6.1.1 Animate or Inanimate ....................................................................................................................................................................68
6.1.2 Count or Mass ....................................................................................................................................................................................68
6.1.3 Concrete or Abstract .......................................................................................................................................................................68
6.1.4 Proper or Generic .............................................................................................................................................................................69
6.2 Gender of Nouns ..........................................................................................................................................................................................69
6.2.1 Animate Nouns .................................................................................................................................................................................69
6.2.2 Inanimate Nouns ..............................................................................................................................................................................69
6.2.3 Feminine Noun Endings ..............................................................................................................................................................70
6.2.4 The Proper Title of a Woman-Rabbi: הבר וא בר ...................................................................................................................75
6.2.5 Gender Personification Waiting to Happen .......................................................................................................................76
6.2.6 ךלוו הנוי ,"תירבע".....................................................................................................................................................................................77
6.3 Dual Nouns ..................................................................................................................................................................................................77
6.4 Verbal Nouns (Action Nouns) ...............................................................................................................................................................78
6.5 Diminutive Nouns .......................................................................................................................................................................................79
6.6 Construct Nouns (תוכימס) ...........................................................................................................................................................................80
6.6.1 Construct Nouns and Definiteness .........................................................................................................................................81
6.6.2 Plural Form of Construct Nouns ..............................................................................................................................................82
6.6.3 Changes in the Form of Construct Nouns............................................................................................................................83
6.6.4 Semantic Relations between Components of Construct Units .................................................................................84
6.6.5 Modifying Construct Nouns ......................................................................................................................................................86
6.6.6 Construct Nouns with Adjectives (Adjectival Constructs) .........................................................................................87
6.6.6.1 The Definite Form of Adjectival Constructs ...................................................................................................................88
6.6.7 Constructs with Numbers ...........................................................................................................................................................88
6.6.8 Construct Nouns as Titles or Epithets ...................................................................................................................................88
6.6.9 The Double Construct (הלופכ תוכימס) ........................................................................................................................................89
6.7 The Structure of Hebrew Noun Phrases ...........................................................................................................................................90
6.8 Common Prefixes .........................................................................................................................................................................................91
iii6.8.1 Prefixes Followed by Nouns Only ..........................................................................................................................................92
6.8.2 Only by Adjectives ..................................................................................................................................93
6.8.3 Expanding the Lexicon through Prefixes .............................................................................................................................94
6.9 Texts Illustrating Full Nouns and/or Construct Nouns ............................................................................................................94
6.9.1 רצלמ םרוי ,"תילארשי תירבעב שדח ןרוצ" ..............................................................................................................................................94
6.9.2 יתשק רוא ,"לארשיב רפסה יתבב הירוטסהה תארוה לע".........................................................................................................................95
6.9.3 דגמ ןורהא ,"ילארשיה תודבאתהה רצי".....................................................................................................................................................96
7.0 Possession and Possessives
7.1 Marking Possession with לש.....................................................................................................................................................................98
7.1.1 The Conjugation of the Possessive Marker לש....................................................................................................................98
7.1.2 Obligatory and Optional Use of the Definite Article in Possessives .....................................................................99
7.2 Possessive Suffixes .......................................................................................................................................................................................100
7.3 Expressing Quantity with לש ...................................................................................................................................................................103
7.4 Expressions with לש......................................................................................................................................................................................103
7.5 Marking Possession with שי and ןיא......................................................................................................................................................104
7.5.1 The Various Forms of שי and ןיא ................................................................................................................................................104
7.5.2 שי and ןיא with Full Nouns ..........................................................................................................................................................105
7.5.3 שי and ןיא with Pronouns ..............................................................................................................................................................105
7.6 Having and Not Having in Past and Future Tenses ..................................................................................................................107
7.6.1 Past Tense ............................................................................................................................................................................................107
7.6.2 Future Tense 107
7.7 The Possessive Adjective ךייש ..................................................................................................................................................................108
7.8 Expressing Ownership with ת/לעב.........................................................................................................................................................108
8.0 Adjectives
8.1 Gender, Number and Placement of Adjectives .............................................................................................................................111
8.2 Definiteness of Adjectives ........................................................................................................................................................................112
8.3 Adjectives and Construct Nouns (תוכימס)...........................................................................................................................................112
8.4 Attributive and Predicative Use of Adjectives ..............................................................................................................................112
8.5 The Adjective Pattern לועפ .........................................................................................................................................................................114
8.6 Complements of Adjectives ....................................................................................................................................................................117
8.7 Using Adjectives as Nouns.......................................................................................................................................................................117
8.8 Adverbial vs. Adjectival Use of Adjectives .....................................................................................................................................117
8.9 Modifying Adjectives .................................................................................................................................................................................118
8.9.1 Repetition .............................................................................................................................................................................................118
8.9.2 Negative Shading with [ינ-] .........................................................................................................................................................118
8.9.3 Diminutive and Approximate Effects ....................................................................................................................................119
8.9.4 Other Means .......................................................................................................................................................................................120
8.10 Successive Adjectives ...............................................................................................................................................................................121
8.11 Ordinal Numbers.........................................................................................................................................................................................121
8.12 Texts Illustrating Adjectives .................................................................................................................................................................123
8.12.1 היפעלובא יסויו ןודיס םירפא ,"וזוראקאק רפכמ וזומו וזוא" ..................................................................................................................123
8.12.2 לקד-ןודנול הלאינד ,"רייואמה ןמורה ,סילופסרפ" ..................................................................................................................................124
iv8.12.3 רוג היתב ,"'ינמרג םאיווקר' ןוליא סומע לש ורפס לע"..........................................................................................................................125
9.0 Adverbs
9.1 Adverbs Grouped by Form ......................................................................................................................................................................127
9.1.1 An Easy Way to "Create" Adverbs .........................................................................................................................................127
9.1.2 Adverbs of the Form [-ב] + Abstract Noun .........................................................................................................................127
9.1.3 Feminine Plural Adjectives Used as Adverbs ....................................................................................................................128
9.2 Adverbs in Formal and Written Contexts .......................................................................................................................................129
9.3 Grouped by Meaning...............................................................................................................................................................130
9.3.1 Adverbs of Manner .........................................................................................................................................................................130
9.3.2 of Frequency ...................................................................................................................................................................130
9.3.3 Adverbs of Purpose and Goal ...................................................................................................................................................131
9.3.4 of Causation, Reason or Circumstance ..............................................................................................................132
9.3.5 Adverbs of Place and Space .......................................................................................................................................................133
9.3.6 of Time ...............................................................................................................................................................................133
10.0 Verbs
10.1 The binyanim—Verb Paradigms ............................................................................................................................................................134
10.1.1 Processes Expressed by the binyanim (Verb Paradigms) ..........................................................................................136
10.1.1.1 Voice (Active, Passive and Middle) .........................................................................................................................136
10.1.1.2 Transitivity ...........................................................................................................................................................................137
10.1.1.3 Causativity 138
10.1.1.4 Change of State ..................................................................................................................................................................139
10.1.1.5 Reflexivity .............................................................................................................................................................................139
10.1.1.6 Reciprocity ............................................................................................................................................................................143
10.1.1.7 What the binyan System Helps Make Explicit ..................................................................................................143
10.1.1.8 Passive Verb Paradigms ................................................................................................................................................144
10.1.1.9 יחימע הדוהי ,"םיניינבה טנוס"....................................................................................................................................................145
10.1.1.10 Exceptional Cases of Verb Paradigms .................................................................................................................145
10.2 Root and Root Type (שרושו הרזיג) .........................................................................................................................................................146
10.3 Tenses and Inflections ..............................................................................................................................................................................148
10.3.1 The Conjugation of Present-Tense Verbs ..........................................................................................................................149
10.3.2 The Uses of Present-Tense Verbs ...........................................................................................................................................151
10.3.2.1 The Here and Now 151
10.3.2.2 Near Future ........................................................................................................................................................................152
10.3.2.3 Up-to-the-Present Activities or Events ................................................................................................................152
10.3.2.4 Habitual Activities ..........................................................................................................................................................153
10.3.2.5 General Assertions, Truisms and Aphorisms ...................................................................................................153
10.3.2.6 Intentions or Future Plans 153
10.3.2.7 Ultimatums and Threats ..............................................................................................................................................153
10.3.2.8 Dramatic Narration ........................................................................................................................................................154
10.3.2.9 In Advertisements ...........................................................................................................................................................154
10.3.2.10 Present-Tense Verbs as Nouns ...............................................................................................................................154
10.4 Past and Future Tenses ...........................................................................................................................................................................155
v10.4.1 The Conjugation of Past-Tense Verbs .................................................................................................................................156
10.4.2 The Uses of Past Tense Verbs ..................................................................................................................................................157
10.4.2.1 Over-and-Done-With Actions, Events and Activities ....................................................................................157
10.4.2.2 Not and Not-Yet Events ................................................................................................................................................157
10.4.2.3 Conditional Sentences...................................................................................................................................................... 157
10.4.2.4 Past Tense Narration with Projection into the Future (םימיל).......................................................................158
10.4.3 The Conjugation of Future-Tense Verbs ............................................................................................................................158
10.4.4 The Uses of Future Tense Verbs .............................................................................................................................................159
10.4.4.1 Activities and Events Not Yet Begun .....................................................................................................................159
10.4.4.2 Directives ..............................................................................................................................................................................159
10.4.4.3 Prohibitions ..........................................................................................................................................................................160
10.4.4.4 Suggestions 160
10.4.4.5 Stating a Condition ..........................................................................................................................................................160
10.4.4.6 Wishing and Mal-Wishing ...........................................................................................................................................161
10.4.4.7 Doubt ......................................................................................................................................................................................161
10.4.4.8 Generalizations ..................................................................................................................................................................161
10.4.5 Marking Future Events Lexically ..........................................................................................................................................162
10.5 The Imperative (יוויצ) .................................................................................................................................................................................162
10.5.1 The Conjugation of the Imperative .......................................................................................................................................162
10.5.2 The Theater of Life ........................................................................................................................................................................163
10.5.3 Alternatives to the Imperative Form for Expressing Prohibitions .......................................................................164
10.5.4 Basic Training and the Form ...........................................................................................................................165
10.6 The Infinitive Form (לעופה םש) ..............................................................................................................................................................165
10.6.1 The Uses of the Infinitive Form ..............................................................................................................................................166
10.6.1.1 Two (or more) Verbs in Succession ...................................................................................................................................166
