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Artificial cranial deformation in the Proto-neolithic and Neolithic Near East and its possible origin : Evidence from four sites. - article ; n°2 ; vol.18, pg 83-97

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Paléorient - Année 1992 - Volume 18 - Numéro 2 - Pages 83-97
La discussion sur la déformation crânienne artificielle observée au Proche Orient au Néolithique, amorcée par Lambert à partir de six crânes trouvés sur le site de Ganj Dareh (Iran) est reprise ici. Lambert considérait, pour la région, ces crânes comme étant les plus anciens ayant pu être affectés par une pareille altération. Le matériel de Ganj Dareh réétudié est confronté aux conclusions obtenues à partir de matériel trouvé sur trois autres sites : la grotte de Shanidar en Iraq, tepe Ghenil en Iran et Bouqras en Syrie. La présence des différents traits indique le port très répandu d'une sorte de serre-tête de forme encore indéfinissable qui aurait entraîné des modifications de la forme du crâne. Cependant, contrairement à certains exemples de déformation plus récents, il n'y aurait pas de lien évident entre ces modifications et le sexe ou la position sociale des individus. Les résultats obtenus sont comparés à ceux déjà publiés sur la morphologie crânienne et les traitements de crânes néolithiques au Proche-Orient.
The discussion of artificial cranial deformation of Near Eastern Neolithic material begun by Lambert's description of six crania from the Iranian site of Ganj Dareh is developed in this paper. Lambert regarded these specimens as being the earliest reported cases of the phenomenon in the region. This paper reports on a restudy of the Ganj Dareh material, together with findings obtained from three further sites, Shanidar Cave in Iraq, Tepe Ghenil in Iran, and Bouqras in Syria. We show the presence of a series of features that indicate the widespread use of an as yet undetermined form of head-gear that produced alteration in cranial form. However, in contrast to later examples of deformation there are no obvious sex or social correlates of the phenomenon. The findings are discussed within the framework of other literature on cranial form and patterns of skull treatment within the Neolithic of the Middle East.
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Rose Solecki
Peter M. M. G. Akkermans
Anagnostis Agelarakis
Christopher Meiklejohn
Philip E.L. Smith
Artificial cranial deformation in the Proto-neolithic and Neolithic
Near East and its possible origin : Evidence from four sites.
In: Paléorient. 1992, Vol. 18 N°2. pp. 83-97.
Abstract
The discussion of artificial cranial deformation of Near Eastern Neolithic material begun by Lambert's description of six crania
from the Iranian site of Ganj Dareh is developed in this paper. Lambert regarded these specimens as being the earliest reported
cases of the phenomenon in the region. This paper reports on a restudy of the Ganj Dareh material, together with findings
obtained from three further sites, Shanidar Cave in Iraq, Tepe Ghenil in Iran, and Bouqras in Syria. We show the presence of a
series of features that indicate the widespread use of an as yet undetermined form of head-gear that produced alteration in
cranial form. However, in contrast to later examples of deformation there are no obvious sex or social correlates of the
phenomenon. The findings are discussed within the framework of other literature on cranial form and patterns of skull treatment
within the Neolithic of the Middle East.
Résumé
La discussion sur la déformation crânienne artificielle observée au Proche Orient au Néolithique, amorcée par Lambert à partir de
six crânes trouvés sur le site de Ganj Dareh (Iran) est reprise ici. Lambert considérait, pour la région, ces crânes comme étant les
plus anciens ayant pu être affectés par une pareille altération. Le matériel de Ganj Dareh réétudié est confronté aux conclusions
obtenues à partir de matériel trouvé sur trois autres sites : la grotte de Shanidar en Iraq, tepe Ghenil en Iran et Bouqras en Syrie.
La présence des différents traits indique le port très répandu d'une sorte de serre-tête de forme encore indéfinissable qui aurait
entraîné des modifications de la forme du crâne. Cependant, contrairement à certains exemples de déformation plus récents, il
n'y aurait pas de lien évident entre ces modifications et le sexe ou la position sociale des individus. Les résultats obtenus sont
comparés à ceux déjà publiés sur la morphologie crânienne et les traitements de crânes néolithiques au Proche-Orient.
