Ghana : Child Labor Fuels Gold Supply Chain
90 Pages
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Ghana : Child Labor Fuels Gold Supply Chain

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H U M A N PRECIOUS METAL, CHEAP LABORR I G H T S Child Labor and Corporate Responsibility in Ghana’s Artisanal Gold Mines W A T C H Precious Metal, Cheap Labor Child Labor and Corporate Responsibility in Ghana’s Artisanal Gold Mines Copyright © 2015 Human Rights Watch All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America ISBN: 978-1-6231-31609 Cover design by Rafael Jimenez Human Rights Watch defends the rights of people worldwide. We scrupulously investigate abuses, expose the facts widely, and pressure those with power to respect rights and secure justice. Human Rights Watch is an independent, international organization that works as part of a vibrant movement to uphold human dignity and advance the cause of human rights for all. Human Rights Watch is an international organization with staff in more than 40 countries, and offices in Amsterdam, Beirut, Berlin, Brussels, Chicago, Geneva, Goma, Johannesburg, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Nairobi, New York, Paris, San Francisco, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, Tunis, Washington DC, and Zurich. For more information, please visit our website: http://www.hrw.org JUNE 2015 978-1-6231-31609 Precious Metal, Cheap Labor Child Labor and Corporate Responsibility in Ghana’s Artisanal Gold Mines Map .................................................................................................................................... i Summary and Recommendations ........

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Published 12 June 2015
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Language English
Document size 6 MB

H U M A N
PRECIOUS METAL, CHEAP LABORR I G H T S
Child Labor and Corporate Responsibility in Ghana’s Artisanal Gold Mines
W A T C H











Precious Metal, Cheap Labor
Child Labor and Corporate Responsibility in Ghana’s
Artisanal Gold Mines



Copyright © 2015 Human Rights Watch
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
ISBN: 978-1-6231-31609
Cover design by Rafael Jimenez



Human Rights Watch defends the rights of people worldwide. We scrupulously investigate
abuses, expose the facts widely, and pressure those with power to respect rights and
secure justice. Human Rights Watch is an independent, international organization that
works as part of a vibrant movement to uphold human dignity and advance the cause of
human rights for all.

Human Rights Watch is an international organization with staff in more than 40 countries,
and offices in Amsterdam, Beirut, Berlin, Brussels, Chicago, Geneva, Goma, Johannesburg,
London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Nairobi, New York, Paris, San Francisco, Sydney, Tokyo,
Toronto, Tunis, Washington DC, and Zurich.

For more information, please visit our website: http://www.hrw.org JUNE 2015 978-1-6231-31609

Precious Metal, Cheap Labor
Child Labor and Corporate Responsibility in Ghana’s Artisanal Gold Mines

Map .................................................................................................................................... i
Summary and Recommendations ........................................................................................ 1
Methodology .....................................................................................................................14
I. Background: Gold Mining in Ghana ................................................................................ 16
II. Child Labor in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining ................................................... 19
Causes of Child Labor in Mining ............................................................................................. 20
Pay ......................................................................................................................................... 22
Working Hours ........................................................................................................................ 23
The Hazardous Nature of Mining Work..................................................................................... 24
Impact on Education ............................................................................................................... 31
Attitude of Mine Managers, Sponsors, and Traders to Child Labor ........................................... 34
III. Child Labor and the Gold Supply Chain: The Responsibility of Companies .................... 36
Responsibility of Companies in the Gold Supply Chain ............................................................ 36
From Ghana’s Mines to the Global Gold Market ....................................................................... 37
Due Diligence by Traders in Ghana .......................................................................................... 42 y Global Gold Refiners ................................................................................... 46
IV. Ghanaian Government Response ................................................................................. 57
Failure to Protect Children from Abuse .................................................................................... 57
Challenges in Ensuring Access to Education ............................................................................ 61
Government’s Approach to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining ......................................... 64
Addressing the Threat of Mercury ............................................................................................ 67
Regulating the Gold Trade ...................................................................................................... 69
V. Donors, UN Agencies, and NGOs ................................................................................... 70
Child Labor in Mining .............................................................................................................. 70
Mining and Mercury Use ......................................................................................................... 71
Supply Chain Due Diligence .................................................................................................... 72
VI. The Way Forward ......................................................................................................... 74
Full Recommendations ..................................................................................................... 75
To the Government of Ghana ................................................................................................... 75
To Ghanaian Export Companies, including the PMMC, and International Gold Refiners ......... 78
To Ghana’s Association of Small-Scale Miners ........................................................................ 79
To Gold Traders in Mining Areas ............................................................................................. 80
To Mine Managers and Machine Owners ................................................................................ 80
To Large-Scale Gold Mining Companies in Ghana ................................................................... 80
To the ECOWAS Commissioner on Gender and Social Affairs ................................................... 80
To the Government of Switzerland .......................................................................................... 80
To the Government of the United Arab Emirates ..................................................................... 80
To Donor Governments and Implementing Agencies, and UN Agencies .................................... 81
To the International Labour Organization ................................................................................ 81
To the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ........................................... 81
Acknowledgments ............................................................................................................ 82
Map
I HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH | JUNE 2015 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH | JUNE Women and children carry pans of ore at Dompim
mining site, Tarkwa-Nsuaem district, Western Region.
© 2014 Juliane Kippenberg/Human Rights Watch
PRECIOUS METAL, CHEAP LABOR
Child Labor and Corporate Responsibility in Ghana’s Artisanal Gold Mines