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Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming

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An exposé on how the tobacco industry uses myths around tobacco farming to dissuade countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption.


The bulk of the world’s tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims that tobacco farmers will be negatively affected and that no viable, sustainable alternatives exist. This book, based on original research from three continents, exposes the myths behind these claims.


Foreword by Ahmed Ogwell; Preface: Wardie Leppan and Natacha Lecours; Introduction: Separating Myth from Reality by Wardie Leppan, Natacha Lecours and Daniel Buckles; Section 1: The Determinants of Tobacco Leaf Demand; Chapter 1: Determinants and Likely Evolution of Global Tobacco Leaf Demandby Jad Chaaban; Chapter 2: Tobacco Leaf Farming in Lebanon: Why Marginalized Farmers Need a Better Option by Kanj Hamade; Chapter 3: ‘Gentlemen, Why Not Suppress the Prices?’: Global Leaf Companies Suppress Rural Livelihoods in Malawi by Marty Otañez and Laura Graen; Section 2: Farming Conditions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries; Chapter 4: The Harsh Realities of Tobacco Farming in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A review of the Socioeconomic, Health and Environmental Impacts by Natacha Lecours; Section 3: Economically Sustainable Alternatives to Tobacco; Chapter 5: Breaking the Dependency on Tobacco Production: Transition Strategies for Bangladesh by Farida Akhter, Daniel Buckles and Rafiqul Haque Tito; Chapter 6: Substituting Bamboo for Tobacco in South Nyanza Region, Kenya by Jacob K. Kibwage, Godfrey W. Netondo and Peter O. Magati; Chapter 7: Diversification Strategies for Tobacco Farmers: Lessons from Brazil by Guilherme Eidt Gonçalves de Almeida; Section 4: Conclusions: Reframing the Debate on Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming by Daniel Buckles, Natacha Lecours and Wardie Leppan

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Published 15 September 2014
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EAN13 9781783082940
Language English
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Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming
Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming
Separating Myth from Reality
Edited by Wardie Leppan, Natacha Lecours and Daniel Buckles
International Development Research Centre Ottawa • Caîro • Montevîdeo • Naîrobî • New Dehî
Anthem Press An imprint of Wimbledon Publishing Company www.anthempress.com
This edition first published in UK and USA 2014 by ANTHEM PRESS 75–76 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8HA, UK or PO Box 9779, London SW19 7ZG, UK and 244 Madîson ฀ve #116, New York, NY 10016, US฀
A copublication with Internatîona Deveopment Research Centre PO Box 8500 Ottawa, ON K1G 3H9 Canada www.idrc.ca / info@idrc.ca ISBN 9781552505823 (IDRC ebook)
Copyrîght © Internatîona Deveopment Research Centre 2014
The moral right of the authors has been asserted.
฀ rîghts reserved. Wîthout îmîtîng the rîghts under copyrîght reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or introduced into a retrîeva system, or transmîtted, în any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.
British Library CataloguinginPublication Data ฀ cataogue record for thîs book îs avaîabe from the Brîtîsh Lîbrary.
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Tobacco control and tobacco farming : separating myth from reality / edited by Wardie Leppan, Natacha Lecours, and Daniel Buckles. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 9781783082933 – ISBN 1783082933 1. Tobacco–Government poîcy–Case studîes. 2. Crop dîversîicatîon–Case studîes. 3. ฀grîcutura dîversîicatîon–Case studîes. I. Leppan, Wardîe, edîtor. II. Lecours, Natacha, editor. III. Buckles, Daniel, 1955– , editor. [DNLM: 1. Tobacco Industry–economics. 2. Tobacco. 3. Agriculture–economics. 4. Internatîonaîty. 5. Pubîc Poîcy. 6. Tobacco Use–preventîon & contro. HD 9130.6] HD9130.6.T63 2014 338.1’7371–dc23 2014029204
Cover îmage courtesy of Sandy Campbe, IDRC.
ISBN13: 978 1 78308 293 3 (Hbk) ISBN10: 1 78308 293 3 (Hbk)
Thîs tîte îs aso avaîabe as an ebook.
