ENvIroNmENtal DEgraDatIoN aND HumaN rIgHtS abuSES: DoES ...
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ENvIroNmENtal DEgraDatIoN aND HumaN rIgHtS abuSES: DoES ...

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Int. Law: Rev. Colomb. Derecho Int. Bogotá (Colombia) N° 10: 75-130, noviembre de 2007. ISSN:1692-8156. ENvIroNmENtal DEgraDatIoN. aND HumaN rIgHtS ...

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ISSN:1692 8156
ENvIroN ENt lDEgr D tIoN NDHu NrIgHtS buSES: DoEStHErEfugEE oNvENtIoN oNfEr protE tIoNtoENvIroN ENt lrEfugEES
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   u E   ,       de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, máster en derecho público e internacional de u   , .             D   D I   u   . :  .  . . .   .
Int. Law: Rev. Colomb. Derecho Int. Bogotá (Colombia) N° 10: 75-130, noviembre de 2007
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                                                               extend the definition of refugee to one that encompasses those      . t          challenge is to interpret the refugee’s definition in a suitable way that accommodates or include current refugee flows. t       v  ,            r                             ,                   refugees and therefore fulfill the objectives and purposes of  . 
K y : ;     ;   ;      r  ;r  .          
DEgr D I N bIENt ly uSoS b DEloSDErE HoSHu NoS:  oNfIErEl  oNvEN I NDErEfugI DoS protE I N loSrEfugI DoS bIENt lES
       
E i t ti i t it i i t t  ti , i i t . L i t i  i i t i t i i  i i t t t i i t i  . E las compañías transnacionales ocasiona la significativa i i t , t  i y ,  i , i . L i i t no tienen un estatus oficialmente reconocido, y por ende  t i . E t t ti  i ti y t t i
Int. Law: Rev. Colomb. Derecho Int. Bogotá (Colombia) N° 10: 75-130, noviembre de 2007
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 t i i t ti i  i   i i     i t      i                      ti   i      . E i i i I t i xt definición acerca del concepto que se tiene de refugiado,  t y t i  t t i t i  ti i . E t ,  ,  i t t i , i i  Vi , t i t i t y  ti t i t t i ti y defienda los derechos de las víctimas que cruzan fronteras  t i i , t ti y propósitos que linearon la filosofía de la Convención sobre  E t t t R i .
p :  ti i i   E t t t R i i t t y  i t i i t t i  i E t t t R i i  i t .
            
The twenty-first century should bring new challenges to the                                     r    . I                                         .g       H                     S  W W , r                                                                before January 1951. Later, due to the existence of new refugee  , S p    1967p      .t                                          u  N ,  u                     
Int. Law: Rev. Colomb. Derecho Int. Bogotá (Colombia) N° 10: 75-130, noviembre de 2007
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D   H  r  (DHr) 19 8  r     (r ) 1951    . t  DHr   r                                                                                                                  .                t          ,                                      although many past conflicts were essentially “environmental” insofar           .I 1      1960                        significant proliferation of violation of rights caused by environmental conflicts. Thus, in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on Human E (S ),         environment might constitute a precondition for the enjoyment of certain human rights: “[M]an has the fundamental right to freedom,  ,     ,                                        that permits life of dignity and well being” 2 .   K t  ,    u N   Environment Program, the “[s]wollen ranks of environmental refugees could double to 50 million in just eight years time. That is an increase of 8,500 a day” 3 . In 1998, for the first time in recorded  ,            other conflicts. Thereby, The World Bank estimated that in 1998    25                   ,          . , u K r         58%     3                 . I   ,     250     .      
1   , E i t Ri t iti P ti , .1,uS ,p   p ,1998,.153 218. 2 I ,.213. 3 u N r  200 ,r D  , :// . . 4 Mark Townsend, “Environmental Refugees”, T E i t M i ,uS ,1992, .28, http://www.theecologist.org
Int. Law: Rev. Colomb. Derecho Int. Bogotá (Colombia) N° 10: 75-130, noviembre de 2007
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   135          desertification, and some experts predict that up to 100 million of           5 .   number of people migrating for environmental reasons is difficult to  ,N  , o u  ,       in 1996 that twenty-five million people were environmentally   ,              . H                  2010                                                                   more significant, leading to as many as 150 million environmentally     2050.E       .    g                                            . E           ,                   ,  ,                .E                    categorized by two basic criteria. The first category is comprised by              the environment, or environmental stress. This classification applies      ,                                              ;  ,   ;     ,   . t   ,                     . t                            .E    dams, deforestation, desertification and the human actions of the        . I   ,                                     .     ,           .t   
5 Jean Lambert, “The Environment and Migration: What Response”,  i L J ,f 2002,.320.
Int. Law: Rev. Colomb. Derecho Int. Bogotá (Colombia) N° 10: 75-130, noviembre de 2007
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                     .           ,         ,          6 . t                                                                                                 . E              ,             influenced and forced to move by both the decreasing quality of life     ,                                                              (      ). Consequently, the indigenous communities are forced to flee without    ,     .W    ,                                            turn into major sources of global instability. t             . t                                                            :     ,         7 .I                                                       globalization, transnational corporations (“TNCs”) have grown in number and in power. A significant portion of modern economic     tN  ,      profit, move to developing countries. TNCs “[h]ave increased the                                                                 to humans” 8 .
6 Ruth E. Baker, “Determination of Environmental Refugees: Cases for Inclusion and Expansion”, M t E i t R i N . 18,                 E S p ,S  182001,.20 56,  :// . . / / E r / . 7 u  N , g   E  f : r   23, g             u N E p ,uS ,2000,.8 17,  :// . . /D . /D .  D ID= 3&  ID=28&  8 Alison Shinsato, “Increasing the Accountability of Transnational Corporations for Environmental Harms: The Petroleum Industry in Nigeria”,  t t U i ity
Int. Law: Rev. Colomb. Derecho Int. Bogotá (Colombia) N° 10: 75-130, noviembre de 2007
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u   , tN                                                                  . I    ,  ,                                                                                     . t ,                                                                              ;             requirement leads courts and commissions into an undefined area  .     t                                    r 1951  1967p            . I       r                                                                  /             .o    ,                  the environment to achieve the full enjoyment of the human rights. Few are the issues of major concern in the international agenda as       . t            W       ;             u N   E  D   (Rio de Janeiro 1992), the II Universal Conference on Human r (v 1993), I   p       D  ( 199 ),  II  H  S (H II,I 1996) 9 . This essay focuses on the Amazon Jungle (Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, and Brazil) as a specific example of environmental                                                                       
J I t ti H Ri t , ,2005,.1 16.  http://www.law.northwestern.edu/journals/jihr/v4/n1/1  9 p    o    S ,  “‘A New Development Strategy for the Americas’: A Human Rights and the Environment Perspective”,   H r  E , ,2002,.5 17, http://www.      oas.org/consejo/cajp/docs/cp09473e04.doc
Int. Law: Rev. Colomb. Derecho Int. Bogotá (Colombia) N° 10: 75-130, noviembre de 2007