BIBLIOGRAPHY I
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BIBLIOGRAPHY I

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1 SOMATOTYPE BIBLIOGRAPHY I 1938-1989 by J.E.L. CARTER, Ph.D. Exercise and Nutritional Sciences San Diego State University San Diego, CA. 92182-7521. USA. E-mail: This bibliography attempts to identify all studies that have used somatotyping as a system of assessment of physique, or for interpretation of data. Some critical reviews, comments, abstracts and summaries are also included.
  • exercising middle-aged males
  • czechoslovak top
  • olympic athletes
  • physical education
  • male college
  • human biology
  • volleyball players
  • factors based
  • relationship between
  • physiques
  • physique

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SOMATOTYPE

BIBLIOGRAPHY I

1938-1989



by

J.E.L. CARTER, Ph.D.

Exercise and Nutritional Sciences
San Diego State University
San Diego, CA. 92182-7521. USA.

E-mail: lindsay.carter@sdsu.edu









This bibliography attempts to identify all studies that have used somatotyping as a system of assessment of
physique, or for interpretation of data. Some critical reviews, comments, abstracts and summaries are also included.
Books or articles that contain a brief description of somatotyping and provide no additional data or interpretation
have been omitted. The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance and contributions to the assembly of the
bibliography of William D. Ross, Maurice Deutsch, Barbara H. Heath, H. Harrison Clarke and Stephen P. Aubry.
Appreciation is also extended to the students at Simon Fraser University and San Diego State University who worked
on parts of the bibliography.

The entries are from 1938 to 1989. A second bibliography contains publications from 1990 to the present.



Edited 20 December 2002
1
Acheson, R.M. and Dupertuis, C.W. (1957). The relationship between physique and rate of skeletal maturation in
boys. Human Biology, 29, 167-193.

Adcock, G.J. (1948). A factorial examination of Sheldon's types. Journal of Personality, 16, 312-319.

Adelson, D. and Turner, A. (1963). A note on the relation of somatotype to outcome after phenothiazine therapy in
chronic schizophrenic patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 137, 242-245.

Adiputra, N. (1988). Body composition and somatotype characteristics of Balinese dancer. MKU, Indonesia, no. 59,
14-18.

Aitken, A., Clarke, P.T. Brown, I.J. and Kay, D. (1980). The relationship between body shape (somatotype) and body
satisfaction (cathexis) in male physical educators. Scottish Journal of Physical Education, 8, 3,30-33.

Alexander, M.J.L. (1976). The relationship of somatotype and selected anthropometric measures to basketball
performance in highly skilled females. Research Quarterly, 47, 575-585.

Allen, N. (1965). A factor analysis of selected college football ability test items. PhD Thesis, University of Oregon,
Eugene (Microcard PE700.)

Alonso, R. F. (1986). Estudio del somatotipo de los atletas de 12 anos de las E.I.D.E. occidentales de Cuba. Boletin de
Trabajos de Anthropologia, abril, 3-18.

Alt, P.M. (1953). Relationship of physique and temperament. School Review, 61, 267-276.

Amador, M., Rodriguez, C. and Gonzales, M.E. (1983). Somatotyping as a tool for nutritional assessment in preschool
children. Anthropologiai Kozlemenyek, 27, 109-118.

Anastasi, A. (1958). Differential Psychology. Macmillan, New York.

Anderson, L.P. (1985). Somatotype and skinfolds of Down's syndrome adolescents. MA Thesis, San Diego State
University.

Angel, J.L. (1949). Constitution in female obesity. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 7, 443-471.

Ansley, H., Lawrenson, S. and Ansley, S. (1963). Internal structural correlates with somatotypes. 1. Red blood cells,
small veins and viscera. Journal of the Mount Sinai Hospital, 30, 199-216.

Ansley, H.R., Sheldon, W.H. and Elderkin, R.D. (1957). Erythrocytes in schizophrenic patients. Diseases of the
Nervous System, 18, 444-445.

Aragones, Ma.A., Porta, J., Serveto, P., Tejedo, A. and Ruano, D. (1988). Analisi de l'evolucio biotipologica la seva
relacio am la capacitat fisica del 5 als 14 anys. Apunts Medicina de l'esport, 25, 95, 7-12.

Araujo, C.G.S. (1978). Somatotyping of top swimmers by the Heath-Carter method. In Swimming Medicine IV, ed. B.
Erickson and B. Furberg, pp. 188-198. University Park Press, Baltimore.

Araujo, C.G.S. (1979a). Comparison of somatotypes on different age groups of Brazilian swimmers. Medicine and
Science in Sports, 11, 103 (abstract).

Araujo, C.G.S., Clarys, J.P. and Duarte, M.F. (1986). Somatotypes of male physical education students - a new
approach. In Celafiscs - Dez Anos de Contribuicao as Ciencias do Esporte, p. 138. Laboratorio de Aptidao Fisica
de Sao Caetano do Sul, SP, Brasil. (Abstract).
2
Araujo, C.G.S., Gomes, P.S.C. and Moutinho, M.F.C. (1978). Compogram: A new method to plot somatotypes.
Caderno Artus de Medicina Desportiva, 1, 43-46.

Araujo, C.G.S., Gomes, P.S.C. and Novaes, E.V. (1978). The somatotype of high level Brazilian judokas. Caderno Artus
de Medicina Desportiva, 1, 21-30.

