8051 Microcontroller – Assembly Programming - EE4380 Fall 2002 ...

8051 Microcontroller – Assembly Programming - EE4380 Fall 2002 ...

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  • mémoire
  • mémoire - matière potentielle : locations
Pari vallal Kannan Center for Integrated Circuits and Systems University of Texas at Dallas 8051 Microcontroller – Assembly Programming EE4380 Fall 2002 Class 3
  • e9 12 00 30 09 d8 f9
  • code translation on a line by line basis
  • memory locations
  • unique translation from assembly instruction
  • external memory
  • machine code
  • code
  • data

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Salvation is Created
Pavel Chesnokov
Edited by Walter Ehret
Published by Bourne Co.
Teacher's GuideA Unit Study by Christopher Conner
Instructional Objectives:
1. Students will perform “Salvation is Created” with a high level of accuracy and musicality
2. Students will compose their own piece of music complete with analysis
3. Students will complete a web quest on the history of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
Standards Addressed in Unit:
• 1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music.
• 3. Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments.
• 4. Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines.
• 5. Reading and notating music.
• 6. Listening to, analyzing, and describing music.
• 7. Evaluating music and music performances
• 8. Understanding relationships with music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts.
• 9. Understanding music in relation to history and culture.Unit Study—Salvation is Created
Composer
th Pavel Chesnokov was a Russian composer of the late-romantic/early 20 century. In
addition to composing, he was also a teacher and choral conductor, and wrote over 500 works for
choir, most of which are sacred by nature. Growing up, he studied both violin and piano for
seven years and later went on to studying composition under other Russian composers such as
Sergei Taneyev.
Composition
Composed in 1912, “Salvation is Created” was the very last sacred work that Chesnokov
wrote before the Soviet government mandated that all art be secular. As a result of the ban,
Chesnokov had never gotten to hear this particular piece performed. Because of the popularity
this piece enjoys today, there are many publish versions of it, including a six-part and eight-part
choral version, and a symphonic version.
Historical Perspective
As mentioned before, this work is the last sacred work that Chesnokov wrote before the
advent of Soviet censorship of religion. Up until 1912 when the piece was written, Chesnokov
had written strictly sacred work. He continued to write music, however, he only wrote secular
music, for fear of consequences being taken out on his family and loved ones for the
government. Chesnokov died without ever hearing a live performance of “Salvation is Created.”
Technical Consideration
The biggest technical consideration offered by this piece is controlling the breath. With a
slow tempo and a four-bar phrase structure, students will need to do two things. First, they must
take time to train themselves physically to handle longer phrases, and second, they must develop
a sensitivity to the musical phrases they are singing. Since there will inevitably be a degree of
staggered breathing, it is important for students to be aware of when it is appropriate to breath so
as not to damage the musical phrase.
Stylistic Considerations
There is a sort of imagery that goes along with the lyrics of this piece. The beginning of
the song is like the dark depths which give birth to salvation, and slowly grows. The overall
timbre of the work follows this growth until it reaches heaven in measure 10, marked by a high
tessitura and inverted chord functions. Singers and teachers must be aware of this imagery in
regards to their choice of phrasing and in regard to how they choose to control the overall sound
of the ensemble.
Musical Elements
Melody: This piece features a rather simple melody line, but because of its inherent
simplicity, it is a good tool for teaching students the “rules” about what makes a good melody,
which is a building block towards teaching harmony and later counterpoint. The melody only
appears in the upper-most voice, first in the altos, then with the sopranos when they enter in
measure 5. It is important, however, that all parts learn this melodic line because it will help guide singers to make thoughtful decisions regarding how to make better musical phrases in their
own parts.
Rhythm: The rhythm in this piece is also rather simple and straight-forward. The entire
piece is more or less homorhythmic across the board, with a few exceptions sprinkled in here and
there. Because the rhythms are so straight-forward, it presents an opportunity to have students
explore methods of musical expression through the mundane—even a half note followed by two
quarter notes can have a sense of phrase.
Harmony: This is the most complex musical element presented in this piece. This piece
has two distinct tonal centers: B minor, and its relative, D major. What makes this piece
interesting is that when you do a functional harmonic analysis, you will notice that even in the
sections where the tonal center is B, the harmony still functions as if it were in D major. This is
what gives the piece its unique harmonic flavor. Students can learn traditional harmonic
function and progression in this piece in the D-centered sections, and they can also explore how
its relative minor interplays with the notions of tonality.