C
O
N
List of Figures, Tables and PhotographsForewordPreface
TEN
TS
Introduction: Separating Myth from Reality Wardie Leppan, Natacha Lecours and Daniel Buckles
Section One Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Section Two
Chapter 4
vîî xiii xv
1
The Determinants of Tobacco Leaf Demand 11 Determînants and Lîkey Evoutîonof Global Tobacco Leaf Demand 13 Jad Chaaban Tobacco Leaf Farming in Lebanon: Why Marginalized Farmers Need a Better Option 29 Kanj Hamade
“Gentlemen, Why Not Suppress the Prices?”: Global Leaf Demand and Rural Lîveîhoods în Maawî Marty Otañez and Laura Graen
TobaccoFarming Conditions in Low and MiddleIncome Countries
The Harsh Realities of Tobacco Farming: ฀ Revîew of Socîoeconomîc, Heathand Envîronmenta Impacts Natacha Lecours
61
97
99
TOBACCO CONTROL AND TOBACCO FARMING
Section Three
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Economically Sustainable Alternatives to Tobacco
Breaking the Dependency on Tobacco Production: Transition Strategies for Bangladesh Farida Akhter, Daniel Buckles and Rafiqul Haque Tito
Substituting Bamboo for Tobacco in South Nyanza Region, Kenya Jacob K. Kibwage, Godfrey W. Netondo and Peter O. Magati
Dîversîicatîon Strategîes for Tobacco Farmers:Lessons from Brazil Guilherme Eidt Gonçalves de Almeida
Conclusion: Reframing the Debate on Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming Daniel Buckles, Natacha Lecours and Wardie Leppan
Annex: A Policy Brief on Tobacco Control and Tobacco FarmingContributors
139
141
189
211
247
271 277
LIST OF FIGURES, TABLES AND PHOTOGRAPHS
Figures Fîgure 1.1
Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4 Figure 1.5 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3
Fîgure 2.4
Fîgure 2.5 Figure 3.1
Figure 3.2 Fîgure 3.3
Figure 5.1
Figure 5.2
Figure 5.3
Figure 5.4
Estîmated evoutîon of goba cîgarette consumptîon(in billions of sticks), to 2020 Global tobacco consumption, 2009 Tobaccoproducing countries, 2011 Tobaccoexporting countries, 2011 Marketing chain for tobacco leaf products Map of Lebanon showing tobacco leaf production areas The tobacco sector’s supply chain in Lebanon Total tobacco leaf production by year and region in Lebanon, 2000–2011 ฀verage quantîty of tobacco sod per îcense hoder,by region, 2000–2011 Tobacco farmîng and poverty în ฀ytaroun, 2010 Exports of all tobacco types and other cash crops in Malawi, 1990–2010 Tobacco marketing chain in Malawi ฀uctîon saes voume and unît vaues of Bureyand other tobacco types in Malawi, 1960–2010 Tobacco leaf production in hectares (ha), metric tons (MT), and hectograms (hg) per hectare, 1961–2011, Bangladesh Hectares of FlueCured Virginia (FCV) tobacco in Rangpur, Kushtia, and Bandarban, 1995–2011 The crop calendar for tobacco and major food crops of Bangladesh The interaction of reasons why farmers continue to grow tobacco, showing cause–effect relationships
14 15 17 19 20 31 35
37
38 54
65 70
82
145
146
153
158
vîîî
Figure 5.5
Figure 5.6
Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2
Figure 6.3 Figure 6.4 Fîgure 7.1
Fîgure 7.2
Fîgure 7.3
Fîgure 7.4
Tables Tabe 2.1
Table 2.2
Table 2.3 Table 2.4 Table 2.5
Tabe 2.6
Tabe 2.7 Table 2.8 Table 2.9
Tabe ฀1 Tabe ฀2 Table A3 Table 3.1
TOBACCO CONTROL AND TOBACCO FARMING
Crops rated on contrasting crop characteristics, using a scale of 1 to 3 between the two poles of each contrast, Daulatpur, Kushtia Principal component analysis of the multidimensional relationships among crops and crop characteristics, Daulatpur, Kushtia Tobaccofarming regions in Kenya Gross export of tobacco and tobacco products (KES millions), 1981–2010 Kenya tobaccocontrol timeline, 1992–2010 Cycle of tobacco farming in Kenya Evoutîon of tobacco productîon în Brazî andfour Southern states, 1990–2010 (tons) Evoutîon of Brazîîan tobacco export by quantîty(tons) and vaue (USD), 1999–2011 Evoutîon of tobacco productîon and cîgaretteconsumption in Brazil, 2000–2010 Federa government poîcîes reated to the NatîonaProgram for Dîversîicatîon în Tobacco-Growîng ฀reas