10.6.1.2 Offering and Suggesting ...............................................................................................................................................166
10.6.1.3 Formal Requests ................................................................................................................................................................167
10.6.1.4 Giving Instructions ..........................................................................................................................................................167
10.6.1.5 Expressing Possibility, Prohibition, Permission, Necessity, etc. ...............................................................168
10.6.1.6 General Truisms with an Adjective + Infinitive.........................................................................168
10.6.2 The Infinitive Construct and the Infinitive Absolute ..................................................................................................169
10.6.2.1 Infinitival Clauses .............................................................................................................................................................169
10.6.2.2 More about Infinitive Constructs and the Infinitive Absolute....................................................................170
10.7 Verbs of Being and Becoming ............................................................................................................................................................173
10.8 Verbs of Motion and the Alternation of [-ל] and לא..................................................................................................................174
10.8.1 More about Verbs of Motion ....................................................................................................................................................176
10.9 Sentential Complements of Verbs of Wanting and Wishing ...............................................................................................177
10.10 Preceded by םא (If) .............................................................................................................................178
10.11 Verbs and their Objects .........................................................................................................................................................................178
10.11.1 On the Terms "Direct Object" and "Indirect Object" .................................................................................................179
10.11.2 Verbs and their Direct Objects ..............................................................................................................................................179
10.11.2.1 Definite Direct ................................................................................................................................................180
10.11.2.2 Verbs with Two Direct Objects ..............................................................................................................................181
10.11.2.3 Odd but True ...................................................................................................................................................................181
vi 10.11.2.4 Internal Object (ימינפ אשומ) .........................................................................................................................................181
10.11.2.5 Direct Objects not Mentioned but Implied ......................................................................................................182
10.11.3 Verbs and their Indirect Objects............................................................................................................................................182
10.11.3.1 Verbs with Two Indirect Objects ...........................................................................................................................183
10.12 Verbs with Two Obligatory Objects .......................................................................................................................................184
10.13 Omitting the Object .........................................................................................................................................................................185
10.14 Lexical Expression of Reciprocity ....................................................................................................................................................185
10.15 Verbs in Coordinate and Embedded Clauses ............................................................................................................................187
10.15.1 Who Controls the Show? Who is the Subject of the Infinitive? ...........................................................................188
10.16 Complex Verbs ...........................................................................................................................................................................................190
10.16.1 The Conjugation of Complex Verbs ...................................................................................................................................190
10.16.2 The Uses of Complex Verbs ...................................................................................................................................................190
10.16.2.1 Habitual Activity in the Past 190
10.16.2.2 Hypotheticals ..................................................................................................................................................................191
10.16.2.3 Polite Requests ................................................................................................................................................................192
10.16.2.4 Regrets for Inability to do Something .................................................................................................................192
10.16.2.5 Mitigating, Hedging and Suggesting ..................................................................................................................192
10.17 Verbal Nouns...............................................................................................................................................................................................192
10.17.1 Verbal Nouns and Infinitival Complements 195
10.18 About Verbs and their Satellite Nouns .........................................................................................................................................196
10.18.1 Agent ..................................................................................................................................................................................................197
10.18.2 Force (Non-Volitional Agent) ................................................................................................................................................197
10.18.3 Patient (Undergoer) ....................................................................................................................................................................197
10.18.4 Experiencer .....................................................................................................................................................................................198
10.18.5 Source200
10.18.6 Goal200
10.18.7 Location..............................................................................................................................................................................................200
10.18.8 Beneficiary .......................................................................................................................................................................................201
10.19 Time and Tense ..........................................................................................................................................................................................201
10.19.1 Time and Tense in Simple Sentences ................................................................................................................................202
10.19.2 Temporal Sequence .....................................................................................................................................................................202
10.20 Tense, Aspect and Mood/Modality ................................................................................................................................................203
10.20.1 Linguistic States of Affairs ......................................................................................................................................................204
10.20.2 Inherent Meaning of Verbs .....................................................................................................................................................205
10.21 Habitual Aspect with Verbs of Motion as Auxiliaries ..........................................................................................................206
10.21.1 Habitual Verbs with the Past Tense of the Verb "To Be" ...................................................................................207
10.22 Aspectual Meaning of Complex Verb Forms ............................................................................................................................208
10.22.1 The Aspectual Use of אל ןיידע ,ןיידע ,אל רבכ ,רבכ................................................................................................................209
10.22.1.1 With Verbs in the Present Tense .............................................................................................................................209
10.22.1.2 With Verbs in the Past Tense ....................................................................................................................................210
10.22.1.3 With Verbs in the Future Tense 212
10.22.1.4 More Examples with רבכ.............................................................................................................................................212
10.23 Text Illustrating Verbs: ןפג ןתנוי ,"תוריהיה — הנש םישולש ,םימי השיש" ........................................................................................213
10.24 Texts Verbs or Copulas and their Subjects ........................................................................................................214
vii10.24.1 עשוהי .ב.א ,"תדלומ רועיש"........................................................................................................................................................214
10.24.2 "היצקטורפ"..................................................................................................................................................................................215
10.25 Text with Verbs and their Prepositions: תונורחא תועידי ךותמ ,"ילארשיה רבגל בתכמ" ..........................................................216
11.0 Prepositions
11.1 The Conjugation of Prepositions 218
11.1.1 The Singular Noun Pattern .......................................................................................................................................................218
11.1.1.1 ליבשב...........................................................................................................................................................................................219
11.1.1.2 םע.................................................................................................................................................................................................219
11.1.1.3 ללגב .............................................................................................................................................................................................220
11.1.1.4 לצא...............................................................................................................................................................................................220
11.1.1.6 רובע221
11.1.1.7 ןמ/-מ............................................................................................................................................................................................221
11.1.2 The Plural Noun Pattern ............................................................................................................................................................222
11.1.2.1 לע223
11.1.2.1.1 לא..............................................................................................................................................................................................223
11.1.2.1.2 ינפל223
11.1.2.1.3 ירחא..........................................................................................................................................................................................224
11.2 Basic Relations Expressed by Prepositions ...................................................................................................................................224
11.2.1 Locality ................................................................................................................................................................................................224
11.2.2 Temporality ......................................................................................................................................................................................225
11.2.2.1 The Preposition [-ל] and Time Units.........................................................................................................................225
11.2.3 Causality .............................................................................................................................................................................................226
11.3 Governed Prepositions ............................................................................................................................................................................227
11.4 Single-Letter ......................................................................................................................................................................228
11.5 Use of Prepositions with Wh-Question Words ...........................................................................................................................230
11.6 Different Ways of Expressing "For" ..................................................................................................................................................232
11.7 Comparative Prepositions: [-כ] and ומכ.............................................................................................................................................236
11.8 Prepositions: Classification by Meaning ........................................................................................................................................237
11.8.1 Prepositions Marking Spatial Relations .............................................................................................................................237
11.8.1.1 The Preposition רבעל in the Service of Obfuscation ........................................................................................238
11.8.2 Prepositions Marking Temporal Relations .......................................................................................................................238
11.8.3 Commercial Transactions ..........................................................................................................239
11.8.4 Prepositions Marking Beneficiaries ......................................................................................................................................239
11.8.5 Causation ...........................................................................................................................................239
11.8.5.1 Neutral Meaning ...............................................................................................................................................................239
11.8.5.2 Positive Shading ................................................................................................................................................................240
11.8.5.3 Negative ..............................................................................................................................................................240
11.9 The Alternation of the Prepositions [-ל] and לא............................................................................................................................242
11.10 Text Illustrating : הגייפ לאכימ ,"ראיירפה תוברת לע".................................................................................................243
12.0 Negation
12.1 Basic Negation...............................................................................................................................................................................................244
12.2 Formal Forms of Negation ....................................................................................................................................................................245
viii12.3 Use of Negation in Directives and Requests ................................................................................................................................246
12.3.1 אֹל + Infinitive ....................................................................................................................................................................................247
12.3.2 ןיא + ...................................................................................................................................................................................247
12.3.3 Aphorisms with ןיא.........................................................................................................................................................................248
12.4 Expressions Denoting Negation .........................................................................................................................................................248
12.5 Particles and Words Denoting Negation .......................................................................................................................................250
13.0 Questions
13.1 Yes / No Questions 253
13.2 Information .............................................................................................................................................................................255
13.3 Confirmation Questions ..........................................................................................................................................................................256
13.4 Snippy Rhetorical Questions ................................................................................................................................................................257
13.5 Text Illustrating : ולש ריאמ ," 'עמשנ המ'ל םיבישמ םישנאש תובושת לש ןכדועמה טקלה".............................................258
14.0 Direct and Indirect (Reported) Speech
14.1 Direct Speech .................................................................................................................................................................................................260
14.2 Indirect (Reported) Speech......................................................................................................................................................................260
15.0 Comparing
15.1 by Means of Comparison Terms ..............................................................................................................................262
15.2 Expressing Sameness ................................................................................................................................................................................264
15.3 As... As... Structures ...................................................................................................................................................................................265
15.4 More Than and Less Than .....................................................................................................................................................................265
15.5 Superlatives ..................................................................................................................................................................................................267
15.5.1 Superlative Expressions ..............................................................................................................................................................268
15.6 Comparing by Degree ..............................................................................................................................................................................269
15.7 "Too Much to ..." ..........................................................................................................................................................................................269
15.8 More Ways of Comparing 272
15.9 Creative Ways of ...............................................................................................................................................................272
16.0 Quantifiers
16.1 Numbers273
16.2 and Gender 274
16.2.1 The Oddity of Number 2 .....................................................................................................................................................275
16.3 Non-Specific Amounts..............................................................................................................................................................................279
16.4 "All," "All of," "Every" and "the Whole of" ...................................................................................................................................279
16.4.1 "All" and "All of" ...........................................................................................................................................................................279
16.4.2 The Whole Such-and-Such Noun ..........................................................................................................................................280
16.4.3 "Each and Every" 281
16.4.4 לכ and -ה לכ with a Time Unit....................................................................................................................................................281
16.5 Qualifying Quantifiers .............................................................................................................................................................................282
16.6 Quantifiers Denoting Part of Something (Partitive Quantifiers).........................................................................................282
16.7 Quantifying Time with Time Expressions .....................................................................................................................................283
ix16.8 Two Types of "Only" ................................................................................................................................................................................283
