Aéroports : la sécurité des aéroports américains étrillée par un rapport
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Aéroports : la sécurité des aéroports américains étrillée par un rapport

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Description

Explosifs qui passent à travers les mailles du filet, équipements défaillants et embauche de personnes soupçonnées de terrorisme : le système américain de sécurité dans les aéroports est mis au pilori après la découverte de multiples "vulnérabilités", dévoilées mardi 9 juin par un rapport de l'Inspection générale (OIG).

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Published 10 June 2015
Reads 4
Language English
Document size 4 MB
TSA Can Improve Aviation Worker Vetting (Redacted)
OIG-15-98 June 4, 2015
DHS OIG HIGHLIGHTSTSA Can Improve Aviation Worker Vetting
June 4, 2015
Why We Did This
We conducted this review to identify enhancements to the Transportation Security Administration’s (TSA) vetting of workers with access to secure areas of commercial airports for links to terrorism, criminal history, and lawful status. We also assessed the accuracy and reliability of data TSA uses for vetting.
What We Recommend
TSA should request and review additional watchlist data, require that airports improve verification of applicants’ right to work, revoke credentials when the right to work expires, and improve the quality of vetting data.
For Further Information: Contact our Office of Public Affairs at (202) 254-4100, or email us at DHS-OIG.OfficePublicAffairs@oig.dhs.gov
www.oig.dhs.gov
What We Found
TSA’s multi-layered process to vet aviation workers for potential links to terrorism was generally effective. In addition to initially vetting every application for new credentials, TSA recurrently vetted aviation workers with access to secured areas of commercial airports every time the Consolidated Terrorist Watchlist was updated. However, our testing showed that TSA did not identify 73 individuals with terrorism-related category codes because TSA is not authorized to receive all terrorism-related information under current interagency watchlisting policy.
TSA had less effective controls in place for ensuring that aviation workers 1) had not committed crimes that would disqualify them from having unescorted access to secure airports areas, and 2) had lawful status and were authorized to work in the United States. In general, TSA relied on airport operators to perform criminal history and work authorization checks, but had limited oversight over these commercial entities. Thus, TSA lacked assurance that it properly vetted all credential applicants.
Further, thousands of records used for vetting workers contained potentially incomplete or inaccurate data, such as an initial for a first name and missing social security numbers. TSA did not have appropriate edit checks in place to reject such records from vetting. Without complete and accurate information, TSA risks credentialing and providing unescorted access to secure airport areas for workers with potential to harm the nation’s air transportation system.
TSA Response
TSA concurred with all six recommendations.
OIG-15-98
OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERALDepartment of Homeland Security
Table of Contents
Results of Audit..................................................................................... 2
Background……….……… ..................……………………………………………4
TSA Can Enhance Its Process for Vetting Aviation Workers.................... 9
TSA Can Improve the Reliability of Its Vetting Data....…………………...14
Recommendations…………………………………………………………………..16
Appendixes
Appendix A:Transmittal to Action Official ……………………………20 Appendix B:Scope and Methodology…………………………………...21 Appendix C:TSA Comments to the Draft Report...………………….23 Appendix D:Major Contributors to This Report... ...............……..30 Appendix E:Report Distribution…………………..…………………….31
Abbreviations
CBP CFR CHRC CSG DAC DHS EAB FBI IR&A NCTC OIG SAVE SIDA SSN TIDE TSA TVS USCIS VAD
www.oig.dhs.gov
Customs and Border Protection Code of Federal Regulations Criminal History Records Check Consolidated Screening Gateway Designated Aviation Channeler Department of Homeland Security Encounter Analysis Branch Federal Bureau of Investigation Investigations, Referrals & Analysis National Counterterrorism Center Office of Inspector General Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements Program Secure Identification Display Area Social Security Number Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment Transportation Security Administration Transportation Vetting System United States Citizenship and Immigration Service Vetting Analysis Division
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OIG-15-98
OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERALDepartment of Homeland Security
Results of Audit
We reviewed the Transportation Security Administration’s (TSA) controls over the vetting of aviation workers possessing or applying for credentials that allow unescorted access to secured areas of commercial airports. Specifically, we assessed TSA’s process for vetting workers for terrorist links, criminal history, and lawful status. We also sought to determine the accuracy and reliability of data TSA uses for vetting.
