Book 10 years
49 Pages
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Book 10 years

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summary Introduction p 4 Challenge n°1: Cap for a new global energy balance p 8 Challenge n°2: The digital transformation of our world is far from over p 16 Challenge n°3: The era of the internet of things is on its way! p 24 Challenge n°4: Towards predictive individualised medicine p 32 Challenge n°5: Innovation to support high-performance, reliable chemistry p 40 Challenge n°6: Tomorrow's buildings: efcient, durable and connected p 48 Challenge n°7: More competitive, cleaner and more fe xible factories p 56Acknowledgements Challenge n°8: Innovative and participative "smart cities" on the way p 64 We would like to thank all of our teams, especially the teams of consultant who work Challenge n°9: Towards cleaner, safer transport p 72 with our clients every day. We would like to thank our clients for placing their trust in us, over the long term, Challenge n°10: Make better use of our resources and reuse our waste p 80 to assist with large-scale technological projects that are often very innovative. Presenting the group p 88 2 3 “We want to restore the nobility and magic to technology, inspiring ambition into the coming generations.” Proud to be engineers electing one of the least high-tech objects of all - a book - to communicate about the St echnological innovations of the future might initially sound paradoxical. Have we gone about the wrong way?

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Published 18 November 2016
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Language English
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summary
Introduction p 4
Challenge n°1: Cap for a new global energy balance p 8
Challenge n°2: The digital transformation of our world is far from over p 16
Challenge n°3: The era of the internet of things is on its way! p 24
Challenge n°4: Towards predictive individualised medicine p 32
Challenge n°5: Innovation to support high-performance, reliable chemistry p 40
Challenge n°6: Tomorrow's buildings: efcient, durable and connected p 48
Challenge n°7: More competitive, cleaner and more fe xible factories p 56Acknowledgements
Challenge n°8: Innovative and participative "smart cities" on the way p 64
We would like to thank all of our teams, especially the teams of consultant who work Challenge n°9: Towards cleaner, safer transport p 72
with our clients every day.
We would like to thank our clients for placing their trust in us, over the long term, Challenge n°10: Make better use of our resources and reuse our waste p 80
to assist with large-scale technological projects that are often very innovative.
Presenting the group p 88
2 3“We want to restore the nobility and
magic to technology, inspiring ambition
into the coming generations.”
Proud to be engineers
electing one of the least high-tech objects
of all - a book - to communicate about the St echnological innovations of the future
might initially sound paradoxical. Have we gone
about the wrong way? In reality, books - from
the very frst blocks of wood or clay to today’s
e-books - have provided a refection of all stages
of knowledge and human progress. They are a
medium that gives a lasting physical expression
to a text, an idea or a discovery. This is what we
wanted to achieve with this review of what is in
prospect: to make the future seem real.
This could well be agap2's motto for the coming
decade. We are living, worldwide, through a period
of profound change, which can be seen from the
scale of the challenges to be overcome: climate
change, energy sources and the need for housing,
food, health and transport, etc.
Arnaud Guirouvet Patrice Giudicelli Franck Deschodt
Co-founder & Managing Director Co-founder & President Co-founder & Managing Director
4 5All of these are felds where technology is called upon set to play a The solutions can also be more elegant! We should never forget that
major role in the search for solutions that allow us to both respond technology is also related to aesthetics. Aren't bridges, viaducts and
to humanity's growing requirements and the need to protect our other structures spoken of as works of art? Aeroplane designer Marcel
resources and the environment. This book gives us an opportunity to Dassault understood this well, and he loved saying: "A beautiful plane
review the main trends that are emerging in engineering to respond to is one that fies well." This is how we can reinspire the most talented
the challenges posed by this century. This is a thrilling task, which we young people with an ambition to become engineers and use their
are happy to share with you in the following pages. During this journey, intelligence and spirit in pursuit of ambitious goals.
you will note that reality is often only one step away from a dream, This pride in being an engineer is something we foster and promote at
though it might need to be a giant step. agap2's engineers are some agap2. Whatever role we play in society, more than anything else we are
of the pioneers who are working to build this brave new world. We are engineers, passionate about methods and techniques, always ready to
taking the opportunity to mention some of the large-scale projects to give the very best that we can. 10 years after the creation of agap2, we
which agap2 has contributed, and continues to contribute. are still driven by a will to win, surpass ourselves, and build the future.