฀verage buyîng and seîng prîces (USD/kg) setby the Régie Buying price structure set by international companies (USD/kg), 2011 Subsidies per region, by year (Lebanon) Lebanese tobacco production, 2008–2012 Tobacco farmers and land under tobacco production, 2010 ฀verage quantîty output per farmer and îcenses,by region, 2010 ฀verage vaue of output (USD), by regîon, 2010 Fulltime farmers and labor intensity comparisons Estimation of farmers’ profit (USD) from the 2010 tobacco crop, Aytaroun, Lebanon The Régîe prîce îst based on quaîty of tobacco Number of actîve îcenses by governorate Lebanese tobacco imports and exports, 2008–2012 Top burley tobacco leaf exporters, 1998–2011 (million kilograms)
163
164 190
191 193 196
214
214
218
225
39
39 41 43
46
47 48 49
52 57 58 59
64
Table 3.2
Table 3.3 Table 3.4 Table 3.5 Table 3.6
Table 3.7 Tabe 5.1
Table 5.2
Table 5.3
Table 5.4
Table 5.5
Tabe 5.6
Table 6.1 Table 6.2
Tabe 6.3
Table 6.4
Table 6.5
Table 6.6 Table 6.7
Tabe 7.1
Tabe 7.2
LIST OF FIGURES, TABLES AND PHOTOGRAPHS
Economic indicators of the importance of tobacco in Malawi, 2010 Burley tobacco farmers in Malawi, 2010 Production cost for tobacco in Malawi, 2005 Assembly costs for burley tobacco, Malawi Leaf buyer market share at tobacco auction and through contract buying, 2007–2012 Tobacco auction and contract sales and prices, 2004–2012 The dîstrîbutîon of tobacco farmers în ive countîes(upazilas), by landholding and relationship to the tobacco companies The interaction of reasons why farmers continue to grow tobacco Costs and benefits per ha of tobacco production at different locations in Bangladesh, 2011 Costs and benefits per ha of different food and fodder systems at different locations in Bangladesh, 2011 Farmergenerated categories of gains and losses, and sample scores from two farmers (tobacco and mixed crop) Estîmated market vaue of tobacco and mîxed crop combinations (winter season only) Number of tobacco farmers in Kenya, 2011 Reasons for starting tobacco farming, South Nyanza Region Curîng and marketîng probems facîng actîvetobacco farmers, South Nyanza Region Reasons for not participating in tobacco production, South Nyanza Region Impact of tobacco farming on other crops, South Nyanza Region Contrasts between tobacco and bamboo Farmers experimenting with bamboo who abandoned tobacco farming, 2006–2013 Vaue, quantîty and prîce paîd (by kîogram) for tobacco exported by Brazil, 2009–2011 ฀rea harvested, yîed, productîon vaue andeconomic yield per area (in thousands of BRLs) of the main crops grown in Brazil in 2000 and 2010
i
x
66 67 73 75
79 82
154
157
168
170
173
178 191
195
198
199
200 206
207
216
219
x
Table 7.3
Table 7.4
Tabe 7.5
TOBACCO CONTROL AND TOBACCO FARMING
Distinctions between crop substitution and sustainable dîversîicatîon EMBRAPA research on different production systems in temperate climate zones How the food acquîsîtîon program operates
229
234 236
Photographs Photograph 2.1 Chîdren and mother sortîng harvested tobaccoleaf, Aytaroun, South Lebanon, 2012. Photo credit: Wael AlLadiki. 50 Photograph 2.2 ฀îr curîng of tobacco eaves în a home, ฀yrtaroun,South Lebanon, 2012. Photo credit: Wael AlLadiki. 51 Photograph 3.1 ฀ pregnant woman carryîng tobacco eaves from the iedto her home in Kasungu, Malawi. Women and children provîde much of the abor used în smahoder tobaccofarming. Photo credit: Laura Graen. 69 Photograph 3.2 Tobacco tenant farmer Isaac Chîng’oma îves wîthhis wife and three children on a tobacco estate in Kasungu, Malawi. Photo credit: Laura Graen. 71 Photograph 3.3 Bundes of eaves beîng sewn before hangîng todry in a shed in Kasungu, Malawi. Photo credit: Laura Graen. 72 Photograph 3.4 ฀n opened tobacco bae rejected due to quaîtyissues (N/S, Auction Holdings). Photo credit: Laura Graen. 76 Photograph 4.1 Farmers in Kushtia (Bangladesh) discussing their sense of betraya over a ower prîce than promîsed în theîr contract. Photo credit: Abdul Zabbar. 106 Photograph 4.2 Woman farmer in Kenya sorting, tying and grading tobacco eaves for sae. Photo credît: SandyCampbell, IDRC. 108 Photograph 4.3 Boy harvestîng tobacco eaves în São Lourenço do Su,Rio Grande do Sul. Photo credit: G. E. G. Almeida. 113 Photograph 4.4 Farmer in Kushtia (Bangladesh) applying pesticide to tobacco plants while children weed the field. Photo credit: Abdul Zabbar. 117 Photograph 4.5 Wood collected from the hillsides of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (Bangladesh) and floated down the Matamuhurî Rîver feeds the kîns for tobacco grownaong the rîver bank. Photo credît: ฀bdu Zabbar. 126