Citer ce document / Cite this document :
Solecki Rose, Akkermans Peter M. M. G., Agelarakis Anagnostis, Meiklejohn Christopher, Smith Philip E.L. Artificial cranial
deformation in the Proto-neolithic and Neolithic Near East and its possible origin : Evidence from four sites. In: Paléorient. 1992,
Vol. 18 N°2. pp. 83-97.
doi : 10.3406/paleo.1992.4574
http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/paleo_0153-9345_1992_num_18_2_4574vol. 18/2 - 1992 PALEORIENT,
ARTIFICIAL CRANIAL DEFORMATION
IN THE PROTO-NEOLITHIC AND NEOLITHIC
NEAR EAST AND ITS POSSIBLE ORIGIN :
EVIDENCE FROM FOUR SITES
С MEIKLEJOHN, A. AGELARAKIS, P.A. AKKERMANS, P.E.L. SMITH
and R. SOLECKI
ABSTRACT. - The discussion of artificial cranial deformation of Near Eastern Neolithic material begun by Lambert's description
of six crania from the Iranian site of Ganj Dareh is developed in this paper. Lambert regarded these specimens as being the
earliest reported cases of the phenomenon in the region. This paper reports on a restudy of the Ganj Dareh material, together
with findings obtained from three further sites, Shanidar Cave in Iraq, Tepe Ghenil in Iran, and Bouqras in Syria. We show the
presence of a series of features that indicate the widespread use of an as yet undetermined form of head-gear that produced
alteration in cranial form. However, in contrast to later examples of deformation there are no obvious sex or social correlates of
the phenomenon. The findings are discussed within the framework of other literature on cranial form and patterns of skull treatment
within the Neolithic of the Middle East.
RÉSUMÉ. - La discussion sur la déformation crânienne artificielle observée au Proche Orient au Néolithique, amorcée par Lambert
à partir de six crânes trouvés sur le site de Ganj Dareh (Iran) est reprise ici. Lambert considérait, pour la région, ces crânes
comme étant les plus anciens ayant pu être affectés par une pareille altération. Le matériel de Ganj Dareh réétudié est confronté
aux conclusions obtenues à partir de matériel trouvé sur trois autres sites : la grotte de Shanidar en Iraq, tepe Ghenil en Iran
et Bouqras en Syrie. La présence des différents traits indique le port très répandu d'une sorte de serre-tête de forme encore
indéfinissable qui aurait entraîné des modifications de la forme du crâne. Cependant, contrairement à certains exemples de dé
formation plus récents, il n'y aurait pas de lien évident entre ces modifications et le sexe ou la position sociale des individus.
Les résultats obtenus sont comparés à ceux déjà publiés sur la morphologie crânienne et les traitements de crânes néolithiques
au Proche-Orient.
BACKGROUND The distribution of cranial deformation
Cranial deformation has been reported in both
Cranial deformation the Old and New World. New World studies have
reported on distribution and types, with particular
Artificial cranial deformation of the human skull attention to the Northwest Coast and the Andes. In
occurs throughout the Old and New Worlds, and the Old World, deformation has been reported from
carries important cultural significance. It has ap all continents.
peared independently a number of times. The li Cranial deformation in Europe and western Asia terature on the phenomenon lies within the historic has been surveyed by Kiszeley (4), who found the framework of a field long fascinated by information earliest reported finds to be from Southwest Asia. provided by the human skull. Dating from the work Dated material of the 7th through 4th millennia ВС of Morton (1), it is centred on the classification of were reported from, in chronological order, Jericho the phenomenon. Early work, based on shapes, was [Palestine; occupied West Bank], Khirokitia [Cylater extended to the technical manner of deformat prus], Byblos [Lebanon], Seyh Hoyiik [Syria], and ion (2). More recent attention concerns the effect Eridu [Iraq] (5). The occurrence at Jericho was conof deformation on skull growth and form (3). This firmed by Kurth and Rôhrer-Ertl (6), and a similar paper deals with geographical distribution and distribution noted by Arensburg and Hershkovitz (7). possible origin in the Near East. Lambert (8) reported on deformation in the Ganj
Finally, we note that, due to the presence of
deformation, any analysis of group affinity that (3) OETTERKING, 1930; MOSS, 1958; BJORK and
relies on the cranial form of these samples must BJORK, 1964; McNEILL and NEWTON, 1965; ANTON, 1989.
remain tentative. (4) KISZELEY, 1978.
