Rapport Complet sur le Trafic d
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Rapport Complet sur le Trafic d'humains : les enfants, premières victimes

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The exploitation of one human being by another is the basest crime. And yet trafficking in persons remains all too common, with all too few consequences for the perpetrators.
Since 2010, when the General Assembly mandated UNODC to produce this report under the UN Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons, we have seen too little improvement in the overall criminal justice response..
More than 90% of countries have legislation criminalizing human trafficking since the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, under the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, came into force more than a decade ago.
Nevertheless, this legislation does not always comply with the Protocol, or does not cover all forms of trafficking and their victims, leaving far too many children, women and men vulnerable. Even where legislation is enacted, imple- mentation often falls short.
As a result, the number of convictions globally has remained extremely low. Between 2010 and 2012, some 40 per cent of countries reported less than 10 convictions per year. Some 15 per cent of the 128 countries covered in this report did not record a single conviction. The pre- vious Global Report similarly found that 16 per cent of countries recorded no convictions between 2007 and 2010.
At the same time, we have continued to see an increase in the number of detected child victims, particularly girls under 18.
Most detected trafficking victims are subjected to sexual exploitation, but we are seeing increased numbers traf- ficked for forced labour.
Between 2010 and 2012, victims holding citizenship from 152 different countries were found in 124 countries. It should be kept in mind that official data reported to UNODC by national authorities represent only what has been detected. It is clear that the reported numbers are only the tip of the iceberg.
It is equally clear that without robust criminal justice responses, human trafficking will remain a low-risk, high- profit activity for criminals.
Trafficking happens everywhere, but as this report shows most victims are trafficked close to home, within the region or even in their country of origin, and their exploit- ers are often fellow citizens. In some areas, trafficking for armed combat or petty crime, for example, are s

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Published 24 November 2014
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GLOBAL REPORT ON
TRAFFICKING
IN PERSONS
USD 22
ISBN 978-92-1-130309-4
United Nations publication printed in Malta
Sales No. E.13.IV.1 – December 2012 – 3,000
2014UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME
Vienna
Global Report on
Trafficking in Persons
2014
UNITED NATIONS
New York, 2014This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for
educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the
copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made.
Suggested citation: UNODC, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014
(United Nations publication, Sales No. E.14.V.10).
Comments on the report are welcome and can be sent to:
Global Report on Trafficking in Persons Unit
Research and Trend Analysis Branch
Division for Policy Analysis and Public Affairs
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
P.O. Box 500
1400 Vienna
Austria
E-mail: globaltipreport@unodc.org
Tel.: (+43) 1 26060 0
Fax: (+43) 1 26060 5827
The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or
policies of UNODC, Member States or contributory organizations, and nor
does it imply any endorsement.
This document has not been formally edited. The designations employed
and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the
expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United
Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or
of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
boundaries.
Photo: © Alessandro Scotti, UN.GIFT
© United Nations, November 2014. All rights reserved, worldwide.
UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION
Sales No. E.14.V.10
ISBN: 978-92-1-133830-0
e-ISBN: 978-92-1-057108-1PREFACE
The exploitation of one human being by another is the It is equally clear that without robust criminal justice
basest crime. And yet trafficking in persons remains all responses, human trafficking will remain a low-risk,
hightoo common, with all too few consequences for the profit activity for criminals.
perpetrators.
Trafficking happens everywhere, but as this report shows
Since 2010, when the General Assembly mandated most victims are trafficked close to home, within the
UNODC to produce this report under the UN Global region or even in their country of origin, and their
exploitPlan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons, we have ers are often fellow citizens. In some areas, trafficking for
seen too little improvement in the overall criminal justice armed combat or petty crime, for example, are significant
response.. problems.
More than 90% of countries have legislation criminalizing Responses therefore need to be tailored to national and
human trafficking since the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress regional specifics if they are to be effective, and if they are
and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and to address the particular needs of victims, who may be
Children, under the United Nations Convention against child soldiers or forced beggars, or who may have been
Transnational Organized Crime, came into force more enslaved in brothels or sweatshops.
than a decade ago.
Governments need to send a clear signal that human
trafNevertheless, this legislation does not always comply with ficking will not be tolerated, through Protocol-compliant
the Protocol, or does not cover all forms of trafficking and legislation, proper enforcement, suitable sanctions for
contheir victims, leaving far too many children, women and victed traffickers and protection of victims.
men vulnerable. Even where legislation is enacted,
impleI hope the 2014 report, by providing an overview of
patmentation often falls short.
terns and flows of human trafficking at the global, regional
As a result, the number of convictions globally has and national levels, will further augment UNODC’s work
remained extremely low. Between 2010 and 2012, some to support countries to respond more effectively to this
40 per cent of countries reported less than 10 convictions crime.
per year. Some 15 per cent of the 128 countries covered
We have seen that governments and people everywhere in this report did not record a single conviction. The
preare approaching human trafficking with greater urgency. vious Global Report similarly found that 16 per cent of
This year, we marked the first ever United Nations World countries recorded no convictions between 2007 and
Day against Trafficking in Persons on 30 July, which pro-2010.
vided a much-needed opportunity to further raise
awareAt the same time, we have continued to see an increase in ness of modern slavery.
the number of detected child victims, particularly girls
But we need to advance from understanding to undertak-under 18.
ing, from awareness to action. The gravity of this
continuMost detected trafficking victims are subjected to sexual ing exploitation compels us to step our response.
exploitation, but we are seeing increased numbers
trafficked for forced labour.
