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The Military and Denied Development in the Pakistani Punjab


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An analysis of retrogressive agrarian interventions carried out by Pakistan’s military in rural Punjab and the social resentment and resistance it has initiated.

This book focuses on the retrogressive agrarian interventions by the Pakistani military in rural Punjab and explores the social resentment and resistance it triggered, potentially undermining the consensus on a security state in Pakistan. Set against the overbearing and socially unjust role of the military in Pakistan’s economy, this book documents a breakdown in the accepted function of the military beyond its constitutionally mandated role of defence. Accompanying earlier work on military involvement in industry, commerce, finance and real estate, the authors’ research contributes to a wider understanding of military intervention, revealing its hand in various sectors of the economy and, consequently, its gains in power and economic autonomy.

Preface; 1. The Military and Economic Development; 2. Punjab’s State–Society Consensus on the Military’s Dominance and Economic Role; 3. Research Design, Method, Institutional Issues and Scope of the Military’s Land Acquisitions; 4. The Military’s Agrarian Land Acquisitions: High Handedness and Social Resentment; 5. From Social Resentment to Social Resistance; 6. Bahria Town: A Military-Related Real Estate Venture; 7. The Military as Landlord in the Pakistani Punjab: Case Study of the Okara Farms; 8. Guardians No More? The Breakdown of the Consensus; Glossary; Index



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Published 01 November 2014
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EAN13 9781783082988
Language English
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The Military and Denied Development in the Pakistani Punjab
Anthem Frontiers of Global Political Economy
TheAnthem Frontiers of Global Political Economyseries seeks to trigger and attract new thinking in global political economy, with particular reference to the prospects of emerging markets and developing countries. Written by renowned scholars from different parts of the world, books in this series provide historical, analytical and empirical perspectives on national economic strategies and processes, the implications of global and regional economic integration, the changing nature of the development project, and the diverse globaltolocal forces that drive change. Scholars featured in the series extend earlier economic insights to provide fresh interpretations that allow new understandings of contemporary economic processes.
Series Editors Kevin Gallagher – Boston University, USA Jayati Ghosh – Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
Editorial Board Stephanie Blankenburg – School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), UK HaJoon Chang – University of Cambridge, UK WanWen Chu – RCHSS, Academia Sinica, Taiwan Léonce Ndikumana – University of MassachusettsAmherst, USA Alica Puyana Mutis – Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLASCOMéxico), Mexico Matías Vernengo – Banco Central de la República Argentina, Argentina Robert Wade – London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), UK Yu Yongding – Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), China
The Military and Denied Development in the Pakistani Punjab
An Eroding Social Consensus
Shahrukh Rafi Khan and Aasim Sajjad Akhtar with Sohaib Bodla
Anthem Press An imprint of Wimbledon Publishing Company www.anthempress.com
This edition first published in UK and USA 2014 by ANTHEM PRESS 75–76 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8HA, UK or PO Box 9779, London SW19 7ZG, UK and 244 Madison Ave #116, New York, NY 10016, USA
Copyright © 2014 Shahrukh Rafi Khan, Aasim Sajjad Akhtar, Sohaib Bodla
The moral right of the authors has been asserted.
All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book.
British Library CataloguinginPublication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data A catalog record for this book has been requested.
ISBN13: 978 1 78308 289 6 (Hbk) ISBN10: 1 78308 289 5 (Hbk)
Cover image: Alexander Mak/Shutterstock.com and Iryna Rasko/Shutterstock.com
This title is also available as an ebook.
Dedicated to Eqbal Ahmad, inspiring activist and scholar
Chapter One
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four
Chapter Five
Chapter Six
Chapter Seven
Chapter Eight
The Military and Economic Development in Pakistan
PunjabsStateSocietyConsensusontheMilitarysDominance and Economic Role
ResearchDesign,Method,InstitutionalIssuesand Scope of the Military’s Land Acquisitions
ix xi xiii
TheMilitarysAgrarianLandAcquisitions:High Handedness and Social Resentment 65 From Social Resentment to Social Resistance 83 Bahria Town: A MilitaryRelated Real Estate Venture 95
TheMilitaryasLandlordinthePakistaniPunjab:Case Study of the Okara Farms
Guardians No More? The Breakdown of the Consensus
137 141
We would like to acknowledge the Eqbal Ahmad Foundation for generously providing funds for field research. We have dedicated this book to EqbalAhmad, because not only was he an excellent speaker, he was an equally great listener. He had the gift of making people he listened to feel special, as he heard everything they said. In that spirit, we listened to many individuals who provided material for this book. The nature of this book precludes us from listing them here, but it is they who wrote the book via their individualinterviews or participation in group discussions. We would also like to thank Zia Main, both as Vice President of the Eqbal Ahmad Foundation and for substantively and helpfully engaging with us. A fellowship from Amherst College, which facilitated the writing, and research grants from Mount Holyoke College are also gratefully acknowledged. It has been a pleasure working with Miranda Kitchener, whose efficiency we would like to acknowledge, as well as Suzanne Sherman Aboulfadl, who has worked with us on several books and has consistently done excellent work. Finally, thanks are due to Rudmila Salek for excellent and invaluable formatting assistance.