(5) All dates in the text are uncalibrated.
(6) KURTH and RÔHRER-ERTL, 1981.
(1) MORTON, 1839. (7) ARENSBURG and HERSHKOVITZ, 1988. The distribu
(2) E.g. BROCA, 1875; IMBELLONI, 1923; FALKENBER- tion noted by ÔZBEK, 1985 is largely of later materials.
GER, 1938. (8) LAMBERT, 1979.
83 :
Dareh series and noted its presence in two further curs in this early period in a belt running from the
Iranian sites AH Kosh (7th millennium) (9), and Iran/Iraq border area, east of the Mesopotamian core,
Seh Gabi (Chalcolithic)(10). This list indicates a to the upper and middle reaches of the Euphrates
broad temporal and geographic span within the Near River in Syria, and, with the occurrence at Jericho,
East. However, distribution prior to ca 5000 ВС to the core of the Levant (fig. 1).
[equivalent to Samarra and Halaf in Mesopotamia]
is limited and episodic. Most later sites with defor
mation show signs of urbanization, and are consider
THE PRIMARY SITES ably larger than those under discussion here.
Some of these sites (e.g. Khirokitia) are large
for their age. Only at Ali Kosh do the remains fit We report material from four Proto-Neolithic the age and smaller site size seen in three of the and Neolithic sites, Shanidar cave, Iraq, dated ca four sites under discussion here. Bouqras, the largest 9000 to 8500 ВС, Ganj Dareh Tepe, Iran, ca 7500 of these sites, appears to be slightly larger than the to 6500 ВС, Tepe Ghenil, Iran, late 8th to early 6th prepottery settlement at Jericho. Despite the incom millennium ВС, and Bouqras, Syria, ca 6500 to pleteness of Lambert's survey, his comments on tem 5500 ВС. The discussion below is primarily conporal distribution are largely correct. cerned with the context of the skeletal remains.
It should also be noted that figurines with ap
parently deformed crania have been reported from
Shanidar Cave the Levant and Mesopotamia, including Byblos,
Ramad [PPNB], and Yarim Tepe, as well as at
This large limestone cave lies about 400 km Bouqras. This is a source of further information that
north of Baghdad in the outer folds of the Iraqi has not been systematically studied.
Zagros Mountains. It is at an elevation of 747 m,
and lies about 2.5 km from the Greater Zab River,
a major tributary of the Tigris River (16). Four sea
CULTURAL CONTEXT OF DEFORMATION sons of excavations by R.S., between 1951 and 1960,
yielded 14m of cultural deposits overlying bedrock.
The sequence includes four major layers, A through
Lambert (11), noting the correlation between D. Layer В was subsequently divided into two parts,
cranial deformation and the appearance of social Bl and B2. Culturally, layer A was Recent and
classes, provided a basis for distribution of the fea Neolithic, layer Bl was Proto-Neolithic, layer B2
ture in stratified communities. Complex non-urban Epipalaeolithic (Zarzian), layer С Upper Palaeolithic
examples [e.g. the Northwest coast (12)] show evi (Baradostian), and layer D Mousterian.
dence of stratification atypical for the economic The Proto-Neolithic deposits, with a 14C date of level. 8650 ВС, and up to 1 m in thickness, have an anal
Wherever found, deformation is more common ogue at the site of Zawi Chemi Shanidar, excavated
in sites younger than those reported here and/or by Rose L.Solecki (17). This site, 14C dated to
those that are more stratified. The results reported 8910 ВС, is situated about 4 km downstream on the
here were therefore unexpected. To our knowledge, same bank of the Greater Zab River. The bulk of
the only reported cases clearly older than those di cultural materials from the sites is identical in type.
