Molybdenum Growth Linked to Future Demand for Stainless and Special Steels

Molybdenum Growth Linked to Future Demand for Stainless and Special Steels

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Molybdenum Growth Linked to Future Demand for Stainless and Special Steels PR Newswire LONDON, August 7, 2012 LONDON, August 7, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Molybdenum growth rates will exceed global GDP rates to 2016 Global demand for molybdenum bounced back from the impact of the global economic downturn, growing by just over 11% in 2010 and a further 9% in 2011 according to a new report from Roskill. China now accounts for around 31% of global molybdenum demand and its growth rates continue to outpace those in other countries. While global demand for molybdenum is forecast to grow at an average of 4.6%py to 2016, Chinese demand is forecast to increase by 7.5%py. The principal engines of growth will be increased use of stainless and other steels containing molybdenum in process, power and desalination plants, in oil and gas production and distribution and in motor vehicle components. The greater use of molybdenum steels, high performance alloys and catalysts, combined with robust growth in the economies of the 'BRIC' countries and other countries in Asia and South America, will ensure growing future demand for molybdenum. About 7% of stainless steel produced contains molybdenum. Grade 316, containing between 2% and 3% Mo is by the most widely used, largely in medium level corrosive environments such as external architectural applications.

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Molybdenum Growth Linked to Future Demand
for Stainless and Special Steels
PR Newswire
LONDON, August 7, 2012
LONDON
,
August 7, 2012
/PRNewswire/ --
Molybdenum growth rates will exceed global GDP rates to 2016
Global demand for molybdenum bounced back from the impact of the global
economic downturn, growing by just over 11% in 2010 and a further 9% in 2011
according to a new report from Roskill. China now accounts for around 31% of
global molybdenum demand and its growth rates continue to outpace those in
other countries. While global demand for molybdenum is forecast to grow at
an average of 4.6%py to 2016, Chinese demand is forecast to increase by
7.5%py. The principal engines of growth will be increased use of stainless and
other steels containing molybdenum in process, power and desalination plants,
in oil and gas production and distribution and in motor vehicle components. The
greater use of molybdenum steels, high performance alloys and catalysts,
combined with robust growth in the economies of the 'BRIC' countries and
other countries in
Asia
and
South America
, will ensure growing future demand
for molybdenum.
About 7% of stainless steel produced contains molybdenum. Grade 316,
containing between 2% and 3% Mo is by the most widely used, largely in
medium level corrosive environments such as external architectural
applications. There is also growing use of "super" grades with higher levels of
molybdenum in process, petrochemical and power plants and in the oil and gas
sector.
Mine capacity sufficient to meet demand until 2015
Primary molybdenum mines were the first to respond to the recovery in
demand in 2010, but in 2011 growth in output of by-product molybdenum from
copper mines outpaced growth from primary mines. In 2012, mine capacity is
sufficient to meet demand and supply is likely to show a surplus over the next
three years. Roskill lists some sixty new projects and expansions that could
potentially produce molybdenum, yielding an additional 240ktpy, indicating that
long term mine supply is assured. Around 33% of new projects identified in
2012 are located in
North America
, 28% in Central and
South America
and 10%
in
China
. In the next two years by-product output is likely to grow at a higher
rate, but from 2014 new Chinese molybdenum-only projects will redress the
balance. In the past insufficient roasting capacity has resulted in a bottleneck,
but additional capacity has been installed and further additions are under
construction in
Chile
,
China
and the
USA
by Codelco, Molymet, China
Molybdenum and JDC.
Longer term price outlook
The longer term price prospects for molybdenum appear stable given apparent
adequate existing mine capacity, and 140ktpy of relatively low cost by-product
molybdenum in new copper-molybdenum mining projects under review, plus
some 100ktpy in molybdenum-driven projects. Roskill notes, however, positive
features in that the global market for molybdenum is expected to grow by
some 60ktpy in the years to 2016, and that many projects are likely to be
delayed in coming to fruition. Furthermore, production costs in excess of
US$12
/lb in the large Chinese molybdenum-only mining industry, probably
provide an effective floor for prices.