We determined that TSA had multiple, layered controls for vetting workers for terrorism. TSA designed its vetting procedures to 1) match new applicants for credentials, and 2) repeatedly re-vet nearly 1 million existing credential holders against the Consolidated Terrorist Watchlist within minutes of receiving updated watchlist data. This process resulted in thousands of watchlist hits that TSA analysts manually reviewed during fiscal year 2014. TSA also proactively identified relationships between current credential holders and watchlisted individuals and nominated over 300 individuals to the watchlist across all credential programs. In addition, TSA recently made improvements to the quality of the aviation worker data used for vetting.
Despite these layered controls, our testing showed that TSA did not identify 73 individuals with terrorism-related category codes. According to TSA data, these individuals were employed by major airlines, airport vendors, and other employers. TSA did not identify these individuals through its vetting operations because it is not authorized to receive all terrorism-related categories under current interagency watchlisting policy. Excluded categories
TSA acknowledged that these individuals were cleared for access to secure airport areas despite representing a potential transportation security threat.
TSA had less effective controls in place to ensure that airports have a robust verification process over a credential applicant’s criminal history and authorization to work in the United States. TSA did not perform recurrent criminal records checks similar to its terrorism vetting due to current law and FBI policies. TSA depended on 467 commercial airports and air carriers to verify credential holders’ criminal histories through a limited review process, and relied on the credential holders themselves to report disqualifying crimes to the airports where they worked. Further, TSA had to deny thousands of credentials to individuals because it could not verify their lawful status, even though airports represented that these individuals had passed the airports’ own work authorization verification.
We identified thousands of TSA data records containing potentially incomplete and inaccurate biographic information. TSA relied on airports to gather
www.oig.dhs.gov
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OIG-15-98
OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERALDepartment of Homeland Security
complete and accurate information from the credential applicants. According to vetting officials, TSA can only vet workers based on data received from airports. While TSA had made some improvements to its data collection to meet its requirements, TSA lacked assurance that it properly vetted all credential applicants.
We recommended that TSA work with the necessary interagency partners to determine if its aviation worker credential program warrants the receipt of additional categories of terrorism-related data, require airports to improve their verification of applicants’ right to work, and terminate credentials when the right to work expires. We also recommended that TSA take steps to ensure the data it uses for aviation worker vetting are complete and accurate.
www.oig.dhs.gov
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OIG-15-98
OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERALDepartment of Homeland Security
Background
TSA was created in 2001 to ensure the safety and free movement of people and commerce within the Nation’s transportation systems. As part of this mission, TSA also has statutory responsibility for properly vetting aviation workers such as baggage handlers and airline and vendor employees with unescorted access to Secure Identification Display Area (SIDA) and sterile areas of commercial airports.
Chapter 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and TSA Security Directive 1542-04-08G require that individuals applying for credentials to work in secure areas of commercial airports undergo background checks prior to being granted badges that allow them unescorted access to secure areas. Each background check includes 1) a security threat assessment from TSA, including a terrorism check; 2) a fingerprint-based criminal history records check (CHRC); and 3) evidence of the applicants’ right to work in the United States. The CHRC determines whether the credential applicant has a disqualifying criminal offense in the previous 10 years. These crimes fall into 28 categories, including crimes involving air safety as well as violent felonies, fraud, and bribery.
