ETUDE DU PAYSAGE AUDIOVISUEL ET DES POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES DES PAYS  CANDIDATS DANS LE SECTEUR AUDIOVISUEL
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ETUDE DU PAYSAGE AUDIOVISUEL ET DES POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES DES PAYS CANDIDATS DANS LE SECTEUR AUDIOVISUEL

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38 Pages
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A SURVEY OF THE LANDSCAPES AND POLITICAL POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY CANDIDATE COUNTRIES IN THE BROADCASTING INDUSTRY EXECUTIVE REPORT IMCA for the European Commission – DG EAC Survey # DG EAC 59/02 March 2004 Disclaimer by the European Commission - Education and Culture Directorate General Neither the European Commission, nor anyone acting under its authority can be held liable for the use which may be made of this report. The points of view which are expressed in the report, are the points of view of its writers. This report does not necessarily reflect the Commission’s position and the Commission cannot be liable for any inaccuracies in the information given. Reproduction is authorized providing the source is obligatorily mentioned. IMCA – Landscape and Political Policies of the European Community Candidate Countries in the Broadcasting Industry – Executive Report- 2 - Table of Contents 1. Introduction ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5 2. The broadcasting industry economy of the candidate countries __________________________________________ 7 2.1. General factors of the economic development of the candidate countries_____________________________ 8 2.1.1. Market sizes and smaller, unevenly distributed populations ______________________________________ 8 2.2. How the medias are structured ...

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A SURVEY OF THE LANDSCAPES AND POLITICAL POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN
COMMUNITY CANDIDATE COUNTRIES IN THE BROADCASTING INDUSTRY

EXECUTIVE REPORT






IMCA for the European Commission – DG EAC
Survey # DG EAC 59/02




March 2004








Disclaimer by the European Commission - Education and Culture Directorate General


Neither the European Commission, nor anyone acting under its authority can be held liable for the use which may be
made of this report.
The points of view which are expressed in the report, are the points of view of its writers. This report does not necessarily
reflect the Commission’s position and the Commission cannot be liable for any inaccuracies in the information given.
Reproduction is authorized providing the source is obligatorily mentioned.


IMCA – Landscape and Political Policies of the European Community Candidate Countries in the Broadcasting Industry – Executive Report- 2 -

Table of Contents

1. Introduction ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5
2. The broadcasting industry economy of the candidate countries __________________________________________ 7
2.1. General factors of the economic development of the candidate countries_____________________________ 8
2.1.1. Market sizes and smaller, unevenly distributed populations ______________________________________ 8
2.2. How the medias are structured ______________________________________________________________ 11
2.2.1. Television leads _______________________________________________________________________ 11
2.2.2. Radio’s limited influence ________________________________________________________________ 14
2.2.3. The cinema and the broadcasting industry: what are the perspectives for development? _______________ 14
2.2.4. The weak aspects in new technologies ______________________________________________________ 18
2.3. Structure per funding source 19
2.3.1. Advertising, main growth driver___________________________________________________________ 19
2.3.2. The sale of goods and services is slowed in its development _____________________________________ 21
2.3.3. Stagnant public budgets that are disputed____________________________________________________ 21
3. Public Policies ________________________________________________________________________________ 24
3.1. An unstable legal framework 24
3.2. Generally, a liberal system__________________________________________________________________ 24
3.3. An application that is still imperfect __________________________________________________________ 25
3.3.1. Lack of transparency____________________________________________________________________ 25
3.3.2. The existing Union institutions and programs: their gradual implementation ________________________ 26
3.4. Regulatory authorities that should back each other _____________________________________________ 26
3.4.1. Recently created institutions with power and means that vary____________________________________ 26
3.4.2. Recurring debates ______________________________________________________________________ 27
IMCA – Landscape and Political Policies of the European Community Candidate Countries in the Broadcasting Industry – Executive Report- 3 -

3.5 Rather reserved public policies _________________________________________________________________ 29
4. Summary presentation of the broadcasting industry by country _________________________________________ 29
5. Conclusion ___________________________________________________________________________________ 35
5.1. Descriptive summary ______________________________________________________________________ 35
5.1.1. The market ___________________________________________________________________________ 35
5.1.2. Legal and regulatory framework___________________________________________________________ 36
5.1.3. Is it possible to group the countries homogenously? ___________________________________________ 37
5.2. Prospective Summary: candidate countries confronted with entering the European Union ____________ 37
5.2.1. What they expect from the EU ____________________________________________________________ 37
5.2.2. What they fear_________________________________________________________________________ 38
5.2.3. What they will add to the EU _____________________________________________________________ 38

IMCA – Landscape and Political Policies of the European Community Candidate Countries in the Broadcasting Industry – Executive Report- 4 -


1. Introduction


From an initial beginning of 6 member countries, the EU successfully expanded to include 9,10,12 and then 15 member
states/countries. Currently unprecedented growth is proposed, enrolling an additional 13 countries, 10 of whom will enter
during May 2004.

th th th
On 9 October 2002, a Commission report, ratified between the 12 and 13 of December by the Copenhagen European
st
Council, presented the 10 countries proposed for EU admission on 1
May 2004, permitting them to participate in the June
2004 European Parliamentary elections. The 10 new countries comprise, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania,
Malta, Poland, The Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia. It is anticipated that Romania and Bulgaria will join the EU
during 2007. With regard to Turkey’s entry, currently no date has been set.