Between 2010 and 2012, victims holding citizenship from
152 different countries were found in 124 countries. It
should be kept in mind that official data reported to
UNODC by national authorities represent only what has Yury Fedotov
been detected. It is clear that the reported numbers are Executive Director
only the tip of the iceberg. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
1Editorial and production team
The Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014 was prepared by the
UNODC Global Report on Trafficking in Persons Unit under the
supervision of Angela Me, Chief of the Research and Trend Analysis Branch.
Core team
Kristiina Kangaspunta, Fabrizio Sarrica, Raggie Johansen.
Graphic design and layout
Suzanne Kunnen, Kristina Kuttnig.
Cartography
UNODC and Atelier de Cartographie de Sciences Po (Benoît Martin).
The Global Report on Trafficking in Persons Unit would like to thank the
UNODC Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Section, as well as
the Unit’s former intern Kelsey McGregor Perry for their valuable inputs
and support.
The Global Report on Trafficking in Persons Unit would also like to thank
Sheldon X. Zhang of San Diego State University for reviewing and
commenting upon draft Report content.
The report also benefited from the work and expertise of many other
UNODC staff members in Vienna and around the world.CONTENTS
Core results 5
Executive summary 7
Introduction 15
Methodology 17
I. GLOBAL OVERVIEW
TRAFFICKERS 23
TRAFFICKING VICTIMS 29
FORMS OF EXPLOITATION 33
TRAFFICKING FLOWS 37
TRAFFICKERS, ORGANIZED CRIME AND THE BUSINESS OF EXPLOITATION 43
THE RESPONSE TO TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 51
II. REGIONAL OVERVIEWS
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS IN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA 59
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS IN THE AMERICAS 70
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS IN SOUTH ASIA, EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC 77
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS IN AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST 81
Text boxes
Origin or destination country? 25
Intimate and/or close family relationships and trafficking in persons offending 28
Towards a global victim estimate? 30
Recruitment through feigned romantic relationships 32
Trafficking in persons and armed conflicts 42
Confiscated assets and compensation of human trafficking victims 53
Do confraternities control the trafficking of Nigerian victims in Europe? 56
MAPS
MAP 1: Share of foreign offenders among the total number of persons convicted of 24
trafficking in persons, by country, 2010-2012
MAP 2: Share of children among the number of detected victims, by country, 2010-2012 33
MAP 3: Countries that report forms of exploitation other than forced labour, sexual exploitation 35
or organ removal, 2010-2012
MAP 4: Shares of detected victims who are trafficked into the given country from another 39
subregion, 2010-2012
MAP 5: Shares of detected victims by subregional and transregional trafficking, 2010-2012 39
3MAP 6: Main destination areas of transregional trafficking flows (in blue) and their significant 40
origins, 2010-2012
MAP 7: Citizenships of convicted traffickers in Western and Central Europe, by subregion, 60
shares of the total, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
MAP 8: Origins of victims trafficked to W share of 63
the total number of victims detected there, 2010-2012
MAP 9: ficked to Western and Southern Europe, share of the total 63
number of victims detected there, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
MAP 10: Origins of victims trafficked to Central Europe and the Balkans, share of the total 64e recent)
MAP 11: Destinations of trafficking victims from Central Europe and the Balkans, as a 64
proportion of the total number of victims detected at specific destinations, 2010-2012
MAP 12: ficking victims from Eastern Europe and Central Asia, as a 69
proportion of the total number of victims detected at destination, 2010-2012
MAP 13: Origins of victims trafficked into North and Central America and the Caribbean, 73
shares of the total number of victims detected, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
MAP 14: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in North and Central America and 74
the Caribbean, proportion of the total number of detected victims at destinations,
2010-2012 (or more recent)
MAP 15: Origin of victims detected in South America, as a proportion of the total number 75
of victims detected in the subregion, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
MAP 16: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in South America, proportion of the 76
total number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
MAP 17: ficking victims originating in East Asia and the Pacific, proportion 79
of the total number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012 (or more recent)
MAP 18: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in South Asia, proportion of the total 80
number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012
MAP 19: ficking victims originating in West Africa, proportion of the total 83 2010-2012
MAP 20: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in East Africa, proportion of the total 83 2010-2012
MAP 21: Origins of victims trafficked to the Middle East, proportions of the total number of 84
victims detected there, 2010-2012
MAP 22: Destinations of trafficking victims originating in North Africa, proportion of the 85
total number of detected victims at destinations, 2010-2012
4
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2014CORE RESULTS
• Data coverage: 2010-2012 (or more recent). The data collection has revealed wide regional difference
with regard to the forms of exploitation (see figure).• Victims of 152 diferent citizenships have been
identifed in 124 countries across the world.
Forms of exploitation among detected • At least 510 trafcking fows have been detected.
trafficking victims, by region of detection,
• Some 64 per cent of convicted trafckers are citi- 2010-2012 (or more recent)
zens of the convicting country.
• Some 72 per cent of convicted trafckers are men,
Africa andand 28 per cent are women.
53% 37% 10%the Middle East
• 49 per cent of detected victims are adult women.
• 33 per cent of detected victims are children, which
Americasis a 5 per cent increase compared to the 2007-2010 48% 47% 4%
period.
East Asia,
South AsiaDetected victims of trafficking in persons, 26% 64% 10%and Pacificby age and gender, 2011
Europe and
66% 26% 8%WOMEN Central Asia
49%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Sexual exploitation Organ removal
Forced labour, Other forms
servitude and of exploitation
slavery like
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
MEN BOYS GIRLS
18% 12% 21%
Source: UNODC elaboration on national data.
5