Rapport : La malnutrition cause plus de maladies que le tabac, l
133 Pages
English
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Rapport : La malnutrition cause plus de maladies que le tabac, l'alcool et le sexe sans protection réunis.

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133 Pages
English

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The Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition published its new Report, Food systems and diets: Facing the challenges of the 21st century on the 23rd September 2016.

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Published 04 October 2016
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Food systems and diets: Facing the challenges of the 21st century
September 2016
Food systems and diets: Facing the challenges of the 21st century
his report includes important recommendations and advice for leaders at te most senior levels in countries and international organizations. It is also of direct relevance to all policy makers, decision makers, professionals, business people, experts and researcers wit interests in food systems and diets. Many of tese individuals will be directly concerned wit te production, processing, trade, regulation, supply and safety of food. However, oters may work in wider areas of policy and business, for example relating to: public ealt and well-being, mental ealt development, education, economic development, urbanization, globalization and demograpy.
Food systems and diets: Facing te callenges of te 21st century3
Copyrigt © 2016 by te Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition. RECOMMENDED CITATION: Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition. 2016. Food systems and diets: Facing te callenges of te 21st century. London, UK.
his report may be freely reproduced, in wole or in part, provided te original source is acknowledged. his publication is a product of te Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition and was autored by te Foresigt Project’s Lead Expert Group, supported by te Panel Secretariat. his publication was peer reviewed. he findings, interpretations, conclusions, advice and recommendations expressed in tis work do not necessarily reflect te views of te organizations or te governments te Global Panel members represent.
ISBN 978-0-9956228-0-7
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Global Panel members:
Jon Kufuor,(Co-Cair) Former President of Gana
José Graziano da Silva,Director General, Food and Agriculture Organization of te United Nations (FAO)
Roda Peace Tumusiime, Commissioner for Rural Economy and Agriculture, African Union Commission
Sir Jon Beddington, (Co-Cair) Former UK Government Cief Scientific Adviser
Agnes Kalibata,President, Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)
Srinat Reddy,President, Public Healt Foundation of India
Akinwumi Adesina, President, African Development Bank (AfDB)
Racel Kyte,Special Representative of te UN Secretary General for Sustainable Energy; and CEO of Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All)
Emmy Simmons,Board Member, Partnersip to Cut Hunger and Poverty in Africa/AGree
Tom Arnold,Director General, Institute of International and European Affairs (IIEA)
Maurício Antônio Lopes,President, Brazilian Agricultural Researc Corporation (Embrapa)
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Preface
he Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition commissioned tis Foresigt report in 2015 to take a close look at te extent to wic food systems are delivering ealty diets today and to assess weter tey are fit for te future.
Wile te focus as been on low- and middle-income countries, te findings constitute a stark warning for all countries. Despite past progress, approximately 3 billion people across te globe now ave low-quality diets. Nearly a quarter of all cildren under five years of age are stunted, more tan 2 billion people ave insufficient micronutrients and te incidence of overweigt and obesity is growing in every region. As a result, many economies are seriously underperforming, and diet-related cronic diseases are placing ever-greater demands on ealt care systems. Moreover, te situation is set to worsen dramatically over te next 20 years as powerful drivers of cange suc as population growt, climate cange and urbanization converge on food systems.
his report sows tat unless policy makers act decisively to control overweigt, obesity and diet-related disease and accelerate efforts to reduce undernutrition, all countries will pay a eavy price in terms of mortality, pysical ealt, mental well-being, economic losses and degradation of te environment. he stark message to world leaders is tat only a response on te scale and commitment used to tackle HIV/AIDS and malaria will be sufficient to meet te callenge, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. It is also essential tat te public and private sectors work togeter to acieve tis.
his report sows ow tese considerable callenges can be addressed. In particular, food systems needto be arnessed so tat tey nouris rater tan merely feed people. his alone will open up countless opportunities for interventions tat decision makers can tailor to specific situations. he report also sets out clear priorities for action at national and international levels, as well as detailed advice and guidance, wic will be of practical and immediate use to decision makers.