Form and Structure
Continuing on with brilliance that lies within simplicity, the form is as simple as it
comes—A, A1. The major difference between A1 and A prime are that A1 ends in the key of D
major instead of following a deceptive cadence back to B minor, and the words are different.
Even though the major sections are arguably the same, it gives the students the chance to
evaluate the form on a smaller level. The A section features two distinct musical periods with
sub-phrases, and a small coda.
Suggested Listening
“Let My Prayer Arise” by Chesnokov(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zvafbx0dcu4 )
“Vespers” by Rachmaninoff (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tn5dpIECTds )
“Salvation is Created” by Chesnokov (band arrangement)(http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=y6PKQXvKJPo )Composition project:
The composition project is meant to be a scaffold-ed endeavor running the course of the unit. It
will parallel the four fundamentals of the Chesnokov piece being taught: Rhythm, Melody,
Form, and Harmony. By the end of the unit, the student will have composed a 16 bar piece of
music complete with a mini-analysis, demonstrating their understanding and application of
concepts taught. Students will also perform their composition for their peers.
Guarded-Vocabulary:
Relative Key—Major and minor scales that share the same key signature
Conjunct Motion—Melodic motion that moves up or down by step
Cadence—A harmonic progression of two chords that concludes a phrase or period
Period—a group of musical phrases
Strophic Form—A form of music in which one section is repeated
Final Rubric:
0 1 3 5
Melody does not Melody consists of 8 Melody consists of 8 Melody Incomplete
consists of 8 measures, measures, but measures and
or melody exhibits 4 or demonstrates 2-3 errors demonstrates all aspects
more errors in regard to regarding the aspects of of a good melody with
the aspects of a good a good melody. no more than one error.
melody.
Student fails to Student adequately Student adequately Harmony Incomplete
adequately address two addresses two or more addresses all three
or more questions, or questions, or student questions and creates a
student has three or has 1-2 errors in regard harmonic
more errors regarding to use of I, IV, V, or accompaniment with
solfege or use of I, IV, improper solfege correct usage of I, IV,
V V. Proper solfege.
Student's phrase Student provides a Student provides a Formal Incomplete
analysis is not complete phrase complete phrase
complete, or only one analysis on their score, analysis on their score,
musical element is but adequately address and adequately
addressed in regard to two ways in which the addresses three ways in
the musical phrase musical elements create which the musical
the musical phrase elements create the
phrases in their piece
The student performs The student performs The student performs Performance Incomplete
his or her composition his or her composition, his or her composition
at an unsatisfactory but may exhibit some accurately and with an
level of accuracy or inaccuracies adequate level of
musicianship musicianshipRhythmic Activity:
Instructional goals:
1. Students will speak the melody line with correct rhythms
2. Students will speak their own part with correct rhythms
Prior skills and knowledge:
1. Students know the values of whole, half, quarter, and eighth notes
Standards Addressed:
• 1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music
• 5. Reading and notating music
• 6. Listening to, analyzing, and describing music.
• 7. Evaluating music and music performances
Warm-up:
A good way to warm up any rehearsal is to have the ensemble sizzle different rhythms. In this
case, the teacher will sizzle a rhythm with certain articulative qualities and rhythmic drive, and
the students will echo back. The most important part of the warm up in regards to the
Chesnokov piece is making sure to keep the intensity of the musical line spinning until the end of
the phrase. This keeps the piece from bogging down and dropping pitch later on.
Procedure:
After echoing the teacher, move on to the melody of the piece. As an ensemble, sizzle the
rhythm of the melody. Since the rhythms are so simple, students can also take this time to be
watching for other musical elements such as dynamics. Most importantly, make sure the breath
and musical line stays live throughout each phrase, in spite of the slow tempo. After sizzling the
rhythms, have the students speak the melody, then eventually their own parts in rhythm,
reminding them that they should continue supporting their breath and energy throughout the
phrase.
For assessment, have each section speak their parts for the A section of the song while the other
sections evaluate them and give them feedback.Melodic Activity:
Instructional goals:
3. Students will understand fundamental concepts regarding what makes a good simple
melody.