Molybdenum: Market Outlook to 2016, 11
th
edition 2012 is available at £4,500 /
€5,900 /
US$7,500
from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54 Russell Road,
London
SW19 1QL UK. Tel: +44-20-8417-8417-0087; Fax: +44-20-8417-8417-
1308; email: info@roskill.co.uk; web http://www.roskill.com
Note to editors,
The report contains 323 pages, 147 tables and 96 figures. It provides a
detailed view of the molybdenum industry, with subsections on resources, world
production, leading mining and processing companies, world consumption,
demand by end-use sector, international trade and prices. It provides forecasts
of supply/demand balance and prices.
Table of Contents
Page
1
Summary
1
1.1
Properties, occurrence and processing
2
1.2
World supply
2
1.3
Consumption
3
1.4
International trade
5
1.5
Prices
6
2
History, properties, occurrence and reserves of molybdenum
7
2.1
History
7
2.2
Properties
8
2.3
Occurrence and mineralogy
8
2.4
Reserves and resources
9
3
Molybdenum mining and production processes
15
3.1
Mining, concentrating and processing
16
3.1.1
Technical grade molybdenum oxide (TMO - roasted concentrates)
16
3.1.2
Molybdenum Autoclave Process oxides
17
3.1.3
Ferromolybdenum (FeMo)
17
3.1.4
Other commercial forms of molybdenum
18
3.2
Recycling of molybdenum
19
4
World molybdenum production data
20
4.1
Mine production
20
4.1.1
Mine production by country
23
4.1.2
Molybdenum mine production by company
25
4.2
Ferromolybdenum production
29
4.3
Molybdenum metal and alloys
29
4.4
Recycling and regeneration
30
5
Molybdenum production capacity
31
5.1
Molybdenum mine capacity
31
5.2
Roasted concentrate capacity
34
5.3
Ferromolybdenum production capacity
36
5.4
New projects and future supply of molybdenum
38
5.4.1
Mining projects
38
5.4.2
Concentrate roasting and ferromolybdenum projects
42
5.4.3
Outlook for future mine supply of molybdenum
43
6
Molybdenum production costs
45
7
Notes on molybdenum producing countries
52
7.1
Argentina
52
7.1.1
Minera Alumbrera
52
7.1.2
Yamana Gold - Agua Rica Project
52
7.1.3
Xstrata Copper - El Pachón
53
7.1.4
Tenke Mining
54
7.1.5
Lumina Copper Corp - Taca Taca
54
7.1.6
Other projects
54
7.2
Armenia
55
7.2.1
Zangezur Copper-Molybdenum Company (Zangezur)
55
7.2.2
Agarak Copper-Molybdenum Company (Agarak)
56
7.2.3
Yerevan Pure Iron Plant (YPIP)
56
7.2.4
Armenian Molybdenum Production (AMP)
56
7.2.5
Armenian Copper Program (ACP) - Teghout
56
7.3
Australia
57
7.3.1
Auzex Resources
58
7.3.2
Dart Mining
59
7.3.3
Havilah Resources - Kalkaroo
59
7.3.4
Ivanhoe Australia - Merlin
59
7.3.5
Moly Mines - Spinifex Ridge
59
7.3.6
Thor Mining - Molyhil
60
7.3.7
Wolfram Camp Mining - Wolfram Camp
60
7.3.8
Other molybdenum exploration projects
61
7.4
Austria
61
7.4.1
Treibacher Industrie AG
63
7.4.2
Plansee SE
63
7.4.3
SEKOM Handelsges
63
7.5
Belgium
63
7.5.1
NV Sadaci SA
64
7.5.2
Other molybdenum processing companies
65
7.6
Brazil
65
7.7
Bulgaria
66
7.8
Canada
66
7.8.1
Mine production of molybdenum in Canada
67
7.8.1.1
Thompson Creek Metals Co - Endako
68
7.8.1.2
Teck Resources - Highland Valley Copper
69
7.8.1.3
Roca Mines Inc - Max
69
7.8.1.4
Imperial Metals Corp - Huckleberry
70
7.8.1.5
Taseko Mines Ltd.
