Beyond the ionosphere : fifty years of satellite communication
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Beyond the ionosphere : fifty years of satellite communication


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BEYOND THE IONOSPHERE FIFTYYEARS OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION EDITED BY ANDREW BUTRICAJ. BEYOND THE IONOSPHERE FIFTYYEARS OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION ofArthur C.October 1995 marked the fiftieth anniversary World the useClarke's famous article in Wireless proposing orbit for worldwideof satellites inplaced geosynchronous The for itcommunications article proved prophetic,relay. era of telecommunications.heralded the modern several series of satellitesin the 1960s,Beginning early into Earth's trans-were launched orbit; collectively they twentieth aformed the latter century, creating global instantaneous communications.ofvillage limits radiothe had defined the ofionospherePreviously, communication: thetoday, by going beyond ionosphere, Thisbroadband telecommunication has entered a new age. ionos-book describes the first to theattempts go beyond Moon as aboth the earliest uses of thephere, including the mas-natural satellite and Echo,passive, relay Project Earth stations bouncedsive inflated satellite off which communications viaradio as well assignals, contemporary moons in orbit about the Earth. Itartificialactive-repeater and satellite communica-both American foreignanalyzes several satellitethe histories oftions, of and the con-the roles agencies,companies, government laboratories.tribution of research dur-book is a collectionofThe papers originally presented an international held in D.C.,symposium Washington,ing 1945 arti-the time of the fiftieth of Clarke'sat anniversary fromContributions from historians and other scholarscle. of onethe world a analysispresent stimulatingthroughout workof the most at todayimportant global technologies and how it and evolved.originated a and illumi-Andrew Butrica has edited comprehensiveJ. on this It iscollection of articles important subject.nating to understand thevital for seeking historyreading anyone in the twentiethof telecommunications of sci-received his Ph.D. in theAndrew Butrica historyJ. He is aat Iowa Stateence and technology University. historian in Franklin Newresearch Park, specializ-Jersey, Publishersin the of science. In 1990history Praegering Air Products andissued his Out Thin Air: Aof History of his book To See thein 1996Chemicals, Inc., 1940-1990; Radar wasUnseen: A Astronomy pub-History of Planetary Series.lished in theNASA History " A"EndeavourandAbout the Cover: InteLtat, acrylic byJim Alford. thethemission (7-16 1992)May accomplished capture ofnine-day to aVI satellite and the the satelliteIntelsat subsequent mating of theand its eventual In thisbooster floatingredeployment. painting, the Shuttlethe unionarchitectural of Spacecomponents symbolize Intelsat.with the communications satelliteEndeavour Courtesy of NASA Art no. 92-HC-716.the Program, 1/2,1-. From the collection of the zZ HIm. - Prelinger h 11 v JUibrarye San Francisco, California 2007 CIRCULATENOTDO THEBEYOND IONOSPHERE: Years Satellite CommunicationFifty of NASASP-4217 THEBEYOND IONOSPHERE: Years Satellite CommunicationFifty of Andrew EditorButrica,J. TheNASA SeriesHistory National Aeronautics and AdministrationSpace NASA OfficeHistory 1997D.C. 20546Washington, of Data Library Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication the Years of Satellite Communication/Andrew Butrica,Beyond Ionosphere: Fifty J. editor. cm. historical SP:p. (NASA series) (NASA 4217) Includes references and index.289)bibliographical (p. 1. Artificial satellites in telecommunication. I. Andrew II. Series. III. Series:Butrica, J. NASA 17.42SP; TK5104.B48 1997 97-10856621.382'38 dc21 GIF For sale the U.S. Government Officeby Printing ofDocuments, Mail SSOP, DC 20402-9328Superintendent Stop: Washington, ISBN 0-16-049054-5 To the dreamers and doers satellite communications:pioneering of Arthur C. who envisioned the orbitand aClarke, geosynchronous global satellite television Robinson the visionsnetwork; Pierce,John for transforming of his science into a science Col. H. andEcho;fiction fact, John DeWitt,Jr., Zoltdn the communications links;Bay,for achieving first successful space and H. who turned theMoon intoTrexler,James humanity'sfirst communications satellite.