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# ASYMPTOTICS OF SOME ULTRA SPHERICAL POLYNOMIALS AND THEIR EXTREMA

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ASYMPTOTICS OF SOME ULTRA-SPHERICAL POLYNOMIALS AND THEIR EXTREMA MAGALI RIBOT Abstract. Motivated by questions on the preconditioning of spectral meth- ods, and independently of the extensive literature on the approximation of ze- roes of orthogonal polynomials, either by the Sturm method, or by the descent method, we develop a stationary phase-like technique for calculating asymp- totics of Legendre polynomials. The difference with the classical stationary phase method is that the phase is a nonlinear function of the large parameter and the integration variable, instead of being a product of the large parameter by a function of the integration variable. We then use an implicit functions theorem for approximating the zeroes of the derivatives of Legendre polyno- mials. This result is used for proving order and consistency of the residual smoothing scheme , . 1. Introduction When we discretize implicitly in time a partial differential equation, we have to solve a linear system, where the matrix depends on the method used for the spatial discretization. Spectral methods are classical methods, but they produce matrices, which are not sparse and difficult to invert; therefore, their numerical efficiency depends on the introduction of appropriate preconditioners. A preconditioner P of a matrix M is a matrix, which can be more easily inverted than M and such that the condition number of P?1M , that is to say the product of the norm of the matrix P?1M by the norm of its inverse M?1P , is as close to 1 as possible.

• p1 finite

• let ?k

• stiffness matrix

• phase method

• parter's theorem

• legendre spectral

• precise estimates

• legendre polynomials

Subjects

##### Legendre polynomials

Informations ASYMPTOTICS OF SOME ULTRA-SPHERICAL POLYNOMIALS AND THEIR EXTREMA
MAGALI RIBOT
Abstract.Motivated by questions on the preconditioning of spectral meth-ods, and independently of the extensive literature on the approximation of ze-roes of orthogonal polynomials, either by the Sturm method, or by the descent method, we develop a stationary phase-like technique for calculating asymp-totics of Legendre polynomials. The diﬀerence with the classical stationary phase method is that the phase is a nonlinear function of the large parameter and the integration variable, instead of being a product of the large parameter by a function of the integration variable. We then use an implicit functions theorem for approximating the zeroes of the derivatives of Legendre polyno-mials. This result is used for proving order and consistency of the residual smoothing scheme , .
1.rtnIucodonti
When we discretize implicitly in time a partial diﬀerential equation, we have to solve a linear system, where the matrix depends on the method used for the spatial discretization. Spectral methods are classical methods, but they produce matrices, which are not sparse and diﬃcult to invert; therefore, their numerical eﬃciency depends on the introduction of appropriate preconditioners. A preconditionerP of a matrixMa matrix, which can be more easily inverted thanis Mand such that the condition number ofP1M, that is to say the product of the norm of the matrixP1Mby the norm of its inverseM1P, is as close to 1 as possible. In the case of a Laplace — or more generally an elliptic — operator, ﬁnite diﬀer-ences or ﬁnite elements methods have been proposed for preconditioning spectral methods in Orszag , Haldenwang et al.  , Canuto and Quarteroni  or Deville and Mund [7, 8]. In , Quarteroni and Zampieri investigate the ﬁnite element preconditioning of Legendre spectral methods for various boundary conditions; in this article, they show numerical evidence of the spectral equivalence between the Legendre spectral matrix and the ﬁnite element matrix. They also apply the preconditioner they pro-pose to domain decomposition methods in the framework of the elasticity problem. Let us brieﬂy recall that in the one-dimensional situation of a Laplace operator, the coeﬃcients of the mass matrix are deﬁned by the scalar product of the elements of the basis, whereas the coeﬃcients of the stiﬀness matrix are given by the scalar product of the derivatives of the elements of the basis. Denote byKSthe stiﬀness matrix associated to a spectral Legendre–Gauss– Lobatto method ford2dx2with Dirichlet boundary conditions, and byKFthe stiﬀness matrix associated to theP1elements method on the nodes of thisﬁnite spectral method. LetMSbe the mass matrix of the spectral method and letMFbe the mass-lumped matrix of theP1ﬁnite elements method constructed on the nodes of the
I would like to thank very warmly Michelle Schatzman for pointing me out this subject and for many helpful discussions. Many thanks are due to Seymour Parter and David Gottlieb for their generous advice and encouragements. 1 2
MAGALI RIBOT
spectral method. We deﬁne precisely all these matrices in . We only need here the coeﬃcients of the diagonal matrixMF1MS, which are given later in for-mula (1.6). Recent results of Parter  give the following bounds: (1.1)C1Re (K(FMKSSUMU)1U U)≤ |(KF(KMSSUMU1)U U)|C Here ( These) denotes the canonical Hermitian scalar product. results are based on , which itself builds on Gatteschi’s results . WhenMFis not mass-lumped, Parter  proves an analogous result to estimates (1.1). The main result of  is the spectral equivalence between
MS12MF12KFMF12MS12 andKS a consequence of a result . Asof Parter and Rothman , which says that KFandKSare equivalent, it suﬃces to prove the spectral equivalence betweenKF and MS12MF12K MF12M12 FSThis question is motivated by the analysis of the residual smoothing scheme (see  and ), which allows for fast time integration of the spectral approxima-tion of parabolic equation. It turns out that when I started working on this question, I was not aware of Parter’s results, and I did not consult the recent literature on orthogonal poly-nomials; instead of using a Sturm method or a descent method, as is done by most authors in this ﬁeld, I took the classical integral representation formula for ultra-sphericalpolynomials(4.10.3)fromSzego˝,andIappliedtothisformula a stationary phase strategy, in a region where the classical expansions cannot be applied; this method gives an expansion at all orders, with estimates for the error bound. Let us point out that this is not a classical stationary phase method, since the exponential term is a non linear function of the large parameter and of the integration variable. Though the present result on preconditioning can be obtained with Parter’s method, I feel that the treatment presented here of the asymptotics is novel and more general. Indeed, the detailed calculations given here for derivatives of Le-gendre polynomials could possibly be generalized to other classes of orthogonal polynomials, such as derivatives of Chebyshev polynomials or more generally to all ultra-spherical polynomials. Let us describe why we need precise asymptotics of the zeroes of the derivatives of Legendre polynomials to prove the equivalence betweenMS12MF12KFMF12MS12 andKF. Let us also deﬁne precisely our notations. We denote byPNthe space of polynomial functions of degreeNdeﬁned over [1 us denote by1]. LetLNthe Legendre polynomial of degreeNand let1 = ξ0< ξ1<  < ξN1< ξN= 1 be the roots of (1X2)LN; they are the nodes of the spectral method. Letρk0kNbe the weights of the quadrature formula associated to the nodesξk; since this is a Gauss-Lobatto formula, we shall have 1 Z1(x)dx=k=XN0 (1.2)ΦP2N1Φ Φ(ξk)ρk;
the weightsρkare strictly positive.
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