But this book is also a manifesto. We want to use this book to We proclaim our decision to send our teams to work with clients that
express the pride that we feel about working as engineers. We want belong to sectors that difer greatly, one from another, so that we do
to rest ore the nobility and magic to technology, inspiring ambition in not create experts in a single culture but, instead, give our engineers
the coming generations. We are convinced that technology equates to the means to take a cross-cutting approach to problem solving. That
progress: both social and human progress. There will always be some is what our clients appreciate the most: our ability to transfer solutions
risk associated with any sort of progress, and we are happy to take from one feld to another, and to import wisdom from diferent worlds
responsibility for it. This is a risk that needs to be accepted, while being to their projects.
confdent of our ability to adapt and react if required. Indeed, the great This is much like bees pollinating fowers as they travel from one to
poet Hölderlin once wrote: "But where the danger is, also grows the the next. Our engineers could be called "technological pollinators",
saving power". resolving t echnological problems and enabling our clients to make
This confdence in the future is also typical of engineers, and especially faster progress.
those at agap2 who work on a wide range of projects around the world.
This book is written to fully acknowledge their work. E ngineers are
We are proud of our teams!
everywhere. Without them our world would come creaking to a halt.
We would be on a drifting ship. All too often engineers are kept in the
engine room, working away in the shadows while they are overfowing
with ideas that could improve our lives! At agap2, we are inclined
to bring them up to the bridge, and make them visible. They can be
expected to come up with solutions that are ever-more suited to
meeting the expectations and constraints of the age.
6 7 En Ergy
Challenge Ca p for a new global energy balance
How can a continually increasing energy 40%
demand be met while also combating
climate change? The need to respond of electricity will come to this issue means that every country
around the world has to reduce its
reliance on fossil fuels, make nuclear from renewable energy
energy safer, increase the performance of
renewable-energy systems, and optimise in 2050
their overall energy consumption. These
are the main challenges that the world's
engineers currently face.
Nuclear energy: improving security
Nuclear energy can play a key role in ensuring a
successful energy transition, thanks to innovations
that have provided improvements in 3 key areas: the
yield from uranium, processing nuclear waste, and
the safety and security of nuclear sites. European
Pressurized Reactors (EPR™) reactors are the frst
stage in a wholesale modernisation of the nuclear
energy sector around the world. French companies
have played a central role in developing these reactors,
that can cut electricity generation costs by 10% and
reduce uranium consumption in comparison with
current reactors. EPR™ systems are also safer, as
a result of design innovations and new construction Among renewable energy sources, wind power ranks second after hydro power
(78%). Its share of worldwide electricity generation is around 5%. methods.
Wind and solar are the forms of renewable energy to have developed the most
over the past 10 years (source: Observ’ER). 4 such power plants are currently being built around
the world: in France, England, Finland and China.
8 9Challenge En Ergy
TMEPR REAc TORS agap2 Exp E tis E
TMDevelopment of EPR power stations
TMagap2 is a partner in developing 4 nuclear reactors of the type EPR
worldwide: at Flamanville in France, Hinkley Point in Great Britain,
Olkiluoto in Finland and Taishan in China. This new generation
of pressurised water reactors should improve both the safety
and economic viability of nuclear power stations .