4. Students will recognize said concepts applied withing the melody of “Salvation is
Created.”
5. Students will compose their own simple melody consisting of 8 measures
Prior skills and knowledge:
1. Students will know how to draw notes on a staff or use simple notation software
2. Students know how to use solfege
3. Students about intervals
4. Students understand major/minor keys
Standards Addressed:
• 1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music
• 3. Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments
• 4. Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines
• 5. Reading and notating music
• 6. Listening to, analyzing, and describing music.
• 7. Evaluating music and music performances
Procedure:
In this activity, students will be asked to consider the melodic line of the Chesnokov. As a class,
they will all sing through the melodic line on solfege, after which the teacher will ask the singers
what they notice about the melody that makes it easy to sing. If students are unsure, have them
sing through it again while concentrating on the question, and ask leading questions to get the
singers to discover the concepts of a good melody. Make a list on the board for students and talk
about each concept of melody. Key concepts in the Chesnokov melody are:
Conjunct Motion (stepwise motion)
thAvoids large leaps (biggest is a 5 )
Melodic line has contour and shape
Melody starts and ends on tonic (Do or La)
Other “rules” to consider discussing with students:
Avoid tritone intervals
Ti/Si has a natural tendency to lead to Do/La
Range of more than an octave should be avoided
After discussing the “rules,” take time to mention that although good melodies can follow these
thrules, sometimes composers break these rules, especially ones from the 20 century. Questions to ask students:
1. Question students as to why they thing Chesnokov decided to use the “rules” in this
composition.
2. Ask students if there are any spots where Chesnokov doesn't follow the rules exactly.
Why do they supposed he did this?
The assignment will assess the students' understanding of the “rules” of melody. For the
assignment, students may work by themselves or choose a partner. At this point, the students
will be asked to compose their own 8-bar melody, making sure to acknowledge and apply the
“rules.”
Rubric:
0 1 3 5
Melody does not Melody consists of 8 Melody consists of 8 Melody Incomplete
consists of 8 measures, measures, but measures and
or melody exhibits 4 or demonstrates 2-3 errors demonstrates all aspects
more errors in regard to regarding the aspects of of a good melody with
the aspects of a good a good melody. no more than one error.
melody.Harmonic Activity:
Instructional Goals:
1. Students will understand the relationship between relative keys, in this instance, B minor
and D major.
2. Students will know how to identify the relative major or minor key of any scale.
3. Students will write a harmonic line consisting of I, IV, and V chords, which will
accompany their melodic compositions.
Prior skills and knowledge:
5. Students will know how to draw notes on a staff or use simple notation software
6. Students know how to use solfege
7. Students about intervals
8. Students understand major/minor keys
9. Students understand the basic I, IV, and V chords
10. Students have an 8-bar melody written to apply harmonies to
Standards Addressed:
• 1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music
• 3. Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments
• 4. Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines
• 5. Reading and notating music
• 6. Listening to, analyzing, and describing music.
• 7. Evaluating music and music performances
• 8. Understanding relationships with music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts.
Warm Up:
Have singers sing a D major scale, then, instead of ending them on low Do, have them sing down
to La and stop them there. Then have them sing back up the scale as normal, but end on high La.
Have them sing the B minor scale in La-based minor, then the D major scale. Explain that the
two scales are the relative key to each other.
Procedure:
In the Chesnokov piece, have the choir sing the entire first section (m. 1-9), then ask them if that
sounds like minor or major. Then have them sing the next section (m. 10-21) and ask the same
question. Next, sing the whole A section of the piece after asking students to consider what
effect the key change has on the overall sound of the piece. After they sing, ask them their
opinions, then ask why Chesnokov used this harmonic technique. After that, show the class two
pictures from Monet's series of haystack paintings. Note how even though the subject of the
pictures is the same, the colors Monet chose are different, and thus invoke a different mood and
feel. The same holds true for why Chesnokov chose to alter between the two relative keys. A
gallery of Money's Haystacks can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haystacks_(Monet)
For the activity, revisit the warmup, and use the warmup as a way to teach the students how to
find the relative major/minor of any given key. They will use this skill for the next step of their