17.0 Modes of Emphasis
17.1 Exclamation ..................................................................................................................................................................................................286
17.2 Repetition 287
17.2.1 Using Similar Sounds .........................................................................................................................................................287
17.2.2 Using Words of Similar or Identical Meaning ......................................................................................................288
17.2.3 Using the Same Root ..........................................................................................................................................................288
17.2.4 Using Syntactic Duplication ...........................................................................................................................................289
17.3 Accentuating Part of a Sentence...........................................................................................................................................................289
17.3.1 Stressing by Adding a Subject Pronoun .............................................................................................................................289
17.3.2 Accentuating by Lexical Means ..............................................................................................................................................289
17.3.3 by Pattern .............................................................................................................................................................290
17.3.4 by Duplicating the Possessive ...................................................................................................................290
18.0 Types of Hebrew Sentences
18.1 Two Ways to View a Sentence..............................................................................................................................................................291
18.2 Verbless (Nominal) Sentences 292
18.2.1 Linking Words in Verbless Sentences .................................................................................................................................294
18.2.1.1 The Use of Subject Pronouns as Linking Words in Verbless Sentences ...............................................294
18.2.1.2 Linking Words and Grammatical Agreement ...................................................................................................295
18.2.2 A Formal Alternative to the Copula......................................................................................................................................298
18.2.2.1 Verbless Sentences in Past and Future Tenses 298
18.3 Sentences Containing Verbs .................................................................................................................................................................299
18.4 Impersonal (Omni-Referential) Sentences .....................................................................................................................................299
18.5 Topicalized Sentences ..............................................................................................................................................................................300
18.6 Passive Sentences.........................................................................................................................................................................................301
18.6.1 The Distribution of Passive Sentences ................................................................................................................................301
18.6.2 Passive Sentences with לעופ and לעפוה Verbs.....................................................................................................................302
18.6.3 On Passive Sentences and Impersonal Ones303
18.6.4 Unusual Examples of Passivization 304
18.6.5 ןומצע יבצ ,"רוכזי"...................................................................................................................................................................................305
18.7 Complex Sentences ....................................................................................................................................................................................306
18.7.1 The Relative Particle יכ306
18.7.2 Heads of Embedded Clauses ...................................................................................................................................................307
18.7.2.1 Verbs as Heads .................................................................................................................................................................307
18.7.2.2 Adjectives as Heads .......................................................................................................................................................307
18.7.2.3 Nouns as Heads (Relative Clauses) ........................................................................................................................308
18.7.2.4 Prepositions or Discourse Ties as Heads .............................................................................................................308
18.7.3 Syntactic Classification of Embedded Texts .....................................................................................................................308
18.7.3.1 Full Sentence ......................................................................................................................................................................308
18.7.3.2 Infinitival Phrase ..............................................................................................................................................................308
18.7.3.3 Participle ..............................................................................................................................................................................309
18.7.3.4 Verbal Noun .......................................................................................................................................................................309
x 18.7.3.5 Gerund ..................................................................................................................................................................................309
18.8 Existential Sentences309
18.8.1 ירשא דוהא ,"ויתובא לא ףסאנ :םילימ קחשמ".................................................................................................................................312
18.9 Ambiance Sentences .................................................................................................................................................................................312
18.10 Contrastive ............................................................................................................................................................................314
18.11 Sentences with Relative Clauses (הקיז טפשמ) ................................................................................................................................317
18.11.1 Relative Clauses Modifying the Subject of a Sentence .............................................................................................318
18.11.2 the Direct Object of a Sentence ................................................................................318
18.11.3 Relative Clauses Modifying the Indirect Object of a .............................................................................318
18.11.4 Can the Relative Particle be Omitted? ..............................................................................................................................319
18.12 Cleft Sentences............................................................................................................................................................................................320
18.13 Conditional Sentences.............................................................................................................................................................................321
18.13.1 Real Conditionals ........................................................................................................................................................................321
18.13.2 Hypothetical Conditionals .......................................................................................................................................................322
18.13.3 Counterfactual ...................................................................................................................................................322
18.13.4 The Negative Conditionals: אלמליא ,אלול ,אל וליא .............................................................................................................323
18.13.5 Quasi-Conditionals .....................................................................................................................................................................324
18.13.6 "As If" Clauses ..............................................................................................................................................................................325
18.13.6.1 A Word about וליאכ..........................................................................................................................................................325
18.14 Word Order in Hebrew Sentences ..................................................................................................................................................325
18.14.1 Subject-Verb and Verb-Subject Word Order .................................................................................................................325
18.14.2 Word Order of Objects ..............................................................................................................................................................326
18.14.3 Word Order in Noun Phrases ...............................................................................................................................................329
18.14.4 Word Order and the "Packaging" of Information........................................................................................................329
18.15 Coordination of Clauses ........................................................................................................................................................................330
18.15.1 Adjective and Adjective ...........................................................................................................................................................331
18.15.1.1 Verb M. Sg. and Verb M. Sg. .....................................................................................................................................331
18.15.1.2 Infinitive+Object and Infinitive+Object ................................................................................................................331
18.15.1.3 Object of the Verb and Object of the Verb .........................................................................................................331
18.15.1.4 Coordinating Nouns of Different Types .............................................................................................................332
18.16 Text Illustrating Coordinated Structures: ןוזיבג תור ,"םיקזחו םירורב הצקה תולוק"...............................................................332
19.0 Modality
19.1 Frequently Used Expressions of Modality ....................................................................................................................................334
19.2 Types of Modality ......................................................................................................................................................................................335
19.2.1 Obligation and Necessity ...........................................................................................................................................................335
19.2.2 Ability ..................................................................................................................................................................................................335
19.2.3 Possibility and Probability ........................................................................................................................................................336
19.2.3.1 גומלא תור ,"זיגרמ יוטיב"336
19.3 More about Modality ...............................................................................................................................................................................337
19.4 Referential and Non-Referential Uses of Modality ...................................................................................................................337
19.4.1 ירעס ימר ,"לכה תא ריזחהל ךירצ" .........................................................................................................................................................339
19.4.2 More Examples of Referential Modality .............................................................................................................................340
19.5 Use of Modality in Editorializing340
xi20.0 Expressions of Politeness
20.1 Asking Permission .....................................................................................................................................................................................341
20.2 Making Suggestions ..................................................................................................................................................................................341
20.2.1 רצלמ םרוי ,"פושטק רשפא יא המל".......................................................................................................................................................341
21.0 Ways of Expressing Vagueness and Approximation .......................................................................................................................343
Appendix I, The Israeli Hebrew Verb System..................................................................................................................................................345 II, Discourse Ties ......................................................................................................................................................................................375
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................................................................389
Index390
xiiUser's Manual
Grammar books fall into two categories: reference grammars and student grammars.
Student grammar books are part of the language learning process, while reference
grammar books are long-term companions for people already acquainted with the
language who seek more information and a more nuanced understanding of its
architecture and design.
This book is an effort to combine the two categories. It was written with two types of
readers in mind: (1) Hebrew language students looking for clear and informative
explanations and memorable examples, and (2) readers who are familiar with linguistic
concepts and terminology and are interested in more detailed information.
While the first type of reader need not be troubled with the shaded sections marked by
the "dangerous curves" sign, the second type can indulge in additional information —
short and long textual samples, more complex structural explanations, historical notes
and occasional controversies regarding the Hebrew language. While all of the examples
in the unmarked texts are translated, most examples in the sections marked by the
"Dangerous Curves" sign are not.
The book does not assume any knowledge of linguistic terminology or jargon. All the
terminology used is explained in the body of the text.
A few notes before you start leafing through the book:
• By the "grammar of a language" I refer to the systematic account of the structure of a
language, its patterns and its use in different contexts. By "context," I mean things
such as levels of formality or informality (register), medium — that is, written or
spoken, face-to-face, by phone or e-mail — and the age of the speaker and
addressee. There is no one form that fits all settings. Hence, knowing a language is
more than knowing the meaning of words, the appropriate order of structural units,
word order within those units, verb conjugations and noun inflections. Knowing a
language means knowing what you can say, when you can say it and to whom.
After all, you don't talk to the president or the dean of your college the way you'd
talk to your poker buddy on a camping trip.• When we use language, we organize what we want to say according to two basic
criteria: structure and information. As far as structure is concerned, the order of
units is largely dictated by the particular language. For example, English places
adjectives before nouns but Hebrew does the reverse. There isn't much you can do
about it, if you wish to speak in "allowable sentences."
• The information criterion is more general and pliable than the structural one.
Generally speaking, "old information" (what is known and what the speaker
presumes her addressee to know) comes first, and new information (comments
about the old information, etc.) usually follows. Unlike the obligatory word order
within units, the order of the units themselves is more flexible, and speakers can
shuffle units, depending on which unit they want to accentuate: e.g., "I like
chocolate" vs. "chocolate, I like."
• A sentence that contain a single clause is a simple sentence, and a sentence that
contains multiple clauses is a complex sentence. A clause is a grammatical unit that
includes, at a minimum, a predicate and an explicit or implied subject, and
expresses a proposition. Clauses may be connected by coordination or by
subordination. Coordinate structures contain two (or more) parts which are
hierarchically equal (i.e. no part is subordinate to the other). Subordinate structures
contain a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
(1)• Hebrew is a highly inflected language, which is a double-edged sword for students
of Hebrew. On the one hand, one can almost always know whether the person
spoken about is male or female, or whether there is one or more of him/her. This
information is encapsulated in the verb, which reflects the gender and number of
the agent and makes it easier to keep track of who does what to whom. On the other
hand, one has to learn over 20 forms of each verb, four forms of each adjective and
ten forms of the various pronouns and conjugated prepositions.
(1) Hebrew verbs have many forms (up to 26 different ones) conditioned by gender, number, person and tense.
-2-Notations Used in the Book
= dangerous curves, shaded texts for the linguistically astute
= note
* =unacceptable form or sentence
√ = root of a verb
2.1# = example #1 of chapter 2
C as in "CaCoC" = a consonant which is part of a string of consonants
and vowels.
NP = noun phrase
OM or DOM = (direct) object marker
PP = prepositional phrase
SO = someone
ST = something
VP = verb phrase
-3--4-(2)1.0 History and Features of Israeli Hebrew (IH)
1.1 Israeli Hebrew and the Family of Languages
Israeli Hebrew (hereafter, IH) is genealogically a member of the Semitic language family. Yet
typologically, IH is Semitic only in its basic vocabulary and morphology. IH is considered a fusion
language because it uses its Hebraic and Semitic means of expression to convey implicitly European
notions and categories — thus, it is a European language in Semitic garb. The fusion nature of IH can
be seen in its semantics and macro-syntax, where the structure of complex sentences and paragraphs
follows constraints and licenses developed in European and academic writing, political commentary
and belles-lettres. In other words, although the language is still Hebrew, its "inner" form (cultural
content) differs substantially from its biblical and post-biblical layers.
1.2 Notes on the Revival of Hebrew
The renaissance of Hebrew, which was one of the outcomes of Jewish modernity, had its beginning
in the Jewish haskala (enlightenment) movement of the 19th century.
The narrative that celebrates the revival of Hebrew has been examined, re-examined and contested
since the latter part of the 20th century, as has the question of what is meant by "revival," and
whether this term implies that the language was dead. If the implication is that Hebrew died at
some point, then this understanding is inaccurate.
Hebrew never ceased to exist — either in its spoken or written form. The main difference between and other languages is that prior to the latter part of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th
(3)century Hebrew was a learned language, rather than the primary and native tongue of its users.
Zionism drew its energy and ideology from a rejection of both diasporic culture and geography. It
did not see itself as part of the continuum of Jewish life but rather as a break and a move away from
(2) The name Israeli Hebrew was chosen to describe the language spoken today by residents of Israel/Palestine
and Israeli expatriates around the world. Others refer to the same language as "modern Hebrew" (תינרדומ תירבע)
or "Israeli Hebrew" (תילארשי תירבע).
(3) Modern Standard Arabic is a similar case.
-5-diasporic languages and culture (galutiyut). The call for a break with the past resulted in an
ideological investment in seeing Hebrew as a dead language that could be revived through
reterritorialization.
However, Hebrew has always been rooted in the library of traditional religious texts, literature,
poetry and poetic liturgy (piyutim); and though not freely spoken, it was always pronounced orally
in prayers and in recitation of the weekly torah portion. Hence, its sounds were familiar and an
integral part of Jewish life throughout the ages.
Hebrew's last step in becoming a native language for thousands and then millions was preceded
and conditioned by a textual renaissance (literature, poetry and journalism) of the language in
mid-19th century Europe. Thus, contrary to popular belief, this renaissance was not a product of
the efforts of one individual or another, or of one event or another. Rather, it was due to a unique
intersection of a number of factors related to the role of Hebrew in Jewish life.
The ideology of Zionism, which sought to link antiquity with the modern era, used the Bible as its
textual bridge. Unfortunately, the text which was so helpful in providing the "historical right," or
kushan (proof of ownership) was not pliable enough in its syntax, style, and topics for the modern
world. Indeed, the first modern efforts during the haskala (enlightenment) to write secular Hebrew
texts by emulating biblical style were cumbersome and artificial sounding. This shortcoming
pointed to the need to develop a new style that would open up the language to modernity.
Hebrew prose took a few steps on its way to modernity: going from the mainly Biblical Hebrew
prose of the haskala (enlightenment) to the Hebrew of Mendele, with its adherence to rabbinic
norms at the end of the 19th century, and ending with the anti-nusax style at the beginning of the
(4)20th century.