On bealf of te Global Panel, we would like to take tis opportunity to express our sincere tanks to teBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and te UK Department for International Development wo togeter ave funded tis groundbreaking study. We would also like to tank te group of leading experts, caired by Professor Lawrence Haddad, wo undertook muc of te work and drafted tis report, te many oter experts and policy makers from across te world wo contributed, and te team at te Global Panel Secretariat wo managed te entire process.
Jon Kufuor (Co-Cair) Former President of Gana
Sir Jon Beddington (Co-Cair) Former UK Government Cief Scientific Adviser
Foreword
Malnutrition as for too long been a neglected issue. Yet it is a problem tat affects one in tree people worldwide. Today, 159 million cildren are stunted, 50 million are wasted and more tan 2 billion people are overweigt or obese. But in 2015 for te first time in istory, troug te Global Goals, te world as committed to ending malnutrition in all its forms. As te 2016Global Nutrition Reportmakes clear, tackling malnutrition is one of te largest callenges facing all countries. Malnutrition comes in many guises: stunting, wasting, deficiencies of essential vitamins and minerals, and obesity. Reacing te ambitious target of ending malnutrition is only acievable if world leaders can ensure agriculture and food systems policies strengten nutrition outcomes.
here is a moral imperative to eliminate malnutrition. Undernutrition contributes to 45% of te 16,000 cildren under te age of five wo die every day. he impacts extend well beyond ealt: stunted cildren wo survive are permanently disadvantaged, perform worse at scool and are robbed of future earnings tat could support tem and teir families. But eliminating malnutrition is also an economic imperative. he costs of undernutrition in terms of lost national productivity are significant, wit between 3% and 16% of GDP lost annually in Africa and Asia. he good news is tat we know tat te economic returns from investing in nutrition are ig – GBP 16 generated for every pound invested. Boosting nutrition can boost growt.
his Foresigt report from te Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition on te future of diets provides fres insigts into canges in diets across te world. It igligts te impact of major drivers of cange in dietary patterns, including population growt, rising incomes, urbanization and globalization. he report complements te 2016 Global Nutrition Report in delivering strong evidence to underpin policy cange. he data presented ere focus on te callenges tat decision makers face wen attempting to integrate nutrition witin current food systems and agricultural policies. It sets out ways to approac tese callenges so tat policies are saped in a way tat delivers ealty, safe and nutritious diets for all.
he Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition was first launced by te former UK Secretary of State for International Development at te 2013 Nutrition for Growt Summit. It as proven invaluable for campioning te role of agriculture and food systems in preventing malnutrition. he Panel and its work – including tis report – are an important contribution to te UK Government’s commitment to improve te nutrition of 50 million people by 2020.
Ridding te world of malnutrition will require sustained investment, drive and energy. It will also require innovative solutions tat work to tackle bot undernutrition and te rising burden of obesity afflicting almost all countries around te world. I urge nutrition and agriculture leaders in governments, business and civil society to act on te Foresigt report findings.
James Warton MP Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State Department for International Development
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Acknowledgements
he Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition would like to tank te Project’s Lead Expert Group wo oversaw te tecnical aspects of te Project, wo were involved in muc of te work and in producing te Project outputs and in drafting tis report. hey were led by Professor Lawrence Haddad.
he Global Panel is also grateful to te many individuals and organizations from across te world wo were involved in te detailed tecnical work and te Project’s advisory bodies – some of tese are specifically mentioned below. he Global Panel would also like to tank te Representatives of te Global Panel members, te many oter individuals from organizations across te world wo contributed views and advice, attended worksops in Africa, Asia and Europe, peer reviewed individual papers, and provided oter support.