70
7.8.2
New molybdenum mining projects in Canada
70
7.8.2.1
Adanac Molybdenum - Ruby Creek
70
7.8.2.2
Avanti Mining - Kitsault
71
7.8.2.3
Copper Fox Metals
71
7.8.2.4
Northcliff Resources - Sisson Brook
71
7.8.2.5
Western Troy Capital - McLeod Lake
72
7.8.2.6
Other projects
72
7.9
Chile
73
7.9.1
Mine production of molybdenum in Chile
76
7.9.1.1
Corporación National del Cobre de Chile (Codelco)
78
7.9.1.2
Antofagasta plc
81
7.9.1.3
Anglo American Sur
83
7.9.1.4
Cia Minera Doña Inés de Collahuasi
84
7.9.1.5
Amerigo Resources
84
7.9.2
New molybdenum mining projects
85
7.9.2.1
Escondida
85
7.9.2.2
Los Andes Copper - Vizcachitas
85
7.9.2.3
Teck Resources - Relincho and Quebrada Blanca hypogene
85
7.9.2.4
KGHM International - Sierra Gorda
86
7.9.2.5
Pan Pacific Copper
86
7.9.2.6
Hot Chili - Productora
86
7.9.2.7
International PBX Ventures - Copquaire Project
86
7.9.2.8
BHP Billiton - Spence
87
7.9.3
Processing of molybdenum in Chile
87
7.9.3.1
Molibdenos y Metales SA (Molymet)
87
7.9.3.2
Xstrata - Altonorte
92
7.1
China
93
7.10.1
Molybdenum resources in China
95
7.10.2
Mine production of molybdenum
97
7.10.2.1
China Molybdenum
99
7.10.2.2
Jinduicheng Molybdenum Group Co Ltd
101
7.10.2.3
Henan Coal Chemical Industry Group
101
7.10.2.4
The molybdenum industry of the Huludao region
102
7.10.2.5
Qingtian Jianshi Molybdenum Chemical Co
103
7.10.2.6
Sino-Steel Chifeng Jinxin Mining
103
7.10.2.7
Inner Mongolia Zhongxi Mining
103
7.10.2.8
Sing Horn Enterprise Co
104
7.10.2.9
Chaoyang Jinda Molybdenum
104
7.10.2.10 Dalian Haiyi Chemistry Co
104
7.10.2.11 Jilin Daheishan Molybdenum Industry
105
7.10.2.12 Chengdu Molyplus Technologies
105
7.10.2.13 Harbin Songjiang Copper Group
105
7.10.2.14 Chifeng Haozhou Mining
105
7.10.2.15 Luonan Jiulong Mining
105
7.10.2.16 Middle West Mining Corporation
106
7.10.2.17 Aqi Houde Mining Development - Bania Mountain
106
7.10.3
Molybdenum processing in China
106
7.10.3.1
Jinzhou Xinhualong Molybdenum
106
7.10.3.2
Other companies
106
7.11
Ecuador
107
7.12
France
109
7.13
Germany
109
7.14
Greenland
111
7.14.1
KGHM International - Malmbjerg
111
7.15
India
111
7.16
Indonesia
113
7.17
Iran
114
7.17.1
National Iranian Copper Industries Co (Nicico)
114
7.17.2
Zanjan Bronz Ltd
115
7.18
Israel
115
7.19
Japan
115
7.2
Kazakhstan
117
7.20.1
Molyken - Shorskoye
117
7.20.2
Other molybdenum occurrences in Kazakhstan
118
7.21
South Korea
118
7.21.1.1
NMC Resource Corporation
119
7.21.2
Sangdong Mining Corporation
119
7.21.3
Kwangyang Ferro Alloys
120
7.22
Laos
120
7.23
Mexico
120
7.23.1
Minera Mexico
121
7.23.2
Molymex SA de CV
122
7.23.3
Other molybdenum occurrences in Mexico
122
7.24
Mongolia
122
7.24.1
Erdenet Corp
123
7.24.2
Mongolyn Alt Group - Tsagaan-Suvraga
123
7.24.3
Erdene Resource Development - Zuun Mod
124
7.24.4
Shim Technology
124
7.24.5
Other projects
124
7.25
Morocco
125
7.26
Netherlands
126
7.26.1
Climax Molybdenum BV
126
7.27
Norway
127
7.28
Pakistan
127
7.29
Panama
127
7.29.1
Inmet Mining - Cobre Panamá
127
7.29.2
Cerro Colorado
128
7.3
Papua New Guinea (PNG)
128
7.30.1
Barrick Gold/CopperMoly - Simuku
128
7.30.2
Harmony Gold - Golpu
128
7.30.3
Marengo Mining - Yandera
129
7.31
Peru
129
7.31.1
Mine production of molybdenum in Peru
130
7.31.1.1