These moves opened up the lexical treasure chest to all available Hebraic historical and stylistic
strata: biblical, rabbinic, liturgical, philosophical and religious texts, which became sources for a
more nuanced and enriched syntax and vocabulary. From a stylistic point of view, Hebrew prose
moved away from a pastiche of biblical fragments to a language capable of representing modern
realities in a variety of genres: prose, poetry, journalism, etc.
(4) See Robert Alter, Hebrew & Modernity, Chapter 3, and Benjamin Harshav, Language in the Time of
Revolution.
-6-According to Benjamin Harshav:
The revolution [of Hebrew] could occur because of the unique intersection of three complex
historical factors which supplied it with the necessary conditions: 1. The religious world
provided a treasure of Hebrew texts and also vivid meanings of many Hebrew phrases and
words, as well as habits of analyzing the meanings of words and phrases. 2. The secular
world of the new Hebrew literature enabled the creation of new sentences and new texts in
Hebrew [...] as well as the absorption of the European world in the language [...]; 3. The
Zionist realization supplied new social cells of devoted idealists for whom [...] it was
imperative to build a new society speaking a new language.
In time, IH fused all these historical layers into one language. However, its current speakers are not
cognizant of the multi-layered nature of its vocabulary, let alone the textual source (biblical,
postbiblical or medieval) of the particular words or expressions.
The domains in which IH manifests the greatest change, in comparison with its previous layers, are
its lexicon (vocabulary) and syntax. For the revivalists of Hebrew, the lexicon, particularly the
domain of word innovation, was crucial in their deliberate effort to turn Hebrew into a spoken
language. The newly coined words and expressions, as well as the subsequent reinterpretation of
old ones, contributed to the emergence of IH's stylistic variants. IH has unabashedly exploited the
side-by-side, existing diachronic (historical) layers that offered an abundance of synonyms and
enabled shifts in meaning. As a result, IH has developed a nuanced lexicon and a rich vocabulary.
The changes in the domain of syntax were no less important but not as conscious as those in the
lexicon. Some typical characteristics of biblical syntax, such as vav-conversive and parallelism, were
abandoned in favor of complex sentences with subordinate clauses, modeled on European
languages.
Related to the issue of whether IH can be understood as part of an historical continuum, or as a
break with it, are questions about the current nature of the language. Is there already such a thing
as "standard Hebrew" akin to standard English, standard French or standard Arabic; or is the
language still in a state of flux? How does the interaction between the historical layers of the and its registers affect and shape IH? Can we claim that the more formal the language is,
the more biblical it is? Is the language of the law more post-biblical than biblical? Does the IH used
by young people today show a preference for the spirit of Biblical Hebrew or for that of
postBiblical Hebrew?
-7-Based on the path IH has taken thus far, can we predict future trends?
The answer to these and similar questions lies beyond the scope of this book. But we should note
that it has taken a long time (until the 1980s!) for Hebrew speakers to realize that a living language
means a constantly changing language, and that a living language is a language blessed with more
than one register. Hence, in contrast to the literature of previous generations, contemporary literary
Hebrew needs to incorporate a variety of spoken styles into the language of represented dialogue.
The language spoken by literary characters emulates the language of the imagined speakers, rather
than that of the "pundits" and so-called shomrey ha-xomot (the language guardians), or the
prescribed or theoretical ideas of how a native speaker should sound. Indeed, Hebrew literature of
the early 21st century has reached this point, much to the delight of its readers and practitioners.
1.3 Illustrations of the Historical Layers of Hebrew
1.3.1 Text Marking the Layers of Israeli Hebrew
לארשי תנידמ לש תואמצעה תליגמ :ךותמ
From: Israel's Declaration of Independence
Biblical Hebrew ארקמה ןושל
Mishnaic Hebrew ל"זח ןושל
Hebrew of the Middle Ages םייניבה ימי ןושל
Modern Israeli Hebrew תינרדומ תירבע
תוּיממוק ייח יח הב ,תינידמה תיתדה תינחורה ותומד הבצוע הב ידוהיה םעה םק לארשי ץראב
םירפסה רפס תא ולוכ םלועל שירוהו םיישונא ללכו םיימואל תוברת יסכנ רצי הב .תיתכלממ
הליפתמ לדח אלו ,וירוזפ תוצרא לכב םינומא הל רמש עורזה חוכב וצראמ םעה הלגוהש רחאל יחצנה
.תינידמה ותוריח תא הכותב שדחלו וצראל בושל הווקתמו
תורודבו ,הקיתעה םתדלומב זחאיהלו בושל רוד לכב םידוהיה ורתח הז יתרוסמו ירוטסיה רשק ךותמ
ונב ,תירבעה םתפש ויחה ,תומשנ וחירפה .םיניגמו םיליפעמ ,םיצולחו םינומהב םצראל ובש םינורחאה
,ומצע לע ןגמו םולש רחוש ,ותוברתו וקשמ לע טילשהךלוהו לדג בושיי ומיקהו ,םירעו םירפכ
.תיתכלממ תואמצעל ושפנ אשונו ץראה יבשות לכל המדיקה תכרב איבמ
-8-שדחמ החיכוה הפוריאבםינוילימ חבטל וערכוה הב ןורחאה ןמזב לארשי םע לעהללוחתנש האושה
הנידמה שודיח ידי לע תואמצעהו תדלומה רסוחמ ידוהיה םעה תיעב ןורתיפב חרכהה תא לילעב
לש דמעמ ידוהיה םעל קינעתו ידוהי לכל תדלומה ירעש תא החוורל חתפת רשא לארשי ץראב תידוהיה
םויאה יצאנה חבטהמ הלצינש ,הטילפה תיראש .םימעה תחפשמ ךותב תויוכז תווש המוא
אלו ,הנכסו העינמ ,ישוק לכ ףא לע לארשי ץראל ליפעהל ולדח אל תורחא תוצרא ידוהיו ,הפוריאב
םרת היינשה םלועה תמחלמב .םמע תדלומב םירשי למעו ,דובכ ייחל םתוכז תא עובתל וקספ
דגנ ,םולשו תוריח תורחושה תומואה קבאמל וקלח אולמ תא לארשי ץראב ירבעה םינוילימ
םימעה םע תונמיהל תוכזה תא ול הנק יתמחלמה וצמאמבו וילייח םדבו ,יצאנה עשרה תוחוכ
עבשו םיעברא תואמ עשת ףלא רבמבונב העשתו םירשעב .תודחואמה תומואה תירב ידסיימ
ץראב תידוהי הנידמ תמקה תבייחמה ,הטלחה תרצע הלביק
[...] .לארשי
תמקהל לעפת [...] ,עבשו םיעברא תואמ עשת ףלארבמבונב םירשע םוימ תרצעהתטלחה תמשגהב
די תתל תודחואמה תומואל םיארוק ונא .התומלשב לארשי ץרא לש תילכלכה תודחאה
ךותב םג םיארוק ונא .םימעה תחפשמ ךותל לארשי תנידמ תא לבקלו ותנידמ ןיינב ירבעה םעל
לארשי תנידמ יבשות יברעה םעה ינבל םישדוח הז ונילע תכרענה םימדהתפקתה
דוסי לעו הוושו האלמ תוחרזא דוסי לע הנידמה ןיינבב םקלח לוטילו םולשה לע רומשל
תונכשו םולש די םיטישומונא .םיעובקהו םיינמזה היתודסומ לכב המיאתמ תוגיצנ
ירבעה םעה םע תידדה הרזעו הלועפ ףותישל םהל םיארוקו ןהימעו תונכשה תונידמה לכל הבוט
ןוכיתה חרזמה תמדיקל ףתושמ ץמאמב הקלח םורתל הנכומ לארשי תנידמ .וצראב יאמצעה
דומעלו ןיינבבו היילעב בושייה ביבס דכלתהל תוצופתה לכב ידוהיה םעה לא םיארוק ונא .ולוכ
.לארשי תלואגל תורודה תפיאש תמשגה לע הלודגה הכרעמב וננימיל
1.3.2 Biblical Hebrew (BH) — Genesis 11:1-9
The most striking difference between BH and later strata of the language is the
biblical use of the vav-conversive.
1.1 #
וּהֵעֵר-לֶא שׁיִא וּרְמאֹּיַו ג :םָשׁ וּבְשֵּׁיַו רָעְנִשׁ ץֶרֶאְּב הָעְקִב וּאְצְמִּיַו םֶדֶּקִמ םָעְסָנְּב יִהְיַו ב :םיִדָחֲא םיִרָבְדוּ תָחֶא הָפָֹש ץֶרָאָה-לָכ יִהְיַו א
וֹשׁאֹרְו לָּדְגִמוּ ריִע וּנָּל-הֶנְבִנ הָבָה וּרְמאֹּיַו ד :רֶמֹחַל םֶהָל הָיָה רָמֵחַהְו ןֶבָאְל הָנֵבְּלַה םֶהָל יִהְּתַו הָפֵרְֹשִל הָפְרְֹשִנְו םיִנֵבְל הָנְּבְלִנ הָבָה
הָוֹהְי רֶמאֹּיַו ו :םָדָאָה יֵנְּב וּנָּב רֶשֲׁא לָּדְגִּמַה-תֶאְו ריִעָה-תֶא תֹאְרִל הָוֹהְי דֶרֵּיַו ה :ץֶרָאָה-לָכ יֵנְּפ-לַע ץוּפָנ-ןֶּפ םֵשׁ וּנָּל-הֶֹשֲעַנְו םִיַמָּשַׁב
-9-רֶשֲׁא םָתָפְֹש םָשׁ הָלְבָנְו הָדְרֵנ הָבָה ז :תוֹֹשֲעַל וּמְזָי רֶשֲׁא לֹּכ םֶהֵמ רֵצָּבִי-אל הָּתַעְו תוֹֹשֲעַל םָּלִחַה הֶזְו םָּלֻכְל תַחַא הָפָֹשְו דָחֶא םַע ןֵה
לַלָּב םָשׁ-יִּכ לֶבָּב ּהָמְשׁ אָרָק ןֵּכ-לַע ט :ריִעָה תֹנְבִל וּלְּדְחַּיַו ץֶרָאָה-לָכ יֵנְּפ-לַע םָּשִׁמ םָתֹא הָוֹהְי ץֶפָּיַו ח :וּהֵעֵר תַפְֹש שׁיִא וּעְמְשִׁי אל
:ץֶרָאָה-לָּכ יֵנְּפ-לַע הָוֹהְי םָציִפֱה םָּשִׁמוּ ץֶרָאָה-לָּכ תַפְֹש הָוֹהְי
1.3.3 Post-Biblical Hebrew
The following is a sample of 10th Century Hebrew––Rashi's Commentary on the
Text in #1.1 above.