scussed here are from Kow Swamp, Australia (13), Different are the presence of what appeared to be
the Shanidar Cave 1 and 5 Ncandertals (14), and the houses and probable bird ritual remains at Zawi
Arène Candide 19 cranium from Italy (15). However, Chemi Shanidar, and the cemetery at the Shanidar
each of these examples has been queried. Cave. The context of both resembles the Natufian
culture of the Levant, of roughly similar age. In this context we report on apparent deformat
ion in four Near Eastern communities prior to 5500 The Shanidar Cave cemetery in Layer Bl occu
ВС, three of them quite small. They suggest conti pied an ovate area roughly 24 m2. The skeletal
nuity with the previously noted Ali Kosh example. remains lay at a uniform depth of about 1 m from
We conclude that artificial cranial deformation oc- present ground surface, about 50 cm below the con
tact line between the Neolithic A and Proto-Neolithic
Bl horizons. There were 26 burials containing 29
individuals. A further individual was found outside (9) HOLE, FLANNERY and NEELY, 1969. the cemetery area, and is not included in the count. (10) Work by CM; currently under study by M.F. Skinner, This constitutes the only Proto-Neolithic burial site Simon Fraser University (see SKINNER, 1980).
(11) LAMBERT, 1979; quoting DING WALL, 1931 and RO in Southwest Asia outside the Levant.
GERS, 1975.
(12) OETTEKING, 1930.
(13) BROWN, 1981.
(16) R.S. SOLECKI, 1963, 1972. (14) TRINKAUS, 1982.
(15) FORMICOLA and SCARSINI, 1987; SCARSINI, 1987. (17) R.L. 1981.
84 Seyh Hoyuk
Khirokitia «^-r^ , • Ganj Dareh and Tepe Ghenll
• Seh Gabi • Tepe Asiab
FIG. 1. - Sites mentioned in text.
Ganj Dareh estimate of the chronology of the site dates Level
E to ca 7500 ВС or somewhat older, with Levels D
to A running from ca 7300 ВС to the mid 7th milGanj Dareh (meaning "Treasure Valley" in Per
lennium. Faunal and floral evidence was analyzed sian) is a small tepe or mound in the central Zagros
by B. Hesse (18) and W. van Zeist et al. (19). Some Mountains of western Iran, located near the present
domestic barley (H. distichun) was present, with the ethnic boundary between Kurdistan and Luristan
wild variant from the earliest level onward (but no in Bakhtan (formerly Kermanshah) province. It lies
wheat of any kind), and morphologically wild goats in a small side valley at ca 1400 m, surrounded on
(C. aegagrus) were being systematically controlled several sides by higher mountain peaks. After an
and culled from Level D onward. Nonetheless the initial sounding in 1965 by P.E.L.S., it was exca
bulk of the food consumed was probably obtained vated over four field seasons between 1967 and
from non-domestic plants and animals. The site 1974. Because of its small size (roughly 40 m in
therefore documents an early stage in the developdiameter and with deposits between 7 and 8 m deep)
ment of food production in the Zagros area, possibly slightly over one-fifth of the volume of the site was
not much further developed than at Shanidar (20). excavated. The deposits are divided into two phases
While burials were found in all levels, the majority with five main levels. The earliest phase, Level E,
are associated with С through E. rests on virgin soil and is without traces of solid
architecture. The second phase, Levels D to A, is
characterized by fairly complex brick- and mud-
walled structures and small amounts of simple, sof
tware pottery. Level D, partially destroyed by fire,
is unusually well preserved, with some complex and (18) HESSE, 1984. elaborate architectural forms. Despite some incon (19) VAN ZEIST et al, 1984.
sistencies in the 24 14C determinations, a plausible (20) See SMITH, 1976, 1978, 1990.
85 :
Tepe Ghenil W. van Zeist and colleagues identified emmer,
einkorn, hard wheat, hulled and naked barley, lentils
and peas (24). Rain-fed agriculture was practised in Tepe Ghenil ("Round Mound") is a considerably the river valley and on the wadi bottoms in the larger but less prominent mound site about 7.5 km vicinity of the settlement. The animal remains, anafrom Ganj Dareh, in much the same context but near lyzed by A.T. Clason (25), included domestic sheep, the Gamas-Ab river bank. It was discovered and
goat, cattle, pig and dog. briefly tested in 1977 (21). Soundings revealed sev
eral meters of archaeological deposits, with 3 or Bouqras is an offshoot of the iate PPNB' comp
perhaps 4 occupation levels showing mud-walled lex in the northern Levant (generally assumed to
architecture. The earlier of these levels appear to be have ended ca 6000 ВС), and particularly its Middle
more or less contemporaneous with Levels D to A Euphrates faciès (cf. chipped stone). The bulk of the
at Ganj Dareh, but we have no 14C determinations. material culture however (architecture, pottery, stone In the upper zone and on the surface were sherds ware), especially in the younger strata, shows strong
and other remains indicating a Sarab-type occupat similarities to the remains from the earliest agriculion, at least some centuries later than the last Neol tural ('Proto-Hassuna') villages in the Jezirah of ithic occupation of Ganj Dareh. The soundings, in northern Iraq. not reaching virgin soil, do not indicate if there is
a phase at Tepe Ghenil corresponding to level E at
Ganj Dareh. Faunal remains suggest a subsistence
pattern comparable, in part, to the second phase of THE SKELETAL REMAINS Ganj Dareh (22).