Southern Copper Corporation
131
7.31.1.2
Cía Minera Antamina SA
132
7.31.1.3
Freeport McMoRan - Cerro Verde
133
7.31.2
New molybdenum projects in Peru
133
7.31.2.1
Chinalco - Toromocho
133
7.31.2.2
Anglo American - Quellaveco and Michiquillay
133
7.31.2.3
Minera Milpo - Magistral
134
7.31.2.4
Monterrico Metals - Rio Blanco
134
7.31.2.5
Hudbay Minerals - Constancia
134
7.31.2.6
Jiangxi Copper/China Minmetals - Galeno
135
7.31.2.7
Rio Tinto - La Granja
135
7.31.2.8
Xstrata Copper
135
7.31.2.9
Metminco - Los Catalos
136
7.32
Philippines
136
7.32.1
Metals Exploration - Runruno
136
7.32.2
Xstrata Copper/Inophil - Tampakan
136
7.33
Poland
137
7.33.1
Strzelecki Metals - Myszkow
137
7.34
Russia
137
7.34.1
Resources
138
7.34.2
Mine production
139
7.34.2.1
Strikeforce Mining and Resources (SMR)
139
7.34.2.2
Norilsk Nickel - Bugdainskiy
141
7.34.2.3
JSC Tyrnyauz GOK (TGOK)
141
7.34.3
Other molybdenum occurrences in Russia
141
7.34.4
Molybdenum processing in Russia
142
7.35
Sierra Leone
143
7.36
Slovakia
144
7.37
South Africa
144
7.38
Spain
145
7.39
Sweden
146
7.4
Thailand
146
7.41
Turkey
147
7.41.1
Anatolia Minerals
147
7.42
UK
147
7.42.1
Climax Molybdenum UK Ltd.
148
7.42.2
FMP Metallurgical UK
148
7.42.3
H.C. Starck
149
7.43
USA
149
7.43.1
Mine production of molybdenum in the USA
151
7.43.1.1
Freeport McMoRan Copper & Gold
152
7.43.1.2
Rio Tinto - Kennecott Utah Copper
154
7.43.1.3
Thompson Creek Metals Company USA
155
7.43.1.4
Montana Resources Inc
156
7.43.1.5
Chevron Mining
156
7.43.1.6
Mercator Minerals Ltd - Mineral Park
157
7.43.1.7
Win-Eldrich Mines - Ashdown
157
7.43.1.8
Asarco (Grupo Mexico) - Mission
158
7.43.1.9
KGHM International - Robinson
158
7.43.2
New molybdenum projects in the USA
158
7.43.2.1
Eureka Moly - Mount Hope Project
158
7.43.2.2
Northern Dynasty Minerals/Anglo American - Pebble Project
159
7.43.2.3
Galway Resources
159
7.43.2.4
Bolero Resources - Bald Butte Project
160
7.43.2.5
Augusta Resource Corp
160
7.43.2.6
Other molybdenum occurrences in the USA
161
7.43.3
Other molybdenum processors and fabricators in the USA
161
7.44
Uzbekistan
162
7.44.1
Almalyk Mining and Metallurgical Combine (Almalyk)
163
7.44.2
Uzbek Refractory and High Temperature Metals Plant (UzKTZhM)
163
7.44.3
Uzmetal Technology
163
7.45
Vietnam
164
8
Analysis of molybdenum international trade data
165
8.1
Raw molybdenum concentrates
166
8.2
Roasted molybdenum concentrates
171
8.3
Molybdenum oxides and hydroxides
177
8.4
International trade in ferromolybdenum
181
8.5
International trade in molybdenum metal
187
9
World consumption of molybdenum
192
9.1
Consumption by country/region
192
9.2
Consumption of molybdenum by first use and industry
196
9.3
Consumption of molybdenum by use in selected countries
198
9.4
Consumption of molybdenum by form
201
10
Uses of molybdenum
204
10.1
Use of molybdenum in steels
205
10.1.1
Crude steel production
206
10.1.2
Alloy engineering steels
210
10.1.2.1
Full alloy steels
211
10.1.2.2
High-strength low alloy steels
215
10.1.3
Stainless steels
222
10.1.3.1
Types and uses of molybdenum-containing stainless steel
225
10.1.3.2
Production of stainless steel
230
10.1.3.3
Consumption of stainless steel
234
10.1.4
Tool and high speed steels
236
10.1.4.1