KAOMBO OFFSHORE WIND FARMS
agap2 has been entrusted with modelling certain nuclear-reactor
systems. Establishing wind farms Reconversion
of the coasts of Franceof ofshore platforms
EDF EN, a subsidiary of the EDF The Kaombo project is part
group, has been successful in of a reconversion plan for 2 ofshore
the French government’s call for oil platforms of the coast of
tenders to establish 3 ofshore wind Angola. The aim is to derive
farms of the coasts of France. value from the oil deposits
to be found at depths of between There has been a second call
1400 and 1950 metres. Each for tenders, for another two wind
platform will have a production farms.
capacity of 115,000 barrels a day. Consultation with potential
suppliers; negotiations and
drawing up of contracts;
compliance with purchasing
procedures.
Gwenaëlle, Purchaser,
Paris - FRANc E
Looking forward to 2050, it is hoped that the int ernational
ITER project, based on atomic fusion, will be able to
BIOMASS POWER STATIONe xtract more energy from the nuclear fusion process Listing all the theor etical aspects to be taken into account to ensure
Monitoring of Front End
than is required to initiate it. Simultaneously, the ASTRID the safety and cost-efectiveness of the piping and valve systems: Construction of a CBEM Engineering & Design (FEED);
project, to produce Fast Neutron Reactors, is intended – Mechanic al calculations (of fatigue, military shock, ability to withstand biomass power station evaluation of the technical ofers
seismic events, etc.).to vastly increase yields, using the same quantity of made by the contractors being At Estrées-Mons, in the département
– Modelling and analysis of the behaviour of piping and various other syst ems. considered; studies of Boosted uranium and plutonium as current reactors to produce of Somme, CNIM has built a biomass
– Modelling using Syspipe software. Production, Production power station for the CBEM company. over a hundred times as much electricity. For the moment,
Availability and RAM, and The installation (72 t/h of steam this science is still only at a pilot stage. However, if testing over a period of 15 years is Lætitia, Mechanical Expert, Flamanville - FRANcE
optimisation of HIPPS on turret. at 92 bar and 520 °C) produces Achraf , Piping calculation Engineer, Olkiluoto - FINLAND successful, it could result in the roll-out of a fourth generation of nuclear power plants
13 MWe and provides the steam François, Quality Engineer, Olkiluoto - FINLAND Rebecca, Process Engineer, from 2040 onwards.
Kévin, Mechanical Engineer, Saint Vallier - FRANcE for a Bonduelle plant.Angola - AFRIc A
Purchase of industrial equipment Increasing the performance of renewable energy sources
for construction: pumps, valves,
travelling cranes and Wind, solar, hydro, biomass and geothermal energy will account for a quarter of the
instrumentation.energy mix in 2018 (source: IAE). By 2050, 40% of electricity will come from renewable
sources, particularly from solar photovoltaic (conventional and concentrated forms) and Jérôme, Project Purchaser,
Seyne-sur-Mer - FRANcEsolar thermal systems.
The challenge for the future is to make the best use of every possible renewable energy
source. Oceans cover 80% of the earth's surface, so engineers are currently working to
produce a new generation of tidal-power systems. The United Kingdom is expected to
10 11
rChallenge En Ergy
Moving towards nuclear fusion
There are 2 processes that produce nuclear energy. Firstly,
a storage point at a higher altitude, with the nuclear fission, which is used in current nuclear power
plants, and secondly, nuclear fusion, which occurs in the potential energy then used to drive turbines
sun. This second form is what engineers are still trying during consumption peaks), battery storage,
to master. Nuclear fusion consists of joining two smaller
and hydrogen systems.
nuclei together to form a single larger nucleus, which
Pumped-storage hydro-electricity is a releases a large volume of energy. The problem is that
nuclear fusion occurs only at temperatures approaching fully mature technology but will require the
150 million degrees Celsius. How can such temperatures be construction of new dams. The technology
reached and kept under control? That is the goal that the
could also be produced on a smaller scale to use
international ITER project set out to achieve at Cadarache,
any excess energy produced from a renewable southern France, in 1985.