The human skeletal materials reported here in
Bouqras clude two of the largest skeletal collections of their
age from the Near East. Only in the southern Levant
do equivalent sized samples predate 6000 ВС (the Bouqras, the largest site under discussion, is
newly announced sample from Çayônii Tepesi, Tursituated in eastern Syria. It lies ca 35 km southeast
key, appears to be a highly significant addition (26)). of Deir ez-Zor, on the bank of the Euphrates valley,
The descriptions below summarize the nature of the opposite the mouth of the Khabur. The tell is located
on a small remnant of a Late Pleistocene river ter samples.
race ; directly to the south a large wadi runs into the
floodplain. The present tell measures ca 2.75 ha,
Shanidar Cave with its apex about 11.5 m above the valley floor.
The site was excavated during 3 field seasons It was not possible to make a complete study of from 1976 to 1978 (23). In the ca 4.5 m high deposit the remains, uncovered late in the 1960 season, at near the centre of the tell, ten architectural levels the time of excavation, though the original records were distinguished. At the southern slope of the site of R.S. showed the skeletal collection to consist of somewhat younger occupation phases were present. 26 burials representing 29 individuals. The cases 14C dates range from ca 6400 ВС (level 10) to ca were opened a couple of years later in Baghdad by 5500 ВС (southwest periphery). T.D. Stewart, of the Smithsonian Institution, and his
The investigated area, about 0.28 ha., revealed colleague, Juan Munizaga of Chile. Munizaga made
series of closely spaced mudbrick houses, each con a provisional assay of the remains (27). This report
taining several squarish and oblong rooms. There indicated that he had resorted several of the bones,
was remarkable consistency in the internal topo labelling and repacking the skeletal material in new
graphy of the dwellings through time. The 'basic boxes provided by the Museum of Baghdad, which
unit', a courtyard area, usually contained an oven he assigned with sequential numbers. He reported
and a hearth, with, on one side, a 'broad-room' the presence of 37 individuals within the collection.
supplied with a typical doorway, and on another a An independent study was made by Denise Ferem-
few small square rooms. All of the human skeletal bach (28), referring to the cultural layer as the Zawi
materials came from House 12, a burnt structure near Chemi Shanidar horizon, an apt descriptive. She
the surface in the southwest quarter of the site. A selectively focussed on individuals which were
14C sample from this house gave a date of 5995 ВС. largely complete, reporting only 22 individuals.
(24) In AKKERMANS et al., 1983.
(25) Ibid.
(21) SMITH and MORTENSEN, 1980. (26) See MELLINK, 1989, 1990; ÓZBEK, 1986, 1988.
(22) HESSE, 1984. (27) Unpublished manuscript.
(23) AKKERMANS, 1981/82; AKKERMANS et al, 1983. (28) FEREMBACH, 1970.
86 TABLE 1
Summary demography for Shanidar Cave
AGE CATEGORY NUMBER OP INDIVIDUALS
Fetal /Neonatal 4
Infant (0-1 year) 7
Child II (6-12 years) 2
Adolescent (13 - 19 3
Adult Male 5 Female 2
Adult Unknown Sex 6
TOTAL SUBADULT 16 ADULT 13
Finally, the study conducted by A. A. in Baghdad in identification of new multiple units and the addition
1985 (29) documented the presence of 29 individuals of units from the faunal samples. These figures re
(Table 1), the same number as originally reported. place those published previously.