Project Lead Expert Group Professor Lawrence Haddad, (Cair), Senior Researc Fellow, International Food Policy Researc Institute; Co-Cair of te Global Nutrition Report’s Independent Expert Group;Professor Corinna Hawkes, Director of he Centre for Food Policy, City University; Co-Cair of te Global Nutrition Report’s Independent Expert Group;Professor Jeff WaageOBE, Director, London International Development Centre; cair of Leverulme Centre for Integrative Researc on Agriculture and Healt (LCIRAH); and tecnical adviser to te Global Panel;Professor Patrick Webb, Professor of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University; policy and evidence adviser to te Global Panel;Professor Carles GodfrayCBE FRS, Hope Professor, University of Oxford;Dr Camilla Toulmin, Senior Fellow, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).
Autors and oter contributors of te evidence reviews commissioned by te lead expert group Mr Lukasz Aleksandrowicz, PD Candidate, London Scool of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine;Dr Pillip Baker, Researc Fellow, Australian National University;Ms Komal Batia, Data Analyst, Global Nutrition Report, Institute for Global Healt, University College London;Dr Giuseppe Carrus, Associate Professor, Università Roma Tre;Dr. Fenton D. Beed, Regional Director -East and Souteast Asia/Oceania, World Vegetable Center;Ms Kamilla Gert Eriksen, Data Analyst, Global Nutrition Report; Dr Tara Garnett, Director, Food Climate Researc Network, University of Oxford;Ms Samyukta Kannan, MS Applied Economics, Cornell University;Professor William Masters, Friedman Scool of Nutrition, Tufts University;Ms Birgit Meade, Agricultural Economist, United States Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Researc Service;Dr Andrew Muammed, Cief, International Demand and Trade Branc, United States Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Researc Service;Ms Stepanie Myers, Systems Administration, United States Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Researc Service;Professor Sabine Pircio, Sapienza University of Rome;Mr Alejandro Nin Pratt, Researc Fellow, International Food Policy Researc Institute (IFPRI);Dr Roseline Remans, Associate Researc Scientist, Agriculture and Food Security Center, Eart Institute, Columbia University;Dr Marco Springmann, Researcer, James Martin Fellow, University of Oxford;Ms Meroos Tak, PD Candidate, Leverulme Centre for Integrative Researc in Agriculture and Healt (LCIRAH), SOAS; Ms Suzanne hornsbury; Branc Cief – Crops, United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Economic Researc Service.
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Private sector worksop Mr Marc Van Ameringen, Executive Director, Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN);Ms Robynne Anderson, President, Emerging Ag. Inc.;Ms Anne Heugan, Formerly External Affairs Director, Nutrition and Healt at Unilever; Dr Oliver Ouillier, Head of Strategy, Global Healt and Healtcare Industries, Member of te Executive Committee, World Economic Forum, Geneva;Ms Hilary Parsons, Global Senior Public Affairs Manager, Nestlé;Mr Stuart Ponder,Senior Vice-President EMEA, INTL STONE;Dr Howard Sapiro,MARS Inc., Cief Agricultural Officer, Mars Advanced Researc Institute Fellow, MARS, Inc.;Ms Anna Swaites, Director of Sustainable Development, SABMiller;Mr Julian Walker-Palin, Managing Director, ETANTE;Dr Derek Yac, Cief Healt Officer, he Vitality Group.
Reviewers of commissioned evidence papers and te final report Professor Per Pinstrup-Andersen, H. E. Babcock Professor of Food, Nutrition and Public Policy, Cornell University; Professor Jessica Fanzo, Director, Global Food Etics and Policy Program, Jons Hopkins University;Professor Seryl Hendriks, Director of te Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being at te University of Pretoria;Ms Anne Heugan, Formerly External Affairs Director, Nutrition and Healt at Unilever;Professor Eileen Kennedy, Dean Emeritus and Professor, Friedman Scool of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University;Ms Mary Mpere, Gana National Development Planning Commission; Dr Emorn Udomkesmalee, Associate Professor, Maidol University, hailand; Co-Cair of te Global Nutrition Report’s Independent Expert Group;Dr Steven Wiggins, Researcer, Overseas Development Institute (ODI);Professor Geoff Dixon, Visiting Professor Agriculture Building, University of Reading; Professor Bavani Sankar, Professor of International Food, Agriculture and Healt, Scool of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) London;Ms Laura Wellesley, Researc Associate, he Royal Institute of International Affairs.