Under Security Directive 1542-04-08G, TSA relies on airport operators to collect and verify applicant data for individuals seeking credentials. This data includes each applicant’s name, address, date of birth, place of birth, country of citizenship, passport number, and alien registration number (if applicable). Social security number (SSN) is not currently a required field on the aviation worker credential application, but is collected if provided by the applicant. TSA also relies on airport or air carrier employees to collect an applicant’s fingerprints for the CHRC. Airports use one of three Designated Aviation Channelers (DAC) to submit prospective aviation worker information and changes to biographic data for existing workers to TSA. The DACs ensure the applicant’s biographic and fingerprint information is complete and formatted properly before forwarding the information to TSA for vetting.
Once it receives biographic data from the Consolidated Screening Gateway (CSG), the Vetting Analysis Division (VAD) of TSA’s Office of Intelligence and Analysis uses the Transportation Vetting System (TVS) to match credential applicants against its extract of the DHS Watchlist Service to identify individuals with potential links to terrorism. TSA also re-vets airport workers with unescorted access to secure areas of commercial airports against the watchlist on a recurring real-time basis. That is, it performs a match of all existing airport workers every time it receives watchlist updates, which may
www.oig.dhs.gov
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OIG-15-98
OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERALDepartment of Homeland Security
1 happen many times in a day. TSA’s matching model scores each worker it vets against the Consolidated Terrorist Watchlist using various rules, such as name matches; SSN, passport number or alien registration number matches; address matches; or combinations of different variables. TVS scores potential matches automatically and presents them to analysts for manual review and analysis. Analysts then determine whether the potential match represents a true name match. For true name matches, analysts prepare a preliminary vetting match report that includes all relevant information related to the match. VAD sends the report to TSA’s Investigations, Referrals & Analysis (IR&A) to help conduct a full investigation.
Figure 1 provides an overview of this vetting process. As shown in figure 1, upon receiving information from VAD, the IR&A team performs additional research to determine whether a potential match is indeed a real match. If necessary, IR&A coordinates with other law enforcement or terrorism prevention agencies to arrive at a final disposition.
1 In addition to aviation workers, TSA also recurrently re-vets over 13 million other credential holders in programs such as the Transportation Worker Identification Credential and Federal Aviation Administration Airmen Certificate.
www.oig.dhs.gov
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OIG-15-98
OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERALDepartment of Homeland Security
Figure 1. TSA Vetting Process
Source: Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Inspector General (OIG) analysis of TSA vetting procedures.
www.oig.dhs.gov
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OIG-15-98
OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERALDepartment of Homeland Security
Based on its additional research, IR&A may direct the airport to:
grant the credential (for a new applicant), deny the credential (for a new applicant), revoke an existing credential (in the case of an existing credential holder who matched against the watchlist as part of the recurrent vetting process), or
IR&A confers with other governmental organizations, such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), that have nominated an individual to the watchlist or may have an open case on the individual. In some instances, other governmental organizations may request that TSA not direct the airport to deny or revoke a credential because the denial or revocation may impact an open investigation.
TSA Security Directive 1542-04-08G requires airport operators to perform a CHRC for all employees who require unescorted access to SIDA and sterile areas of commercial airports, except for Federal, State, or local government employees who already have CHRCs performed as conditions of their employment. To perform the CHRC, applicants submit fingerprint records to the appropriate airport operators, who in turn provide the fingerprint records to TSA. TSA sends the fingerprint records to the FBI for a background check. FBI returns the results to airport operators through TSA. Airport operators are responsible for conducting reviews of the applicant’s criminal history for criminal offenses that would disqualify the individual from unescorted access to secured areas of an airport. Disqualifying offenses are listed in 49 CFR 1542.209 and include espionage; sedition; treason; crimes involving terrorism, transportation security, or explosives; some violent offenses; and some felonies.