1.2 #
ומע השענו עיקרל הלענ ,םינוילעה תא ול רוביש ונמיה לכ אל ,ורמאו תחא הצעב ואב .םידחא םירבדו :שדוקה ןושל .תחא הפש
עיקרה םינש ו"נרתו ףלאל תחא ורמא (םידח םירבד א"ס) ,םידחא םירבדו רחא רבד .םלוע לש ודיחי לע ,רחא רבד .המחלמ
.תוכומס ול השענו ואוב ,לובמה ימיב השעש םשכ ,טטומתמ
םוקמ םהל רותל םשמ ועסנו ,םדקה רה 'וגו םבשומ יהיו הלעמל ביתכדכ ,םש םיבשוי ויהש .םדקמ םעסנב (ב) :(.ו ,חל ר"ב)
ונימזה .הבה :ןענכל טופו ,טופל שוכו ,שוכל םירצמ ,המואל המוא .והער לא שיא (ג) :רענש אלא ואצמ אלו ,םלכ תא קיזחהלה
זעלב ר"יילקרפא ונימזה הבה .אשמל וא הצעל וא הכאלמל םירבחתמו ןמצע םיניכמש ,אוה הנמזה ןושל הבה לכ .םכמצע
.הפרשל הפרשנו :העקב איהש לבבב םינבא ןיאש .םינבל :(ןעטכירוצ ןעטיירעב)
ונילע איבי אלש .ץופנ ןפ (ד) :ריקה חוטל .רמחל :ןשבכב םתוא םיפרוש (ענייטשכאד לעגיצ) ש"לווט םירוקש םינבלה ןישוע ךכ
.וניביו ואריש דע ןודינה ועישרי אלש ,םיניידל דמלל אב אלא ,ךכל ךרצוה אל .תוארל 'ה דריו (ה) :ןאכמ ז ונציפהל הכמ םוש
לכ .דחא םע ןה (ו) :לובמה ןמ םטלמו הבוט םעיפשהש ימב דורמל הבוטב ופכ ולא ףא ,ידמע התתנ רשא השאה יבר שרדמב
אל :תושעל םה ליחתהל ח ,םתושע םרמא ומכ .םלחה :תושעל ולחה הז רבדו ,ןלוכל תחא הפשו םה דחא םַעֶשׁ ןהמע שי וז הבוט
תיבב .הדרנ הבה (ז) :(.גי ,וע םילהת) םידיגנ חור רוצבי ול המודו ,ומוגרתכ העינמ ןושל רצבי .הימתב ט .תושעל 'וגו םהמ רצבי
ן"ונ לבלבנו .הלבנו :הדרנ הבה י רמאו דדמ םדגנכ אוהו ,הנבנ הבה ורמא ,הדמ דגנכ הדמ .הבה :הריתי ותונתונעמ ךלמנ וניד
תא עצופו וילע דמוע הזו ,טיט איבמ הזו הָנֵבְל לאוש הז .ועמשי אל הדרנ לש א"הכ כ ,הריתי הנורחא א"הו ,םיבר ןושלב שמשמ
ונאובת איה עשר תַרוֹגְמ המלש רמאש אוה ,םהילע םייקתנ ץופנ ןפ ורמאש המ ,הזה םלועב .םשמ םתוא 'ה ץפיו (ח) :וחומ
אל ולא ,הגלפה רוד לש וא לובמה רוד לש השק וז יא יכו ,אבה םלועל קלח םהל ןיאש דמל .םציפה םשמו (ט) :(.דכ ,י ילשמ)
התיהו םינלזג ויה לובמה רודש אלא ,םלועה ןמ ודבאנ אל ולאו ופטשנ ולאו ,וב םחלהל רקיעב די וטשפ ולאו ,רקיעב די וטשפ
תקולחמה יואנשש תדמל ,םידחא םירבדו תחא הפש רמאנש ,םהיניב תועירו הבהא םיגהונ ויה ולאו ,ודבאנ ךכל ,םהיניב הבירמ
:םולשה לודגו
1.4 The Spelling of Israeli Hebrew
Throughout the ages, Hebrew spelling has preserved the sanctified spelling of the
Bible in its most minute details. Yet the pronunciation of this meticulously
-10-preserved system was affected by the wide dispersion of Jews, which exposed them
to the influence of a variety of languages and language families.
1.5 The Morphology of Israeli Hebrew
Despite some alterations, the systemic image of the language has not changed, and
Semitic morphological processes have been maintained. Thus, the morphological
system of IH goes along with that of BH in both inflectional and derivational
mechanisms.
1.6 The Sound System of Israeli Hebrew
The sound system of IH represents a middle ground between the various traditions
of its speakers. This system is a product of the neutralization of phonetic differences
among the various Hebrew dialects spoken by Jews in central and eastern Europe
(Ashkenazi Hebrew), in the Mediterranean basin and in Middle Eastern countries
(Sephardi Hebrew). Thus the prevalent notion that IH adopted the Sephardi accent
is quite misleading.
A sound is considered phonemicIH has five phonetic, audible vowels and four
when it serves to distinguish
diphthongs (not to be confused with diacritical marks between meanings of words. For
example, the sound difference[vowel signs] of which there are 13). Vowel length is
between "ship" and "sheep" in
not phonemic in IH. English is phonemic.
Each of the five phonetic vowels has more than one written form. The use of a
particular diacritical mark is motivated by several interacting, though arcane,
criteria. The criteria include: (1) whether the associated consonant is ר ,ע ,ח ,ה ,א,
traditionally called gutturals; (2) stress location is ultimate or penultimate;
(3) whether the syllable is "open" or "closed"; and (4) whether the written vowels are
considered short or long. The way the vowels are written has no concrete or
conceptual function for current native speakers of the language. In fact, most
current speakers of Hebrew have no idea what motivates the choice of one written
form over another for the representation the same sound.
-11-1.6.1 The Five Audible Vowels
Similar English Vowels Hebrew Vowels
A fAther, Argument, stUtter, bUtter, spA, cAfe הָנָש ,הָדובֲע ,אָּבַא ,הָלשָפ
E bEg, bAg, cafE הָלֵאְש ,קֶמֵע ,הָּביסְמ
EE or I shIver, belIEve, grEEd, skI, ץוּּביק ,םירוּּברִּב ,םיריש
O rOck, hAWk, שֶדוג/שֶדֹג ,לֶכוא ,קֵחוצ
U flU, shOE, glUE, lOOp הָרּוש ,הָּבֻּב ,תויּוטש
1.6.2 The Four Diphthongs
Similar English Diphthongs Hebrew Diphthongs
EY mAY יֵנש ,הָציֵּב ,אָליֵמ ,הֹפיֵא
AY gUY יַש ,תּונָקיַצ ,יַלָע ,יאַדְּכ
UY bUOY יּונָּפ ,יּואָר
OY plOY יונ ,יובָאָו יוא
1.6.3 About the Consolidation of Diacritical (Vowel) Marks
.הדוקנ .חתפל ךופהי ץמקה
תדעווב רבח ,רושימ .הכפהמ עיצהו הימדקאה ירבחמ דחא המבל הלע רבעש עובשב םייקתהש תירבע ןושלל הימדקאה לש סנכב
טשפלו ,הריצהו לוגסה תאו ,חתפהו ץמקה תא דחאל" עיצה ,הלש ירוטסיהה ןולימה לעפמב םיקסועה ןמו הימדקאה לש קודקדה
רבכ דחא ףא םויכו ,דבלב תועונת שמח הריכמ ,השדחה תירבעה הצמיאש ,תידרפסה הייגהה :טושפ ןויגיהה ."ףוטיחה יללכ תא
.הריצל לוגס ןיב וא חתפל ץמק ןיב לדבהה תא לוקב אטבל עדוי אל
יפכ ,תשבגתמה העצהה תא רשאת הימדקאה םא .וירבח ברקמ תומר תואושתל אקווד הכז לבא ,תורעוס תובוגתל הפיצ רושימ
.הרישה ירפס לעו םידליה ירפס לע ,םידומילה תוינכות לע םג לוחת איהו ,םינש 10-15 -כ השומימ ךשמיי ,רושימ ךירעמש
היה ןויגיה ותוא יפ לע" .ולש ריאמ רפוסה רמוא ,"םירתוימ םירבדב תוקסעתה וז" .םידגנתמ הילע המיקה רבכ העצהה םלואו
דוקינהו ,ולש הפשה תא ריכהל איה םדאה לש ותוברתמ קלח .ו"תל ת"יט ןיב ,השוגד ף"כל ף"וק ןיב הנחבהה תא םג לטבל ךירצ
.(2004 ינויל 4 ,ץראה) "הזמ קלח אוה
-12-1.6.4 רוק םולשבא ,"חתמ רופיס :תירבע לש עגר"
.רֵסָח םָלוחש ,התליגו ,המק קּורּוש אמא דחא םוי
.ךרדל אציו ,תפכ דגב הֶריֵצ שבל ,חָנ ,אוָוש ,אבא יכ ,םָלוח תא שפחל ידכ הֶריֵצ היחאל הארק איה
.פ"מוב תויתוא יתשב לקתנ ךרדב
.שארב חַתָּפ ףַטָח הֶריֵצו ,הרגית החתפתה
.חרבו קיריח םהילע קרז ,ץמוא לע קָזָח שֵגָד םשש הֶריֵצ
.קּורּוש ץּוּבּוקב רתתסמ םָלוחש עמשש ול רפיסש ,ןטק ץָמָק שגפ ךרדב
.קשמה לש השדחה תוריכזמב רתתסמ םָלוח תא אצמ ןכאו ץּוּבּוקל הֶריֵצ ךלה
.לֵעָפתִה ,ןיָינִּב הזיא
.לוגֶס היהנ םָלוחש ,ףָקָמ הזכ ול הדירוה קּורּוש אמא התיבה עיגהשכו
1.7 Remarks about IH Syntax
The syntax of IH is closer to post-biblical (mishnaic) syntax than to that of Biblical Hebrew. IH
favors subordination by means of the subordinating particle [-ֶש] in contrast to Biblical Hebrew,
which prefers other means, such as the use of the so-called "infinitive construct." For example,
Biblical Hebrew uses a construction such as ותאֵצְּב (upon his leaving), rather than אָצָיֶשּכ (when he
left); and יאשר דיגַהְל ותוא תווַצְל rather than IH דיגַיֶש ויָלָע תווַצְל (both meaning "command him to say");
and coordinate clauses, rather than a main clause followed by a subordinate clause. In contrast to
Biblical Hebrew's use of construct forms (compounds) to express possession, e.g. ךֶלֶמה תיֵּב (the king's
house), IH (like Mishnaic Hebrew) uses analytic forms, e.g. ךֶלֶמה לֶש ותיּב ;ךֶלֶמה לֶש תִיַּבה . It also uses
the marker לֶש in fixed-adjectival expressions such as טֶרֶס לֶש יפוי (a great movie).
IH has three tenses: past, present and future. The biblical vav-conversive, the cohortative
futuretense form and the jussive (short) future tense form are not attested in post-Biblical Hebrew and are
almost nonexistent in IH (except in very formal or poetic texts). In addition, IH very rarely uses the
infinitive absolute (examples below), except in fixed expressions.
-13-In essence, the infinitive absolute became extinct as early as Mishnaic Hebrew. Both Mishnaic
Hebrew and IH prefer the infinitive prefix [-ְל], as in רֵּבַדְל, רֵּברַבְל (to talk, to blabber/to BS), over
other forms of the infinitive common in Biblical Hebrew.