source. In addition, research into metal-air At the heart of the project is an experimental tokamak
batteries will provide a t echnological boost category thermonuclear reactor (with a magnetic chamber
that confines the fusion plasma). As fuel, it will use for the transport sector when improvements
deuterium and tritium rather than uranium. The frst phase are made in methods to recover and recycle
consists of testing the technologies needed to make a 1500
build the frst such power plant in the Severn lithium. "Household batteries" are already on
MW reactor, which will in turn be used to test the industrial
Estuary: 90 turbines should be producing the way; they will allow energy to be stored in feasibility of generating electricity by nuclear fusion.
between 1,800 and 2,800 MW by 2022. the home and then drawn on when required. Construction should be finished in 2020, followed
by an experimentation phase of 30 years. After this The frst foating wind-powered generators, Also, technology for producing and storing
demonstration phase, an industrial prototype could be built, installed in deep water (Sea Reed project), hydrogen looks set to improve the management
in around 2050, at which point ITER will then be dismantled.
will soon be tested. Each of the generators of fuctuations in energy supplies from new
will supply 6 MW. There is also work on other sources. The Power to Gas concept, based on producing projects based around thermal energy in the the storage of surplus energy by converting it
sea. This technology will use the diference in to hydrogen or synthetic methane, has a lot of clean energy
temperature between warmer surface waters potential. in the future?and cooler waters deeper down, and can be
expected to make a large number of islands Smart grids and energy saving
independent in terms of their energy. There are
Improvements need to be made not only in
plans for around 25 French power plants of this
producing energy, but also in control of its
variety to be built by 2030.
use. This is the objective of "smart grids".
Last but not least, there has been increased Integrated with Information & Communication
research into algae and how they could be Technologies (ICT), these “smart” electricity
used to produce a third-generation fuel. The networks can gather data and analyse it so tunur : the light will shine fro M the desert…
advantage of such fuels is that they would be that stakeholders in the sector (producers,
Building gigantic solar power stations in the deserts of northern Africa’s Maghreb region, and supplying using naturally produced compounds with a distributors and end-users) can act at any time
Europe with clean electricity: this is the dream of the TuNur project. Financed by the governments of high energy content. If grown on a massive in a fexible and ultra-decentralised manner t o Tunisia, Malta and the United Kingdom, TuNur is based around concentrated solar energy. The principle is
scale, the algae would be producing a high- optimise the energy supply and demand in real that thousands of mirrors focus the sun’s rays onto a receiving unit installed at the top of a tower, where
performance biofuel. this solar radiation heats molten salts. During the night, these release the heat in the form of steam, which time.
2in turn drives turbines. The power plant is being built over an area of 100 km in the Tunisian desert and,
French and other European engineers are Improving energy storage starting in 2018, is expected to produce 2.5 GW of electricity. This will be supplied to distribution networks
at the cutting edge of this technology, with in Europe through under-sea cables and high-voltage power lines. It should provide sufcient power to
Energy storage remains the biggest challenge numerous trials being carried out in various supply 2.5 million European households, mainly in Germany and the UK.
to successful energy transition. 3 innovative European locations.
systems are being developed: pumped-storage
hydro-electricity (in which water is pumped to
12 13
Nataliya Hora / Shutterstock.com
... what next?dream
AND SURPASS YOURSELF! C
Challenge The digital transfor mation of our world is far from over
The digital revolution is bringing major
change to every sector of the economy:
from land transport (management of By 2020 journeys and routes) and in the air
(3D design of aircraft), to business Internet trafc (real-time stock management), energy
(smart grids) and health (“telemedicine”).
The latest development in this revolution will have tripled
comes through "cloud" computing,
which constitutes a new generation of IT
infrastructure, fed by a new resource:
Big Data.