www.oig.dhs.gov
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OIG-15-98
OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERALDepartment of Homeland Security
Chapter 49 of the CFR and TSA Security Directive 1542-04-08G require that prospective credential applicants undergo immigration checks to ensure that the individuals have lawful presence and that airport operators verify the applicant’s authorization to work in the United States. This check occurs in two stages. First, airport operators collect and review documents validating that a credential applicant is authorized to work in the United States. For example, legal permanent residents and certain student visitors may have authorization to work in the United States, while tourists visiting the United States under a visitor visa would likely not have the right to work. The airport then forwards the validated file on the individual to TSA for a second review. During this review, TSA performs its verification to ensure that the individual has lawful status to be in the United States. According to TSA’s Security Directive, airports have to verify an individual’s authorization to work before sending their record to TSA for the security threat assessment, and not issue credentials unless the individual is authorized to work.
To check a prospective credential holder’s lawful status, TSA’s Security Threat Assessment Operations verifies against the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service’s (USCIS) Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements Program (SAVE) all individuals listed as being born outside the United States. SAVE provides the ability for Federal, State, or local benefit and licensing agencies to verify the immigration status of noncitizen applicants for Federal, State, or local benefits and licenses.
In 2011, we reported that TSA’s oversight of commercial airports’ badging process needed improvement, and made recommendations to TSA to help improve the accuracy and completeness of vetting information, improve identity 2 verification, and require recurrent vetting of applicant criminal histories. TSA took some steps to improve in those areas, including issuing guidance to airports to help improve data quality and encourage airport operators to use Customs and Border Protection’s (CBP) Identification Verification guide for periodic training. However, TSA is not currently authorized under law and FBI policy to conduct recurrent criminal history records checks, although it has made efforts to gain the authorization to perform recurrent checks.
2 DHS OIG,TSA’s Oversight of Airport Vetting Process Needs Improvement, OIG-11-95, July 7, 2011.
www.oig.dhs.gov
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OIG-15-98
OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERALDepartment of Homeland Security
TSA Can Enhance Its Process for Vetting Aviation Workers
TSA’s multiple, layered controls for vetting potential and existing credential holders against the Consolidated Terrorist Watchlist were generally effective. TSA performed initial and recurrent vetting, regularly tested the algorithms it uses for vetting, and proactively identified new terrorism suspects for nomination to the watchlist. An independent match performed by the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) found that overall, the TSA algorithms used and the manual review process were effective in identifying prospective and existing credential holders’ links to terrorism. However, we found that TSA did not receive certain terrorism-related category codes as part of the watchlist extract they used for vetting. Consequently, TSA’s vetting process did not identify 73 aviation workers with active badges that we determined had terrorism-related category codes.
TSA had less effective controls in place for ensuring that airports vet aviation workers for disqualifying criminal records and authorization to work in the United States. TSA relied on airport operators to perform criminal history and work authorization checks and had limited access to documentation supporting the airports’ credentialing decisions. As such, TSA lacked awareness of applicants’ criminal histories. TSA also had to deny credentials to 4,800 individuals that the airports had previously cleared for work in the United States because it could not verify lawful status for those individuals.
TSA’s Multi-Layered Process to Vet Workers for Links to Terrorism Was Generally Effective
The vetting and re-vetting procedures that TSA used were generally effective in identifying credential holders with links to terrorism. For example, since its inception in 2003, TSA has directed airports to deny or revoke 58 airport badges as a result of its vetting process for credential applicants and existing credential holders. According to TSA’s vetting managers, TSA’s recurrent vetting process has been a crucial tool in ensuring the security of the Nation’s transportation system. TSA has also taken the following steps to continually enhance this vetting process:
TSA implemented a quality review process to test and refine the effectiveness of its scoring model. According to vetting officials, testing the scoring model allowed TSA to determine what percentage of potential matches would represent true name matches, and gave TSA the ability to optimize the number and type of matches it presented to analysts for manual review.
The VAD tested its name matching algorithms against those of its peers. According to TSA officials, in 2013, TSA participated in a name-matching contest sponsored by the Mitre Corporation along with three other DHS
www.oig.dhs.gov
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