Global Panel Secretariat Professor Sandy homas, Director;Professor Jeff Waage OBE, Director, London International Development Centre; cair of Leverulme Centre for Integrative Researc on Agriculture and Healt (LCIRAH); and tecnical adviser to te Global Panel;Professor Patrick Webb, Professor of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University; policy and evidence adviser to te Global Panel;Ms Sodona Kettle, Foresigt Project Manager;Ms Fernanda Marrocos Leite Villamarin, Foresigt Project Assistant (Researc);Ms CaterineLeBlanc, Assistant to te Director;Ms Deirdre McMaon, Researcer;Ms Manuela Puricelli, Communications Officer; Ms Cristina Spencer, Coordinator.
Global Panel consultants Mr Derek Flynn, Foresigt Project Consultant;Dr Darren A Huges, Consultant;Mr Micael Reilly, Researc Manager, Kent Business Scool;Mr Jon Parke, International Programmes Consultant.
Food systems and diets: Facing te callenges of te 21st century
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Capter 1: he central role of ig-quality diets and food systems in ending malnutrition in all its forms
Contents
Preface6 Foreword7 Acknowledgements8 List of abbreviations11 List of figures/tables/boxes1 Executive summary15 1:he central role of ig-quality diets and food systems in ending malnutrition in all its forms3 2:Wat is a ig-quality diet?31 3:How diets are canging43 4:Forecasting canges in food availability59 5:Wy are diets canging?69 6:Food systems and diet quality81 7:Policies and tools for diet-friendly food systems97 8:A call to action113 References118 Appendices128 1: Table 1.1. Recent reports on food systems: Aims and key messages18 2: Table 3.1. Initiatives to improve food consumption quality and availability19 3: Table 3.2. ‘Healty’ and ‘unealty’ categories used by Imamura et al. (2015) and wat tey mean130 4: Table 3.3. Definitions of categories of processed foods, non-alcoolic beverages and ultra-processed foods used in Capter 3131 5: Table 6.1. he world’s top 25 food and non-alcoolic beverage companies (2003, 2010 and 2015)13
List of abbreviations
AgMIP
ASFBaUCGIAR
CHDDALYsFAO
FBDGsFDIGAINGDPGNPHDDS
AgriculturalModelIntercomparisonandImprovement Project animal source foods business as usual ConsortiumofInternationalAgriculturalResearc Centers coronary eart disease disability-adjusted life years FoodandAgriculturalOrganizationof te United Nations food-based dietary guidelines foreign direct investment Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition gross domestic product gross national product ouseold diet diversity score
IFADIFPRIMADMDDNCDsPAHOSDGsSSATFPUNWDDSWFPWHAWHOWTO
International Fund for Agricultural Development International Food Policy Researc Institute minimum acceptable diet minimum diet diversity non-communicable diseases Pan American Healt Organization Sustainable Development Goals sub-Saaran Africa total factor productivity United Nations women’s dietary diversity score United Nations World Food Programme World Healt Assembly World Healt Organization World Trade Organization
Food systems and diets: Facing te callenges of te 21st century11
List of figures
Figure 1.1:Different forms of malnutrition
Figure 1.2:Six of te top 11 risk factors driving te global burden of disease are related to diet Figure 1.3:he multiple burdens of malnutrition faced by countries Figure 1.4:Conceptual framework for te links between diet quality and food systems
Figure 2.1:Wat 83 national food-based dietary guidelines recommend Figure 2.2:he global burden of foodborne disease (total DALYs) by azard groups, 2010 Figure 2.3:he global burden of foodborne disease (DALYs per 100,000 population) by azard groups and by subregion, 2010