(8,גי תומש) :םִיָרְצִּמִמ יִתאֵצְּב יִל הָוֹהְי הָֹשָע הֶז רוּבֲעַּב רֹמאֵל אוּהַה םוֹּיַּב ָךְנִבְל ָּתְדַּגִהְו ח
(14,בי תישארב) הָמְיָרְצִמ םָרְבַא אוֹבְּכ יִהְיַו די
דִוָּד תאַרְקִל ואְצֵּיַו רוֹֹשְּבַה לַחַנְּב םֻביִשֹּיַו דִוָד יֵרֲחַא תֶכֶּלִמ וּרְּגִּפ-רֶשֲׁא םיִשָׁנֲאָה םִיַתאָמ-לֶא דִוָד אֹבָּיַו אכ
(27,ל ,א לאומש) :םוֹלָשְׁל םֶהָל לַאְשִּיַו םָעָה-תֶא דִוָּד שַּגִּיַו וֹּתִא-רֶשֲׁא םָעָה תאַרְקִלְו
1.3 #
A copula is a word whichIn matters of word order, IH, unlike BH, prefers
subjectlinks the Hebrew subject toverb-object (SVO) order as its default and uses the copula
its predicate when no verb
(the third person subject pronoun or the demonstrative) .is used
as the link between subject and predicate more often than in previous layers of
Hebrew, as demonstrated in the following examples:
1.4 #
The word "bourgeois" is a derogatory word in ילֵאָרשיה טסקֶטנוקּב יאַנג תַלימ איה תונָגרּוּב הָלימה
the Israeli context. .(164 'מע ,"תינושלה הריזה" ,לטנזור קיבור)
Laziness is kind of something. .רָבָד ןימ הֶז תּונָלצַע
For more on the Hebrew copula, see "Linking Words in Verbless Sentences," p. 294.
1.5 #
.דומלתהו אָרקִמה יֵבתוּכ לש רֶשאֵמ רֵתוי הֵּברַה ם"במרה לש םיינושְלה םהיֵכישמַמ םֵה םינּומֱא שּוג יֵשנַא ,הֹּכ דַע
1.8 IH Lexicon
Most of the Hebrew lexicon (vocabulary) — including verbs, nouns, adjectives and
adverbs can be characterized as the combination of two elements, as follows:
Root + Morphological Pattern
The morphological pattern consists of a discontinuous, consonantal sequence and
may include prefixes and/or suffixes. The morphological pattern for verbs is
-14-referred to as a ןיָינִּב (verb pattern) and the one for nouns and adjectives is called
לָקשִמ (nominal pattern).
Many of the words in the language are thus structurally related by their common
root, which often, though not always, produces semantic (meaning) relationships.
For example, all the following words have the consonantal root ב-ש-ח in common:
1.8.1 Verbs of the Root √ב-ש-ח
computes, calculates בֵשַחְמ think -ש וא לַע בֵשוח
is considerate of -ב בֵשַחתִמ be considered as -ְּכ וא -ְל בָשחֶנI
1.8.2 Nouns and Adjectives of the Root √ב-ש-ח
consideration (n.) תּובשַחתִה thought (n.) הָבָשחַמ
calculation (n.) בוּשיח computer (n.) בֵשחַמ
arithmetic (n.) ןוּבשֶח computational (adj.) ת-/יבוּשיח
invoice (n.) תינוּבשֶח important (adj.) בוּשָח
1.8.3 New Coinage in Israeli Hebrew
The lexicon of IH (both function and content words) is built upon older Hebrew layers, plus a
modern stock, which includes old words which have acquired new meanings, calques (loan
translations) and neologisms.
In fact, IH is an amalgam of elements of former layers of the language in which all four historical
strata of the language, each with its typical characteristics, can be distinguished.
Most of the words in IH journalistic, scientific or literary texts are new words in form or meaning.
Most of the old stock of Hebrew vocabulary, as with other Semitic languages, is based on a root that
consists of a sequence of three or four consonants augmented by consonantal prefixes, vocalic
infixes and suffixes which can be both consonantal or vocalic.
In new coinages, IH creates new roots by extracting consonants from existing vocabulary. The
extracted consonants become the base (new root) for new verbs and new nouns, as in:
-15-תונְּבשַחתִה ,םע ןֵּבשַחתִהְל ,ןֵּבשַחְל << √נבשח << ןוּבשֶח ,בושחַל << √בשח
ROOT >> think, arithmetic >>NEW ROOT>>calculate>, settle accounts with, settling accounts.
1.8.3.1 From Root to Verb to Non-Verb
Root into Words
Root >
Verbs Non verbs
רוּכזִל remember ןורָּכיז memory (n.)
ריּכזַהְל remind תונורכִז memoirs (n.)
√ר-כ-ז >
רֵכָזיהְל recall תֶרֶּכזַמ souvenir (n.)
רֶכֵזְל in memoriam (adv.)
בותכִל write הָביתּכ writing (n)
בֵתָּכיהל be written בָתכִמ letter (n)
ביתכַהל dictate בּותָּכ written (adj.)
√ב-ת-כ > בַתכּוה was dictated תֶבותכִת correspondence (n.)
בֵתַּכתִהְל correspond בָתַּכ correspondent (n.)
בֵתכַשְל rewrite תויבּותּכ subtitles (n.)
תינ-/ןָבתַּכ typist (n.)
1.8.3.2 From Word to Root to Verb
New Words from the Extracted RootExtracted
Word (Non-verb) > >
New Root Verbs Non-verbs
רּותיא localization (n.)
רֵָתַא site (n.) > √ר-ת-א > רֵתַאְל locate
תירּותיא pager, beeper (n.)
-16-רֵַשפַאְל enable
רָשפֶא possible (adv.) > √ר-ש-פ-א > be made
רֵשפַאִתִהְל
possible
to locate in
םֵקַמְל םּוקימ location (n.)
space
םוקָמ place (n.) > √מ-ק-מ >
settle down in a
םֵקַמתִהְל תּומקַמתִה settling down (n.)
place
IH has a Yiddish-Slavic substrate which has contributed to the colloquial language
in a variety of ways.
In terms of structural influences, we find in IH aspectual-like distinctions that are found in the
Yiddish verb, e.g., קַתָש vs. קֵתַתשִה ("was silent" as opposed to "became silent"), דַמָע vs. דַמֱעֶנ ("stood" as
opposed to "stood up"), etc.
1.6 #
שידייה [...] .ןותיעהו רפסה לא הכרדב הפשה לש תיבה למנ איהש ,תרבודמה תירבעב רקיעבו ,תירבעב תובקע הריאשה שידייה
.לוזלז לש המינ ןהל ףיסוהל ידכ תוירבע םילימל ףסונה " ...מש" חיתפה לש רוקמה איה
שידייב םילימ שי [...] ."לאדימש-ובא-לאדינ-ובא ,םולמש-םולש"" ," םומש-םוא" ומכ לוזלז תמינל שמיש אוה םיטלוב םירקמב
תירבעה לא הרזח הזה שובלבו שידיאב אתפלכל הכפה תימראה (הבלכ) אתבלכה .(תימראה וא) תירבעהמ הילא ועיגהש
.תילארשיה
"-ֶש" ב התליחתש הלאשה תרוצ םג [...] .שידייה ןמ הילא ועיגה ןה םג תירבעה ירבוד לע תוביבחה — קינו קי'צ — תומויסה
.(37 'מע ,"תינושלה הריזה" ,לטנזור) רכה ילבל הב החרזאתהו שידייה ןמ תירבעל העיגה — "הפק סוכ ךל ןתאש"ב ומכ
1.9 What Do Israelis Think of their Language?
In the article below, Yoram Bronowski discusses the unpopularity of the Bible
among younger Israelis and the reasons for it. He maintains that, strangely enough,
the main culprit is the language — Hebrew. While earlier generations were attracted
to the Bible because of the elegance and precision of its classical Hebrew, the current
generation is deterred from readig the Bible precisely because of its language.
-17-1.9.1 יקסבונרב םרוי ,"לארשיב ך"נתה לש ובצמ לע"
,רעונה ברקב העיתר ררועמה רפס אוה ך"נתהש אוה םויכ וּנתוּברתב םירפסה-רפס לש ומוקמו לארשיב ך"נתה לש ובצמ
ריכהל רוּמא אוהש ,ך”נתה ןושל איה הייעבה ,עצוּממה ילארשיה ארוקל .רגובה יללכה ליכשמה ידי לע ארקנ וניא יאדוובו
— םימדוקה תורודה ןב ארוקה ליבשב ארקמה לש ירקיעה ומסיק היהש המ ילמס ןפואב .ירמגל ונממ הקוחר איה ךא ,התוא
.רפסל ץעורל התע איה - םייטסילאירה-םייטויפה היקוידבו הרוּדיהב האלפוּמה תיסאלקה תירבעה
ןושלל לכותש ידכמ הלד התוּללכבו ,והשמ תיפרומאה תינושלה העפותה — תיוושכעה תירבעל ארקמה ירפס לש םוּגרת
הכיזש המ .שרדמ וא םוגרת ןיעמ .הידוראפכ תואריהל בייח ןיידע הזכ םוגרת לכ ןכש ,ירשפא-יתלב עצבמ אוה — ארקמה
שרדמ רצי ןנוחמה רפוסה .ולש ריאמ לש "ושכע ך"נת" רפסה היה רושעכ ינפל תימואתפ תויראלופופב ך"נתה תא הרואכל
.םויכ ונתוא ךושמל ך"נתה לוכי הבש הדיחיה הרוצה תאזש היה המדנו ,ארקמה לש ידוראפ
ןמ — םימכח ןושלו ארקמ ןושל ,תונושלה יתש ןיב תעדוּמ-אל-טעמכה הריחבה תעשב — סונמ היה אל יללכ ןפואב ,ןכא
.(ןוירוּג ןב תא ךכ לכ עיתרהש ,"יתוּלגה") ידוּמלתה ןוּויכב הריחבה
,םגדה היה (המצע ןושלה ןמ רתוי) םימכח ןושל לש הנוּויכ .וללכב ברעמה רבעלו ,תימורהו תינוויה רבעל ,הצוחה ןוּויכה היה הז
השוּריב ואבש העבהה יעצמא הבש" הפש ,תילארשיה תירבעבש תידוסי הילמונא התוא הנושארל העצבתה םימכח-ןושלבש ינפמ
התליחתב התיה תאזה תילאירוגטקה תכרעמה (ןזור) "תיאפוריא תוירוגטק-תכרעמ םישגהל ושקבתה (םיימש ,םיירבע םהו)
.הרוהט-אל תיסקאס-ולגנא איה םויכו תינוטווט-ובאלס
הרוּצה" ,ינשלב-יפוסוליפה ,ינמרגה גשומל ןזור [םייח ןשלבה] קקזנ תילארשיה תירבעה סיסבבש סקודראפה תרבסה םשל
-תיפוריא איה תילארשיה תירבעה לש "תימינפה הרוּצה" .ןושלה לש יתוּברתה ןכותל ךרעב הנווכהשכ ,ןושלה לש "תימינפה
היהש ךבסוּתמה סחיה תא המ-תדימב ריבסמ הזה סקודרפה .תומוּדק תוימש תופש לש םינייפאמ שי הלש תוּינוציחב ,תיברעמ
תוארנ תוינוציחה היתורוּצ דועב ,תנבוּמ אלו הקוחר איה "תימינפה התרוּצ"ש הריצי ,ארקמל תילארשיה תוּברתב דימת םייק
.תונבוּמו תובורקכ
תוּויעב ארוקלו דימלתל עצוּה אוה ,תשדחתמה תירבעה תוּברתהו תוּנויצה לש התוואג-שארב היה ארקמהש םינמזב םג םנמואו
.םיטסקטה לש תוּיטוזקאהו תורזה תושגדה ילב רכינ
ןוגכ) תינוציחה הרוּצה ,סקודרפה הברמל .תילארשיה תירבעה לש וזמ ירמגל הנוש "תימינפה התרוּצ"ש הפשב בוּתכ [...] ך"נתה
ןיבמ וניאו ,ןיבהל לוכי אוהש ול המדנ :דימתמ עוּתעת ינפל דמוע ילארשיה ארוקהש ךכ ,ידמל בורק איה (ןמצעשכל םילימה
םינוש םינוירוטסהש הירוגטקל ךיישל ןתינ ,ך"נתל ןוירוּג-ןב לש וסחי תא טרפבו ,ך"נתל יסאלקה ינויצה סחיה תא .תמאב
תדובעל הלגלגתה — שדחה ירבעל וילאמ ןבוּמה רפסכו "יטילופ טדנמ" ך"נתב האורה הדמעה .תרוסמ תאצמא" הל םיארוק
אליממו ,"יתד רפס" וב האורה ,ינוליחה רוּביצב ארקמה לש ונרק תדיריל תיארחאה איה רחא דצמו ,םינוּמא שוּג חסונ םילילאה
.רעבנה-בהלנה ינוירוּג-ןבה סחיב ארקמה לש ותליה תדירי תישאר תא הלות יתייהש ךכ .רקיעב ,הז ללגב ותוא החוד
-18-ךכ רחא .ןוירוּג-ןב תפוּקת לש האישב רבכ עיפוה ,תבייחמה תימוּאלה הסריגה ,ארקמה לש "תינוירוּג-ןבה הסריג"ל געלה
.םויכ ך"נתה יוּצמ ובש הגרדמה לפשל דע תוּרדרדיהה הליחתה
תביש" ,יטסיביטקלוקה סותאה תחינז ,"השדחה הירוטסיהה" תדלוּה ,ינויצה רֵּפיסב קפסה תלטה ,תוּנויצה יכרע לש םתוּשלחיה
הדוּהאה היגולואידיא לש אקווד ואלו ,יגולואידיא טסקטל בשחיהל לחהש ,ארקמל סחיב רישי יוּטיב ואצמ הלא לכ — "הלוגה
,הקוחר ,השק :האלפוּמ תוּרפיס-תריציכ הזה רפסה תא גיצהל ,המוּדמכ ,םלועמ ועדי אל ונלש םיכנחמה .ונלש היצנגילטניאה לע
.(1999 ץרמל 19 ,ץראה ,יקסבונרב םרוי) אילפהל תמסוק ךא ,הרז
1.9.2 הדוהי ןב הביתנ ,"תירבעה תרטשמ תיב לכ לעו !ךילע תקחוצ ינא"
In the following text entitled "You and the Gatekeepers of Hebrew Make Me
Laugh," Netiva Ben-Yehuda pokes fun at one of the numerous purist gatekeepers of
Hebrew. The text is quite old, yet still valid.