We are uncertain whether other investigations of the The sample (Table 2) covers all age and sex burials were made in the years prior to the study by classes from fetal to adult, without apparent bias A. A. (30). However, there has been disturbance of towards any particular sex or age class. The sample the cases containing the skeletal remains. A full is, however, quite fragmentary, a factor in the numbreport of the cultural associations of the cemetery er of adult burials for which no sex diagnosis is is in preparation for publication by R.S.
yet possible, and for which age is hard to assess. The Shanidar Cave collection consists of indi
Previous studies of the skeletal collection have viduals of both sexes and a wide range of age
been made by Lambert (33), Schoeninger (34), Car- groups. As at Ganj Dareh (see below) the sample
michael (35) (who also looked at Tepe Ghenil and appears to be largely random. The importance of this
Bouqras), and by A. A. (36). The sample is currently collection lies in the high integrity of the burials
within the site stratigraphy, combined with the lack under study by CM.
of synchronous skeletal samples unearthed in this
region (Shanidar level Bl probably predates Ganj Tepe Ghenil
Dareh by at least a millennium).
This, the smallest of the four samples, consists Although the majority of individuals were rep
of an infant and a subadult. The sample is unpublresented by both axial and appendicular remains, all
ished and is under study by CM. The material is individuals were incomplete and often fragmentary.
of prime interest for its geographical and chronolThe skeletal collection has been studied for patho
ogical relationship to Ganj Dareh. logy and morphology conditions, as well as bone
stable isotopic ratio analyses for investigation of
Bouqras dietary patterns (31).
The Bouqras sample consists of seven individ
uals, although only six were studied (the seventh Ganj Dareh
consists of fire damaged cranial fragments). One
individual, a Roman or Byzantine intrusion, is not This sample is the largest of those under discus
included in this study. The remaining five individsion. Of 69 individuals defined in ongoing analysis, uals range from child to adult (Table 3), with no 52 were identified during excavation. The other 17 male individuals identified. A preliminary descripwere isolated from faunal samples by Brian Hesse. tion of the collection has been published (37). Of burial features identified in the field, 8 have more
than one individual in a single feature. Discrepancies
(33) LAMBERT, 1980; MEIKLEJOHN, LAMBERT and with figures presented previously (32) result from BYRNE, 1980.
(34) SCHOENINGER, 1980, 1981.
(29) AGELARAKIS, 1989. (35) CARMICHAEL, n.d.
(30) Ibid. (36) AGELARAKIS, 1989.
(37) MEIKLEJOHN, MOLGAT and HILL, In : AKKER- (31) Ibid.
MANS et al., 1983. (32) MEIKLEJOHN, LAMBERT and BYRNE, 1980.
87 :
:
.
]
TABLE 2
Summary demography for Ganj Dareh
AGE CATEGORY NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS
Fetal/Neonatal 9
Infant ( 0 - 1 year) 6
Child I (2-5 years) 7 II (6-12 10
Adolescent (13 - 19 years) 5
Adult Male 11 Female 8
Adult Unknown Sex 13
TOTAL SUBADULT 37 ADULT 32
NOTE : These totals include loose and isolated remains as well as in situ burials.
TABLE 3
Summary demography for Bouqras
AGE CATEGORY NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS
Child II 2
1 Adolescent
Adult Female 2
NOTE : These figures do not include Individuals 6 (TF) (unavailable for study and very fragmentary) or 7 (UA) (a Roman or Byzantine
intrusion) [see Akkermans et ai, 1 983
ANALYSIS OF THE DEFORMATION 3) Lambdoid Flattening [LF], defined as "a fla
ttened area immediately above lambda" (43).