Figure 2.4:he food system’s contribution to total global energy consumption and greenouse gas emissions
Figure 2.5:Indices of average energy use, blue-water footprint and greenouse gas emissions per calorie of food for eac food group, US data Figure 2.6:he water-use consequences of different diets in te EU-28 countries Figure 3.1:Intake of key foods and diet components by region, 2013 Panel A Panel B
Figure 3.2:Canges in intake of key foods and diet components by region, 1990–2013 (%) Panel A Panel B Figure 3.3:Consumption of foods and oter diet components by national income group, 2013 Figure 3.4:Percentage of infants aged 0–5 monts wo are exclusively breastfed by region, around 2000 and 2012
Figure 3.5:Percentage of women aged 15–49 years wo gave birt in te last tree years wo consumed various food groups in te day or nigt preceding te survey, DHS surveys 2007–10
Figure 3.6:Trends in per capita sales volumes of non-alcoolic beverages, processed foods and ultra-processed foods by country income group, 2000–15, wit 15-year average growt rates sown
Figure 3.7:Total cange (percentage) in sales of processed foods (kg/capita per year), by country income group, 2010–15
Figure 3.8:Per capita sales volumes of non-alcoolic beverage categories by region, 2000–15
Figure 3.9:Percentage of monetary value of food consumed from different categories: Etiopia 2004/2005, Uganda 2009/2010, Tanzania 2010/2011, Mozambique 2008/2009, Malawi 2001/2011, Sout Africa 2010
Figure 3.10:Consumption of (Panel A) fruits and vegetables and (Panel B) sodium in relation to WHO recommended levels
12List of figures
Figure 4.1:Undernourisment in te base year and projections to 2030 in te business-as-usual (BaU) scenario, FAO
Figure 4.2:Growt in per capita daily caloric intake (2005/ 2007-2030): Low- and middle-income countries and ig-income countries
Figure 4.3:Growt in per capita daily caloric intake (2005/2007-2030): Sub-Saaran Africa and Sout Asia
Figure 4.4:Growt in per capita daily caloric intake (2005/2007-2030): East Asia and Latin America
Figure 4.5:Projections of sales per capita of processed foods, non-alcoolic beverages and ultra-processed foods and beverages to 2035 in countries at different levels of income
Figure 4.6:Trends in te numbers of men and women affected by obesity: 1980–2010
Figure 4.7:Deats avoided by applying dietary guidelines for fruits and vegetables, red meat and energy intake to food availability data (compared to 2050 FAO projections) by region Figure 4.8:Deats avoided by applying dietary guidelines for fruits and vegetables, red meat and energy intake to food availability data (compared to 2050 FAO projections) – selected countries Figure 5.1:Projected annual growt rate (%) of real per capita GDP by region, 2015–30
Figure 5.2:Global poverty projections wit different assumptions about te inclusivity of growt
Figure 5.3:Projected canges in population, 2015–50
Figure 5.4:Profile of female deats by age, low-income countries
Figure 5.5:Urban percentage of overall population by region, 1950–2050
Figure 6.1:Conceptual framework for te links between diet quality and food systems
Figure 6.2:Percentage of ouseold value of food consumed by source of acquisition
Figure 6.3:Percentage of energy from non-staple foods and total dietary energy per capita by region, 1961–2011
Figure 6.4:Global per capita availability per day (kcal) from different foods: 1961, 1986 and 2011
Figure 6.5:East Asia, 1961–2011, calories from different categories
Figure 6.6: CGIAR researc funding allocated to specific crops in 2012 (in US$ million)
Figure 6.7:Per capita food losses and waste at consumption and pre-consumption stage, in different regions
Figure 6.8:Coca Cola’s international investments