1.7 #
תקחוצ המ לע" :וזה תרתוכה תחת הבתכ "םילימ ,םילימ" ולש רודמב דבוּכמה קזייא םייח בתכ רבעש עוּבשהמ "עוּבשה רבד"ב
"?הביתנ
אוּה — הֶלאניפַל ינַעַי — םוּיסבש ןוויכמ לבא .חטב .תקחוצ ינא המ לע עדוי אוּה ירה ?תונעל שי המ ,ול הנוע יתייה אל ינא
:הבוּשת ילב רשפא יא זא .םוּקע ילש ןויגיההש רמוא
!תירבעה תרטשמ תיב לכ לעו !ךילע תקחוצ ינא
עירפמ הזו .תושדחה תא קר .תושדחה לש תירבעה תא עומשל םיצור אל וּנחנא — תושדחה תא עומשל םיצור ללכ-ךרדב וּנחנא
םה םא וּליפא ,"רוניכל וטר'צנוחו" וא ,"האירכִבו הביתכִּב" םירמואו ,עגר לכ םיעוט םיניירקה םא "ףצר"ב םש שי המ סופתל וּנל
אל םהלש םינוּקיתהו ,רסמה תא טולקל ונל תועירפמו חומה תא םיניירקל תולבלבמ ,תויטוידיא הלאה תודפקהה ,ףכית םינקתמ
.ונתוא םיניינעמ
ינא .(בתוכ התאש ומכ) "ישפנ תאוּנש" אל איה ,תינקיתה תירבעהש ,ספת אל םג אוּה .השע רשיה ךלש ןויגיההש ,הָלשָפ דוע שי
םגרתל ךירצש תבשוח אל תמאב-תמאב ינאו ך'נתה תא אורקל ,לשמל ,תבהוא ינאו ,םוקמב איהשכ ,התוא תבהוא ןכ אקווד
חתפתהל הפשה לש םידברל םינתונ אלש ,ךומכ םישנא לע ?תקעוצ ןכ ינא המ לע ,תאז-לכב זא."תישָשָג תירבע"ל ,רַמאֹנ ,ותוא
לש םילודג םינהוכ ןימ הזיא ,םיניס םינירָדנַמ ןימ הזיא םתייהנש ,תירבעה תרטשמ לש םיחוּשקה םירמושה לע ,יעבט ןפואב
םילוכי םתאש ,םירירש םכל שיש בצמ רצונו ,דיב םכלצא הלש םיללכהו םיקוּחה לכש ,הב םיטלוש םתא קרש 'השודקה הפשה
,הז קיחצמ יכהו (?םיעדוי ןכ וּנחנא הפש הזיא אלא) ונלש הפשה תא "םיעדוי אל" וּנחנא וּליאכש ,המשא תושגרה וּנלוּכל סינכהל
.םואתפ המ ?רבדל לבא ,םילוכי םתא תאזכ תירבע אירקהל .םכלש םיקוּחה יפל םירבדמ אל םג — םכמצעב םתאש
-19-,םירמואו , םירבדמו ,םיעמושו ,םיארוקו ,םיבתוכ — ראשה לכו ,ץראה לכב 100 הזיאמ רתוי אל חטב ללכ-ךרדב םתאו
לש םיגוּס ינימ לכב ,הפה תא םילבנמ ,םיברו ,םיניידתמו ,םירשו ,םידיפסמו ,םימאונ ,םיחדבתמו ,םיחכוותמו ,םיחחושמו
תודוּמצ םהלש םייניעהשכ קרו ,הב רבדל םילוכי םיניירק קרש ,םכלש תירבעב אל קר — תותירבע לש יפויו — תירבע
.טסקטל
,שדח קוּדקד וּנל וּרבחי הלאשו ,םידמוּלמ וּבישוי ,ףסכ וּמישיש ,וּהשימ וא ,הימדקאה וא ,ךוּניחה דרשמש .המידק הללאי זא
ינפל זא "?הרקי םעפ בוּש הז םינש המכ דועב םא המו" :לאושש ,וּהשימ שי חטב ירה ןאכו .וּנילא בורק רתוי השקבב היהישו
הזו םלועב הפש לכל "הרוק" הז םעפ דוע ליגרת ותוא תא וּשעי םינש המכ דועב זא :הנוע רבכ ינא ,תכרעמל בתכמ חלוש אוּהש
"ונצרא"ב "תשדחתמ"ו "השודק"ו "תינויצ"ו "תימוּאל" ארונ הפש איה תירבעהש יפ לע ףא — וּארת ,תירבעל םג "הרקי"
.היהי המ .ארונ שממ .הב םישמתשמש הפש לש לרוגה הז .םלועב תופשה לכל הרוקש המ הל הרקי תאז-לכב — ,לכהו ,"ונלש"ו
ןב הביתנ) [...] .הז תא םירמוא וּנחנאש ךיאב אלו םירמוא וּנחנאש המב קר דוּחיי שפחל ליחתנ ילוּא זא .דוּחיי םוּש וּנל היהי אל
.(עודי אל רוקמ ,הדוהי
Further reading:
Robert Alter, Hebrew & Modernity (chapter 3).
Benjamin Harshav, Language in a Time of Revolution.
Ron Kuzar, Hebrew and Zionism.
Haiim Rosen, Contemporary Hebrew.
-20-2.0 Agreement
What is Agreement?
Agreement refers to a formal relationship between elements, whereby a form of one
word requires a corresponding form of another.
(http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAgreement.htm)
One of the main differences between English and Hebrew is the central role of
gender in all levels and facets of Hebrew. Indeed, the interplay of gender (masculine
and feminine) and number (singular or plural) dictates agreement between
adjectives and their nouns, between verbs and their subjects, and between pronouns
and their referents.
2.1 Agreement of Adjectives and Nouns
Adjectives agree in gender and number with their nouns.
2.1.1 Noun-Adjective Agreement with Animate Nouns
2.1 #
(a) charming kid .םיסקַמ דֶלֶי (a) sweet boy קותָמ דֶלֶי
charming kids .םימיסקַמ םידָלְי (a) sweet girl הָקוּתְמ הָדלַי
(a) stupid girl .תֶמֶטמוּטְמ הָדלַי The boy is sweet. .קותָמ דֶלֶיה
stupid girls .תומָטמוּטְמ תודָלְי The girl is sweet. .הָקוּתְמ הָדלַיה
2.1.2 Noun-Adjective Agreement with Inanimate Nouns
2.2 #
.הָבָחְר הָכָרדִמה (a) red flower םודָא חַרֶּפ
The sidewalk(s) is/are wide.
.תובָחְר תוכָרדִמה red flowers םימוּדֲא םיחָרּפ
.ךורָא ןָחלוּשה (a) hard/difficult year הָשָק הָנָש
The table(s) is/are long.
.םיּכורֲא תונָחלוּשה hard/difficult years תושָק םינָש
.ןיֵינַעְמ רֶפֵסַה (an) interesting city תֶניֶינַעְמ ריע
The book(s) is/are interesting.
.םיניְינַעְמ םירָפֵסַה interesting cities תונְינַעְמ םירָע
(a) good idea בוט ןויעַר
good idea(s) םיבוט תונויעַר
-21-2.2 Subject-Verb Agreement
In the present tense, verbs must agree with their subject in gender. In other tenses,
they must agree in gender, number and person.