Lambert, apparently in error, tied these features Lambert (38) described six crania from Ganj to Uzbek's deformation type 'b' (44) (fig. 2, Type Dareh that he believed were deformed by the annular
B). However, Lambert's figure 1 indicates a bandagimethod (39), with deformation produced by use of
ng of the more vertical of the two shown in Uzbek's bandages or a hood ("bonnet"). He saw this as equi
type 'a' (45), involving a bandage running over the valent to the form described by Ôzbek at By-
point bregma and under the mandible, explaining the blos (40). Lambert defined the presence of
post-coronal depression and parietal bulge. We call deformation at Ganj Dareh from three morphological
this Type A (fig. 2). Though not pictured or dichanges to the crania
scussed by Lambert, the clearest explanation of lamb
1) Post-coronal Depression [PCD], defined as "a doid flattening is a modified version of the second
depression located slightly posterior to the coronal bandage of Uzbek's type 'a', our Type D (fig. 2). It suture on both parietals" (41). is diagonally placed and runs from the frontal, along
the sides of the cranium, and behind the occipital. 2) Parietal Bulge [PB], defined as "an elevated
Placement of the lambdoid flattening, and the abarea of bone parallel and posterior to the post-coron
al depression" (42). sence of a noticeable effect on the anterior of the
(38) LAMBERT, 1979.
(39) As distinguished from tabular by IMBELLONI, 1925,
and FALKENBERGER, 1938.
(40) ÓZBEK, 1974a, 1974b. (43) Ibid.
(41) LAMBERT, 1979 52. (44) ÔZBEK, 1974a, 176; fig. 5.
(42) Ibid. (45) Ibid. suggest a bandage lower at the front and of the crania with the area visible. This suggests the frontal,
higher at the back than is shown by Ózbek [i.e. presence of bandaging covering the fronto-parietal
Lambert's horizontal bandage and our Type C| (see articulation, and is consistent with Types A or D,
further below). but it is unlikely to occur from Type В due to the
broad expanse of the bandage over the fronto-parietThis study extends Lambert's paper. It was orig al region. LF is not so universally present, being inally concerned only with Ganj Dareh, expanding absent in GD28, GD34 and GD41. In two of these the descriptions and placing the deformation into a three cases HOG is present (area absent in GD28). broader demographic context, based on the knowl
We therefore suggest that LF and HOG result from edge that, in some series, deformation is restricted different patterns of bandaging (Type A versus Types to certain categories of individuals. At Byblos, for
В and D). We also note the presence of HOG on all example, it is restricted to females (46).
but one of the Ganj Dareh crania with the area In this light, a reexamination of the Ganj Dareh preserved, suggesting that the diagonal bandage runsample was planned (by CM.) for the summer of ning under the occipital was present in most though 1988, when A. A. was in Winnipeg. The restudy was not all of this series. When both areas were visible, done by the two of us. We discovered that at least either LF and/or HOG were always present, suggestone of the three features defined by Lambert was ing the presence of either bandage Type В or D. present on all of the Ganj Dareh specimens for Type В cannot be excluded but is far harder to which diagnosis was possible. The same was also demonstrate, differing from the diagonal bandage of true for three of the four analyzable crania from type D primarily in the breadth of the bandage. Bouqras and the only intact cranium from Tepe
Horizontal parieto-temporal grooving (HPTG) is Ghenil. The deformation noted at Ganj Dareh was
present in six of nine Ganj Dareh specimens. Since obviously much more widespread. A. A. also noted
this feature is not seen in all cases with LF, there that the same features could be observed in some,
is some evidence that it is not universal in cases though not all, of the materials from Shanidar (based
with for Type С bandaging. Its absence is on the limiting factor of preservation).
therefore hard to interpret. It does not occur when We then examined the crania from Ganj Dareh, evidence for deformation is otherwise absent (seen Bouqras and Tepe Ghenil to determine whether fur by the presence of LF and/or HOG) (examples from ther features might be correlated with those noted the Ganj Dareh collection are seen in Plates 1 to 3). by Lambert. We found two further traits clearly
associated in most, though not all, of the crania, and The Bouqras data are less consistent. Artificial
one other which may be functionally related. deformation was not suspected during the original
study (48), and we suggest that the bandaging was The two associated traits involve horizontal less tightly deployed. All individuals show at least grooving or creasing of the cranial vault. Parieto- one of the features, but Bl and B2 are ambiguous. Temporal grooving |HPTG] is a depression, centred Though Bl lacks both PCD and PB, it shows HPTG, over the parieto-temporal (squamosal) suture, most and can be interpreted as having one of bandage noticeable in posterior view. It is consistent with the types В, С or D. B2 shows the same feature, though second, horizontal, bandage discussed as responsible no other areas were visible. Thus, we suggest that for lambdoid flattening. The other feature, occipital all of the individuals were deformed. However, some Grooving [HOG] is a depression or concavity run may only have had a horizontal bandage, a pattern ning across the posterior of the occipital at right not seen at Ganj Dareh. angles to the sagittal plane. It is consistent with
either of the diagonal bandages of Ózbek (our Types The single specimen from Tepe Ghenil is frag
В and D). mentary. Only LF was present. There is no evidence
for the Types А, В or D seen at Ganj Dareh. Thus, A third possible correlate is porotic hyperostosis.