Types and use of molybdenum-containing tool and high speed
steels
237
10.1.4.2
Production and consumption of tool and high speed steels
241
10.1.5
Carbon steels
242
10.2
Catalysts
245
10.2.1
Use and types of molybdenum-bearing catalysts
245
10.2.2
Producers of molybdenum catalysts
249
10.2.2.1
Advanced Refining Technologies (ART)
250
10.2.2.2
Albemarle Catalysts & Nippon Ketjen
250
10.2.2.3
Axens Catalysts and Absorbants
251
10.2.2.4
Criterion Catalysts & Technologies
252
10.2.2.5
Haldor Topsøe A/S
252
10.2.2.6
Süd-Chemie Group
253
10.2.2.7
Other catalyst companies
253
10.2.3
Catalyst regeneration and recycling
253
10.2.3.1
Catalyst regeneration
253
10.2.3.2
Catalyst recycling
254
10.3
Molybdenum metal and molybdenum-based alloys
255
10.3.1
Types of molybdenum-base alloys
257
10.3.2
Applications of molybdenum metal and alloys
259
10.3.2.1
LCD panels and solar cells
260
10.3.2.2
Lighting industry
260
10.3.2.3
Electronics industry
260
10.3.2.4
Materials processing and thermal spray coating
261
10.3.2.5
High temperatures furnaces and equipment
262
10.3.2.6
Glass manufacturing
263
10.3.2.7
Aerospace and defence
264
10.3.2.8
Nuclear industry
264
10.3.3
Producers and fabricators of molybdenum metals and alloys
264
10.3.3.1
ALMT Corp. (Allied Materials)
264
10.3.3.2
Elmet Technologies
265
10.3.3.3
General Electric Consumer Products (GECP)
266
10.3.3.4
Global Tungsten & Powders
266
10.3.3.5
H.C. Starck
267
10.3.3.6
Jing Dui Cheng Molybdenum Group (JDC)
268
10.3.3.7
Luoyang High Tech Molybdenum & Tungsten Materials
268
10.3.3.8
Metallisation
268
10.3.3.9
Philips Advanced Metal Solutions
268
10.3.3.10 Plansee SE
269
10.3.3.11 Polema JSC
269
10.3.3.12 Toho Kinzoku Co Ltd
270
10.3.3.13 Other companies
270
10.4
High-performance alloys (superalloys)
271
10.4.1
Types and use of molybdenum-bearing HPA
271
10.4.1.1
Nickel-based HPA
272
10.4.1.2
Cobalt-based HPA
274
10.4.1.3
Iron-nickel-based HPA
275
10.4.2
Markets for HPA/superalloys
276
10.4.2.1
Aerospace applications
276
10.4.2.2
Non-aerospace applications
278
10.5
Titanium-based alloys
282
10.5.1
Titanium based alloys
282
10.6
Cast iron
283
10.6.1
Use of molybdenum in cast iron
285
10.6.2
Production of cast iron
286
10.7
Use of molybdenum in greases and lubricants
288
10.7.1
Grease production and producers
291
10.8
Use of molybdenum in pigments and corrosion inhibitors
295
10.8.1
Pigments/corrosion inhibitors
295
10.8.2
Corrosion inhibitors
297
10.9
Minor uses of molybdenum chemicals
297
11
Outlook for molybdenum consumption by product to 2016
299
11.1
Stainless steel
302
11.2
Full alloy steels
303
11.3
Tool and high speed steels
303
11.4
HSLA steel
304
11.5
Carbon steel
304
11.6
Catalysts
304
11.7
Molybdenum metal and molybdenum alloy products
305
11.8
High performance/superalloys
305
11.9
Cast iron
306
11.1
Grease and lubricants
306
12
Supply and demand of molybdenum
307
13
Molybdenum prices
310
13.1
Comparison of contract and free market prices, 2007 to 2012
311
13.2
Historic trends in free market prices
312
13.3
Concentrate prices
319
13.4
Outlook for molybdenum prices
321
For further information on this report, please contact Judith Chegwidden
(judith@roskill.co.uk). To be added to our press distribution list please contact
Isobel Jarvis (Isobel@roskill.co.uk)