2.2.1 Agreement between Present-Tense Verbs and their Subjects
2.3 #
Noma (f.) writes The boy is asleep/is הָטימַּב ןֵשָי דֶלֶיה
.םידָלְי יֵרפִס תֶבֶתוּכ הָמונ
children's books. sleeping in the small bed. .הָנַטקה
Dan and Dina live דָי לַע םירָג הָנידְו ןָד
Varda (f.) studies Arabic. .תיבָרֲע תֶדֶמול הָדרַו
near my sister. .יתוחֲא
We go every year on הָנָש לֹּכ םיעסונ ּונחַנַא Arik (m.) sells pickles in םיצוּמֲח רֵכומ קירָא
vacation to Alaska. .הָקסַלֲאּב הָשפּוחל the Carmel market. .לֶמרַּכה קוּשב
2.2.2 Agreement between Past and Future-Tense Verbs and their Subjects
2.4 #
Natan (m.) fell asleep very late last night. .רָחּואְמ אָרונ לומתֶא םַדרִנ ןַַתָנ
Noma (f.) has already written four books. .םירָפס הָעּברַא רָבּכ הָבתָּכ הָמונ
Varda (f.) studied Arabic in high school. .ןוכיתַב תיבָרֲע הָדמָל הָדרַו
Arik (m.) will sell pickles in the Carmel market. .לֶמרַּכה קוּשב םיצוּמֲח רוּכמִי קירָא
Ilana and Naftali will live near my sister. .יתוחֲא דָי לַע ּורּוגָי ילָתפַנְו הָנָליא
Last year we travelled to Alaska. .הָקסַלֲאל ונעָסָנ ּונחַנַא הָרבָעֶש הָנָשַּב
-22-2.3 Texts Illustrating Agreement of Nouns and their Modifiers
2.3.1 ?"ידוהי אוה ימ"
תייגוסב השדח הכלה עובקל ןתרטמש תוריתע יתשב ץ"גב יטפוש 11 לש בכרה רקובה עירכי ,םינויד תונש שמח רחא
רויגב ורייגתהש לארשיבםייערא םיבשות לע תובשה קוח תא ליחהל םאה עירכהל שקבתה טפשמה תיב ."ידוהי והימ"
.ל"וחב יוויטוורסנוק וא ימרופר
זכרמב .תובשה קוחבש םינוירטירקה יפל "ידוהי והימ" תייגוסב ותדמע תא עובקל טפשמה תיב שרדיי הערכה ךרוצל
תיחכונה תוינידמה תא וניד קספב לטבי ץ"גבש םיווקמ ,1999-ב ותועצמאב ושגוה תוריתעהש ,ידוהי םזילרולפל
.תונברה ידי לע םירכומ אלש םירויגב תובשה קוח ךרוצל הרכה ןיא היפלש
,"ינמז" סוטטסב םינש המכ לארשיב וררוגתהש רחאלש ,ןוישירב םירז םידבועו םיריית םה םירתועה 17
רויגב םקלח - הניטנגראבו הינטירבב רויגל ןיד יתבב םתוא ומייס ךא ,לארשיב רויגה יכילהב ולחה םה .רייגתהל ושקיב
השרדנ ל"וחב ךילהה תמלשה ."םדקתמ" יסקודותרוא רויגב םקלחו יוויטוורסנוק רויגב םקלח ,ימרופר
.תובשה קוח יכרוצל לארשיב השענש יסקודותרוא אל רויגב ריכמ ונניא ילארשיה ןידה תיב םויכש ןוויכמ
.םתשקב תא החד םינפה דרשמ ךא ,ל"וחב ורייגתהש הנעטב ,תובשה קוח יפלשדח הלוע תויוכז לבקל ושקיב םירייגתמה
הנעט ךכיפל) .לארשיב ושענ וליאכ םתוארל שי תיתוהמ הניחבמשו "הציפק ירויג"ב רבודמ יכ התיה הנידמה תדמע
(.םילועכ תואכזל םיאכז םניא םירכומ-אלה םירויגב םירייגתמה יכ ,הנידמה
שי ,ותדמע יפ לע .םירויגה יגוס ןיב הָלפמ איהש ןוויכמ ודרשמ תוינידמל דגנתמ אוה יכ םינפה רש עידוה הנש יצחכ ינפל
ריכהל המיכסמ הנידמה ,םלואו .תוחרזאה קוח יפ לע דמעמ תלבק יכרוצל יוויטוורסנוק וא ימרופר רויגב םג ריכהל
.דרפנב ותדמע תא שיגהל ץ"גבמ שקיב ךכיפל .ךכ םשל יסקודותרוא רויגב קר
וכרענש םינוש םירויג יגוס ןיב תולפהל ןיא תובשה קוח יפלשדח הלוע תויוכז תלבק ןיינעל יכ ץ"גב עבק 1989-ב
קוח יכרוצל רויגב הרכהה תלאש ןיב דירפהל שי היפלש ,השדח תיטפשמ הכלהב ץ"גב עבק [...] 2002-ב .ל"וחב
עבק-יבשותו םיחרזא ויה םירתועה .ןיסולכואה םשרמב "ידוהי"כ םושיר יכרוצל רויגב הרכה ןיבל תובשה
טפשמה תיב .םידוהיכ וב םשריהל ושקיבש ,ןיסולכואה םשרמב םימושרה
קספ ,םלואו .ןיסולכואה םשרמב ידוהיכ םושיר יכרוצל ףקת — ל"וחב ןיבו לארשיב ןיב ,םימרזהמ דחא לכב ,רויג לכ יכ עבק
.םשרמב הליחתכלמ םושר ונניאש ימל רזוע ונניא הז ןיד
תויוכז תלבק ןיינעל םג לארשיב םיכרענה םינוש םירויג ןיב הילפהה רוסיא ןורקיע תא ביחרהלמ הכ דע ענמנ ץ"גב
תוגלפמהו ינברה דסמימה דצמהפירח הבוגתל היופצ וזכ הבחרה .עבק בשות וא שדח הלוע
.(עודי אל ךיראת ,ץראה) לארשיב תוידרחהו תויתדה
-23-2.3.2 רומ ירוא ,"הגיהנו םישנ לע"
,םעז דימ ררועמ "השדח תגהנ" טלשה .שיבכה לע םישנל םירבג ןיב הקולחה תטלובו הקזח המכ םיהדמ
םיגהנ ומכ ,תאזה תכרעמב טועימ תצובקכ תושפתנ םישנ .ליפשמו אשנתמ סחימ וז הניחבמ םילבוס םישנה-םיגהנהו
םישדחםירגובמ םיגהנ ומכו ,(ד”מלב םינמוסמה) םידמלתמ המכו המכ תחא לעו (”שדח גהנ”ב םינמוסמה)
תודרטסוטוא הצוחה ,השיגפל תרהממה ,תפטושה תירבגה העונתל תועירפמ ,יתאשילק המכ ,הלאה תוצובקה .דחוימב
שיבכל רחא ןמז תוסינכמ ןה ,תובכעמ ןה .ןמצעב תירבגה האשילקה תומלגתה ןהש ,תוינוכמל תומוסרפב ומכ
ירטס-דחהו ריהמה ירבגהללכ ךרדב יכ םא - טאל םיעסונש םירבג םג שי .טלחומ ךכ לכ דימת אלהזש ןבומ .
רבגש המ לכ תושועש .רופצל תוברמש .העונתב בלתשהל תועדויש .בטיה תוגהונש םישנ םג שיו -שידאו חטוב ןפואב
.בוטו .גוהנל עדוי יסופיטה רבגהו ,רבג אוה יוויטמיטלואה גהנה .תואיצמ לכמ קזח יומידה לבא .השוע
תויחל ןתוא הליגרה הירוטסיהה ?ןמצעבתוחוטב ןניא ןעבטמםישנ ?םירישכמ םעתובוט תוחפםישנ ?ךכל הביסה המ
.ממממה ?היצנגילטניא לש הנוש גוס ןהל שי ?םילתכ ןיב
םיפקועו תונחל תוסנמ ןהשכ ןהל םיפצפצמ םא .שיבכה לע אשנתמו ליפשמ סחיל תוכוז ןה םא בוט תוחפ תוגהונ םישנ
םירקמב .”תעסונ איה ךיא הארת ,יחא ,תגהנ חוטב תאז” ןתביבסב םיריטפמו ההובג אל תוריהמב תועסונ ןהשכ ןתוא
הלאכתכפוה האשילקה .ןוחטיב רסוחל תורבטצמ ,תורחא תובר דוע חטבו ,הלעמל יתרכזהש תואשילקה לכ
תמאב ינאש הארנכ .בוט ךכ לכ תגהונ אל תמאב ינאש הארנכ - תואיצמה לע טלתשמ יומידה זאו ,תיממו יח והשמל
.םלוכל לק רתוי היהי הככ ,גהנא אל ללכב ינא ילוא .העונתל העירפמ ינא .הככ יתדלונ
הנשמ אל וא ,םירישכמ םע תובוט תוחפ ןהש וא בוט תוחפ תוגהונ ןהש ןהל םירמוא םימעפ קיפסמ םא בוט תוחפ תוגהונ םישנ
.(עודי אל ךיראת ,רומ ירוא ,ץראה) ןהילע עיפשהל הזל תונתונ אל טושפ ןה םא בוט תוגהונ םישנו .המ
2.4 Texts Illustrating Subject-Verb Agreement
2.4.1 הליש המונ ,"ילש ךאלמה"
.ךאלמ תויהל הָצור ינא :יתעדי ףכית ,םירופב שפחתהל הָצור ינא המל יתוא הלאש ילש אמאשכ
?רתוי החונ תשופחת ירחבת ילוא .םייפנכה םע רדתסהל חונ אל דואמ ךל היהי ,אמא הלאש ,ךאלמ םואתפ המ —
וליפאו דיחיה ךאלמה יתייה רפסה תיבב םירופ תגיגחבו ,דואמ הפי התיה יל הרפת אמאש ךאלמה תשופחת .יתמכסה אל
.סרפב יתיכז
-24-יתלפנו רוחאמ הקזחב יתוא ךשומ והשימש יתשגרה םואתפ ,ילש הרבחה ,לגיס םע התיבה יתרזח ,הגיגחה הרמגנשכ
הרמאו םוקל יל הרזע לגיס .ולש םיידיב ילש םייפנכהו ,הרדשה רבעל ץר דלי יתיארו רוחאל יתבבותסה .הכרדמה לע
.רהמ ארונ ץר אוה ,וירחא ףודרל םעט ןיא ,ימת :בצעב
.ער חור-בצמ םעו םיפנכה ילב התיבה יתעגה
.יכבב אמאל יתרמא ,הפי התיה תשופחתהש המכ וארי אתבסו אבאש ידכ םלטצהל יתקפסה אל וליפא
.הייראל התוא ךופהלו הרבעש הנשמ לותחה תשופחת תא תוריהמב תונשל העיצהו יתוא םחנל התסינ אמא
.(7-8 'מע ,"ילש ךאלמה" ,הליש המונ) תוכבלמ ץוח ,םולכ יתיצר אל רבכ ינא לבא
2.4.2 "תונויצה לע"
יפ לע .המצע תא הָאור איה וזככו ,ידוהיה םעה לש ימואלה רורחישה-תעונת לאכ תינויצה העונתה לא סחייתהל םיגהונ
התאר דימת אל םלוא .תולג תונש םייפלא רחאל וצראל ידוהיה םעה לש "ותביש" תא תונויצה תאטבמ הז יומיד
תינויצה העונתהםלועה תמחלמ ירחאו ,דימת הזב ולגד םיטסילאיצוסה םימרזה קר .ימואל רורחיש תעונתכ המצע תא
.התוללכב תינויצה העונתה ,היינשה
םויקה רבשמו תרבוגה הקוצמה עקר לעו תינרדומה תוימשיטנאה לש התיילע עקר לעהחמצ תינויצה העונתה ןכאו
תיאמצע תידוהי תוּשי לש התמקהו הפוריאמ םידוהיה לש םתאיציב ואר תונויצה יגוה .הפוריא חרזמ ידוהי לש ילכלכה
האמב רקיעבו הרשע-העשתה האמה יהלשב הלחהש ,תובשייתהה תלועפ .וז הקוּצמ לש הנורתפל ךרדה תא ץראב
תועונתה ושבגתהש רחאל םינש תורשע המכ המקש תונויצה .ימואל רורחישל יוטיבכ השפתנ ,םירשעה
תוימואלהוכז םירחא םימעו םינמרגה ,םיקלטיאהש םשכ :הליבקמ העונתכ המצע תא התאר ,הפוריאב
וקבאנ ואץראב תשדוּחמה םתואמצע תגשהל םידוהיה םיקבאנ םג ךכ ,תימואלה םתודחא וא/ו םתואמצע תגשהל
.לארשי ץרא — םצראכ ואר התואש
לש םתריגה תא גיצהל ןויסינ לכ ,תיטסילאיצוסה תונויצה לש היגיצנ טרפבו ,םינויצ םינשרפו םיגוה וחד הז עקר לע
.(עודי אל רוקמ) .םזילאינולוקכ לארשי ץראל םידוהיה
-25-