the evidence from Tepe Ghenil is not fully consistent We noted porosis in almost all of the deformed
with that from Ganj Dareh. However, it is crania. We suggest that bandaging may predispose
with some form of bandaging, equivalent to Bl and the skull vault to porosis. However, since all of the
B2 at Bouqras, though without manifestation of preserved crania at Ganj Dareh appear to be de
HPTG. formed, presence of porosis may not be causally
related. In this regard, the Ganj Dareh series shows Shanidar Cave is the hardest to analyze since widespread evidence of anaemia related to malarial the observations were made in Baghdad prior to
infection and/or malnutrition (47). analysis of the other three series. As seen in Table
Results of the new study are presented in Table 4, it can only be stated at present that two individ
4. For Ganj Dareh, PCD and PB are present in all uals show deformation, but we cannot exclude other
(46) ÔZBEK, 1974a, 1974b.
(47) AGELARAKIS, 1989; contra MEIKLEJOHN et ai,
1980. (48) AKKERMANS et al., 1983.
89 Skull Deformation Type A Skull Deformation Type В
Illustration non autorisée à la diffusion
Posterior View
Skull Deformation Type С Skull Deformation Type D
FIG. 2. - Various types of skull deformation.
90 TABLE 4
Distribution of morphological features associated with cranial deformation
SEX PCD PB LF HPTG HOG P SPECIMEN LEVEL
- GD 13 7 M? Yes Yes 7 Trace tr
- + GD 14 7 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes
++ GD 15 В or С? F? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
- - GD 16 В or С? 7 Yes Yes No +
GD 17 В or С? M? Yes Yes Yes No Yes ++
- - GD 20 D M? 7 7 Yes ++
- - GD 23 7 F? 7 7 Yes No
- - 7 + GD 28 prob D F 7 No
- Yes GD 3 0 prob D F? Yes Yes Yes tr
- ++ GD 31 prob D M 7 Yes Yes?
- GD 34 D/E M 7 No Yes? Yes ++
M? Yes Yes No No ++ GD 35 D Yes
Yes Yes + GD 41 D 7 7 No Yes
- - - M? GD 1150/51 7 Yes? Yes No
TG 7-2 7 No No Yes NO - No
- В 1 F? No No Yes No tr
- - - - + В 2 M? Yes
- В 3 tr Yes Yes No tr
В 4 F 7 7 Yes Yes No +
В 5 7 Yes Yes Yes 7 7 NO
SA 295-A 7 Yes Yes Yes? 7 No No?
SA 337-A M Yes Yes 7 7 7 No?
NOTES : PCD = Post-Coronal Depression
PB = Parietal Bulge
LF = Lambdoid Flattening
HPTG = Horizontal Grooving on Parieto-Temporal
HOG = on Occipital
P = Porotic Hyperostosis
individuals in the series. Shanidar SA295-A (49) The above results, shown in figure 2, can be
shows Type D bandaging, though with the occipital summarized in terms of bandage types, as follows :
binding higher than pictured by Ózbek. As noted in
1) Type A, vertical, as seen in Lambert, and in the table, Shanidar SA337-A has pronounced breg-
Ôzbek type 'a', is associated with PCD and/or PB. matic alteration. Traces of further deformation seem
to be present in the occipital fragments, but details 2) Type B, the single bandage of Ôzbek type of features cannot be determined. 'b', is associated with HOG. It suggests a less ob
vious relationship with the variable expression of
PCD and/or PB. (49) The numbering of the Shanidar remains follows the ori
ginal field catalogue numbers, as used by Agelarakis (1989). They
3) Type C, horizontal, implied by Lambert, is are entirely separate from the numbering of the Neandertal remains
from lower in the deposits. associated with LF and HPTG.
91