The historical significance of this growth spurt has been appropriately emphasised by many. The political and economic
aspects of a Europe with 25 countries have been extensively analysed; cultural aspects have received less attention, while
broadcasting-related issues have not even come up in discussions.

In fact, the 10 new member Countries, and those that follow, are going to bring new television services to the common
European cultural heritage, along with movie and other broadcasting production capacities, talents and renewed traditions,
new areas for financial investment and new investment capacities, all of which will contribute to a new European cultural
identity.

The economical and cultural implications of establishing a common broadcasting market are substantial.

In consideration of this, the European Commission would wish to enhance it’s understanding of the individual, existing
broadcasting formats operated within each of the 13 states/countries, in addition to the public policies under which they
IMCA – Landscape and Political Policies of the European Community Candidate Countries in the Broadcasting Industry – Executive Report- 5 -

operate. To successfully integrate these countries within the EU, it is imperative to understand the implications in so-far as
community resources are concerned, where the individual parties stand and their potential influence. This understanding will
permit the anticipation of future discussions as well as the economic and political implications on the broadcasting industry
as a whole.
IMCA – Landscape and Political Policies of the European Community Candidate Countries in the Broadcasting Industry – Executive Report- 6 -


2. The broadcasting industry economy of the candidate countries

GDP index (index of 100 = the average of the 15-Member State Europe) per inhabitant




Estonia
Pop : 1 361 000
GDP : 39,7
Latvia
Pop : 2 424 000
GDP : 33,4
Poland
Lituania
Pop : 38 632 000
Pop : 3 484 000
GDP : 40,5
GDP 38,6
The Czech Republic
Slovakia
Pop : 10 287 000
Pop : 5 403 000
GDP : 59
GDP : 48 ,2
Hungary
Romania
Pop : 10 197 000
Pop : 22 430 000
GDP : 52,7
GDP : 23,9
Slovenia
Bulgaria
Pop : 1 992 000
Pop : 7 973 000
GDP : 69,8
GDP : 24,6
Malt Cyprus
Pop : 390 000 Pop : 757 000
GDP : 59 GDP : 74
Turkey
Pop : 68 618 000
GDP : 22,5
IMCA – Landscape and Political Policies of the European Community Candidate Countries in the Broadcasting Industry – Executive Report- 7 -


2.1. Genera
l factors of the economic development of the candidate countries
2.1.1. Market sizes and smaller, unevenly distributed populations

The primary determining factors of all economic analysis of EU candidate countries are quite simply size and level of
development.

With the exception of Turkey, which differs substantially from the other states/countries, the new EU member
states/countries generally have smaller populations than those found within existing EU countries. Furthermore, the average
revenues per head of population within these countries are lower, representing between 25 to 75% of the average index of
the 15 existing member countries.

The most substantial and developed market within the new members countries is Poland, which incidentally has a smaller
population than that of Spain. The two additional stronger markets are those of the Czech Republic and Hungary which have
comparable populations to those of Belgium and Portugal.

Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta and Slovenia each have populations of under 4 million inhabitants, placing
them amongst the smallest countries within the new, enlarged 25 member Europe.

Romania and Bulgaria, whilst both being medium-sized countries, have extremely weak economies with a GDP per
inhabitant which is approximately 25% of the EU average.

IMCA – Landscape and Political Policies of the European Community Candidate Countries in the Broadcasting Industry – Executive Report- 8 -

With the exception of the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, the candidate countries are below or at best of a
critical size to attract significant investments to finance real competition within the broadcasting industry markets,
highlighting strong local backing when it comes to creating and producing.
IMCA – Landscape and Political Policies of the European Community Candidate Countries in the Broadcasting Industry – Executive Report- 9 -

Audiovisual sector total turnover in 2002
Source : Carat
3000,0
Broadcasting industry strength = TV + Radio + Movie + Internet Revenues
2699,8
TV Revenues = Public resources + Advertising revenues + Pay television
CA Revenues = Puces + Advertising resources
Movie Revenues = Movie tickets + Advertising revenues
2500,0 Internet Revenues = Access revenues + Advertising revenues
2000,0
1396,2
1500,0
1016,0
932,6
1000,0
500,0
325,3
276,5
176,0
123,0
113,2
53,9
43,6 45,0
0,0
Maltese figures non available
Total Turnover (Millions euros)
IMCA – Landscape and Political Policies of the European Community Candidate Countries in the Broadcasting Industry – Executive Report- 10 -

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