The journey has started, but there's still
a long way to go!
t would now be impossible to imagine our world
without computers and information technology I (ICT), which have become of strategic importance,
contributing to innovation and productivity in every
sector. The internet has brought about a "digital
revolution" that has profoundly changed economic
activities and models as well as our behaviour as both
consumers and citizens. This digital transformation of
our world is far from over. In fact, it has accelerated
with the development of smartphones, tablets, and
ultra-portable computers, etc. And it will continue to
Over the years up to 2020, the increased data available do so with the Internet of Things, robotics, artificial
through hyperconnection is expected to swell Internet
intelligence and cybernetics.trafc to three times its present volume.
How can saturation of the networks be avoided? That is
the challenge IT engineers have to solve.
16 17
itChallenge C
Mieux utiliser nos ressources et valoriser nos déchets
agap2IT Exp E tis E
INFORMATION TEc HNOLOGY SYSTEMS
THE c LOuD
This goes hand in hand with the rise in
Migration of IT sy stems nanotechnology and the use of innovative
to the “cloud”mat erials such as graphene. This is formed
GS1 Portugal is a standards body by a single layer of carbon atoms, and its
for trade. It brings together
exceptional properties (resistance, conductivity,
producers of raw materials, brands,
transparency , etc.) could eventually produce distributors and retailers, industrial
a revolution equivalent to that caused by associations and technological
companies.silicon in the microelectronics sector. More
specifcally, it could reduce the temperature of Establishing a solution through
(Microsoft’s) Azure; ensuring microprocessor s, and their energy consumption.
permanence of the service Finally, the improved performance of processors
for customer applications,
is driven by the development of supercomputing while improving performance
("massively parallel" or "highly distributed" and security.
systems), which is required for processing large Creation of a tool to manage IT systems T eam of 3 consultants ,
volumes of data (for simulation, research, etc.).
Lisbon - PORTuGALIn Portugal, until recently, each ministry had its own IT system and managed its services
autonomously, which resulted in considerable organisational costs. In the course Cloud Computing:
of negotiations with the European Union and the IMF, the government decided optimal architecture Components: to modernise the way its IT systems are run.
SOLIDARITY PLATFORMThe "cloud" is an environment that allows power and miniaturisation Establishing a t ool for policy and management of governmental IT systems, enabling
storage, sharing and the running of programs Creation of a skills-exchange costs to be reduced by 80%.With operating systems and applications remotely (the term "virtualisation" is used) market
– Identifying the key factors for success.having ever-greater calculation speeds, IT over an internet connection. It thus ofers Bolsa Voluntariado is a website that – Establishing a programme to manage change and continuous improvement.
equipment manuf acturers need to constantly brings together people who wish on-demand IT , which means that companies – Deciding on the levels of organisational entities to be involved.
supply processors that are more powerful, more to enter into a commitment can economise on infrastructure and do – Using COBIT 5 software and methods.
as voluntary workers, with compact and more energy efcient. R ecent not need to invest in expensive computing
Nearshore platform project associations who are seeking
history has shown a doubling in processor resources that are soon obsolete. They are Team of 20 consultants, such workers.
power every 18 months, known as Moore's able to scale their IT architecture to their Lisbon - PORTuGAL Development of the association’s
Law, and the intensifcation now expected requirements with a high degree of fe xibility Internet platform as part of its
is known as "more Moore". At the same time, and reliability. In addition, the “cloud” is a agap4all social-action
programme.the microelectronics sector needs to produce platform that can be used for new processes:
ever-more-complex components. Work is in increases in mobile terminals, the development Team of 6 consultants
hand to integrate new functions (through the of collaborative processes, mobility of users, including Sergio
and Francisco, Developers, use of sensors, actuators, radio-frequency etc. The cloud depends on the construction of
Lisbon - PORTuGALcircuits, 3D stacks, etc.) to meet industrial gigantic highly-automated datacenters. The
requirements, such as in the medical feld and scale of these investments can be met only
in embedded electronics, and this, in turn, is by large multinationals. These days, "holistic"
referred to as "more than Moore". security is used to designate protection from
18 19
irt