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TERRORISM in the United States 1999

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TERRORISM in the United States 1999

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TE in theUStd teniseta COUNTERTERRORISM THREAT ASSESSMENT and WARNING UNIT COUNTERTERRORISM DIVISION
I
U.S. Department of Justice
Federal Bureau of Investigation
SM
1999
INSID
ELF ARSON pg. 6
E
TERRRISM in the United States 1999
Counterterrorism Threat Assessment and Warning Unit Counterterrorism Division
THIRTY YEARS OF TERRORISM
This special retrospective issue ofTerrorism in the United Statesprovides both a summary of terrorism-related activity in 1999 and a broad overview of U.S.-based terrorism during the past three decades. It discusses notable cases, trends, emerging threats, and the development of the FBI response to terrorism during the past 30 years. Appendices summarize terrorist incidents in the United States during the past decade and provide background information on currently
designated foreign
terrorist organizations and terrorist renditions (1987-1999), as well as a series of graphs depicting terrorist-related activity in the United States during the past two decades.
caocdrnaecwithU.S.ocunterterrorism
nnInnpnolicy, the FBI considers terrorists to be criminals. FBI efforts in countering terrorist threats are multifaceted. Information obtained through FBI investigations is analyzed and used to prevent terrorist activity and, whenever possible, to effect the arrest and prosecution of potential perpetrators. FBI investigations are initiated in accordance with the following guidelines:
Domestic terrorism investigations are conducted in accordance withThe Attorney General Guidelines on General Crimes, Racketeering Enterprise, and Domestic Security/Terrorism Investigations. These guidelines set forth the predication threshold and limits for investigations of U.S. persons who reside in the United States, who are not acting on behalf of a foreign power, and who may be conducting criminal activities in support of terrorist objectives.
International terrorism investigations are conducted in accordance withThe Attorney General Guidelines for FBI Foreign Intelligence Collection and Foreign FBI POLICYfCorotuhn ttehrien tperlleidgiecnactei oInnvleestviegla taionnds .estinnegs deli vgesutiihgeasteoTf sni rltimi ANDrof roieepsrno sU.S. ben lfhasitUne thteta Sedoitan ng ni slan GUIDELINESng ai eenrgpw woohreegitt ra aofor f.national security interests o Although various Executive Orders, Presidential Decision Directives, and congressional statutes address the issue of terrorism, there is no single federal law crime. Terrorists are arrested and convicted under suspected terrorists placed under arrest are provided mal judicial procedure, including Fifth Amendment
accepted, definition of terrorism. Terrorism is defined nsas “...the unlawful use of force and violence against te or coerce a government, the civilian population, or rance of political or social objectives.” (28 C.F.R.
The FBI further describes terrorism as either domestic or international, depending on the origin, base, and objectives of the terrorists. For purposes of this report, the FBI will use the following definitions: Domestic terrorism is the unlawful use, or threatened use, of force or violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the United States or its territories without foreign direction committed against persons or property to intim-idate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. International terrorism involves violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or any state, or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States or any state. These acts appear to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian popu-lation, influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion, or affect the conduct of a government by assassination or kidnapping. International terrorist acts occur outside the United States or transcend national boundaries in terms of the means by which they are accomplished, the persons they appear intended to coerce or intimidate, or the locale in which the perpetrators operate or seek asylum.
THE FBI DIVIDES TERRORIST-RELATED ACTIVITY INTO THREE CATEGORIES: A terroristincidentviolent act or an act dangerous to human life, in violationis a of the criminal laws of the United States, or of any state, to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. Asuspected terrorist incidentis a potential act of terrorism for which respon-NOTE sibility cannot be attributedThe FBI investigates terrorism-related matters to a known or suspectedwithout regard to race, religion, national origin, group. Assessment of the Reference to individual members ofor gender. circumstances surrounding the act determines itsethnic, or religious group in thisany political, inclusion in this category.report is not meant to imply that all members A terrorismpreventionis aof that group are terrorists. Terrorists represent documented instance ina small criminal minority in any larger social which a violent act by acontext. known or suspected terrorist group or individual with the means and a proven propensity for violence is Earth Liberation Front claimed responsi-Cover: The successfully interdictedbility for a fire at Michigan State University (MSU) through investigative Photothat caused one million dollars in damage. activity.courtesy of the MSU Police Department.
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UCTITROD1INMSIORIRTRENO:
TERRORISM IN THE UNITED STATES 1999 iii
15 RETROSPECTIVETERRORISM: A
15 YEARS OF TERRORISMIN-FOCUS: THIRTY
34TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM
28TRENDS IN DOMESTIC TERRORISM
42THE FBI RESPONSE TO TERRORISM
38TOMORROWS TERRORIST THREATS
48APPENDICES
45CONCLUSION
10SIGNIFICANT EVENTS
7TERRORIST PREVENTIONS
6SUSPECTED TERRORIST INCIDENTS
3TERRORIST INCIDENTS
31999IN REVIEW
1999
TABLEof CONTENTS
TES:ENUNHTSATTIDE