Araujo, C.G.S. and Moutinho, M.F.C. (1978). Somatotype and body composition of adolescent Olympic gymnasts.
Caderno Artus de Medicina Desportiva, 1, 39-42.

Araujo, C.G.S., Pavel, R.C. and Gomes, P.S.C. (1978). Comparison of somatotype and speed in competitive swimming
at different phases of training. In Swimming III, ed. J. Terauds and E.W. Beddingfield, pp. 329-337. University
Park Press, Baltimore.

Arnot, R.B. and Gaines, C.L. (1984). Sportselection. The Viking Press, New York.

Arraj, T. and Arraj, J. (1985). A tool for understanding human differences: how to discover and develop your type
according to Dr. C. G. Jung and Dr. William Sheldon. Tools for Inner Growth, Chiloquin, Oregon.

Atchley-Carlson, B.J. (1981). Effects of a five-month training program on anthropometric dimensions of female and
male competitive swimmers. MA Thesis, San Diego State University.

Bagnall, K.M. and Kellett, D.W. (1977). A study of potential Olympic swimmers: 1, The starting point. British Journal
of Sports Medicine, 11, 127-132.

Bahamondes, A., Oyarzun, F. and Matte, I. (1952). Determinacion del Somatotipo de 100 Alcoholicos Mediante el
Metodo de Sheldon. Revista de Psiqiatria, 17, 47-68.

Bailey, D.A., Carter, J.E.L., and Mirwald, R. (1982). Somatotypes of Canadian men and women. Human Biology, 54,
813-828.

Bailey, S.M. (1985). Human physique and susceptibility to noninfectious disease. Yearbook of Physical
Anthropology, 28, 149-173.

Bainbridge, D.R. and Roberts, D.E. (1966). Dysplasia in nilotic physique. Human Biology, 38, 251-278.

Bale, P. (1969). Somatotyping and body physique. Physical Education, 61, 75-82.

Bale, P. (1979). The relationship between physique and basic motor performance in a group of female physical
education students. Carnegie Research Papers, 1, 26-32.

Bale, P. (1980). The relationship of physique and body composition to strength in a group of physical education
students. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 14, 4,193-198.

Bale, P. (1981). Body composition and somatotype characteristics of sportswomen. In The Female Athlete, ed. J.
Borms, M. Hebbelinck, and A. Venerando, pp. 157-167. S. Karger, Basel.

Bale, P. (1983). The Somatotypes of Sportsmen and Sportswomen. Brighton Polytechnic, Eastbourne.

Bale, P. (1986). The relationship of somatotype and body composition to strength in a group of men and women sport
science students. In Perspectives in Kinanthropometry, ed. J.A.P. Day, pp. 187-197. Human Kinetics,
Champaign, IL.

3 Bale, P., Colley, E. and Mayhew, J. (1984). Size and somatotype correlates of strength and physiological performance
in adult male students. Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 16, 2-6.

Bale, P., Colley, E. and Mayhew, J.L. (1985). Relationships among physique, strength, and performance in women
students. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 25, 98-103.

Bale, P., Rowell, S. and Colley, E. (1985). Anthropometric and training characteristics of female marathon runners as
determinants of distance running performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 3, 115-126.

Barrell, G.V. and Cooper, P.J. (1982). Somatotype characteristics of international orienteers. Perceptual and Motor
Skills, 54, 767-770.

Barton, W.H. and Hunt, E.E., Jr. (1962). Somatotype and adolescence in boys: a longitudinal study. Human Biology,
34, 254-270.

Bayley, N. and Bayer, L.M. (1946). The assessment of somatic androgeny. American Journal of Physical
Anthropology, 4, 433-461.

Behnke, A.R., Guttentag, O.E. and Brodsky, C. (1957). Quantifications of body configuration in geometrical terms.
Research and Development Technical Report USNRDL-TR-204, NS 080-001. U.S.

Behnke, A.R. and Wilmore, J.H. (1974). Evaluation and Regulation of Body Build and Composition. Prenitce Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, N. J.

Behnke, A.R. and Wilmore, J.H. (1974). Evaluation and Regulation of Body Build and Composition. Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Berry, J.N. (1972). Somatotype distribution in male college students in northern India. American Journal of Physical
Anthropology, 36, 85-94.

Berry, J.N. and Deshfukh, P.Y. (1964). Somatotypes of male college students in Nagpur, India. Human Biology, 36,
157-176.

Beulen, A. (1956). Sheldon: Vers une psychologie constitutionelle. Revue d'Education Physique, 178, 313-321.

Beunen, G. (1973-74). Somatotype and Skeletal Maturity in Boys 12 through 14. Hermes (Leuven) 8, 411-422.

Beunen, G., Claessens, A., Lefevre, J., Renson, R., Simons, J. and Van Gerven, D. (1986). Somatotype as related to age
at peak velocity in height, weight, and static strength. In Kinanthropometry III, ed. T. Reilly, J. Watkins,and J.
Borms, pp. 68-72. E. & F.N. Spon, London.

Beunen, G., Claessens, A., Ostyn, M., Renson, R., Simons, J. and Van Gerven, D. (1981). Skeletal maturation (TW2)
and somatotype. In Child Growth and Development, ed. H. Lavallee and R.J. Shephard, pp. 245-253. Universite
du Quebec a Trois -Rivieres.

Beunen, G., Claessens, A., Lefevre, J., Ostyn, M., Renson, R. and Simons, J. (1987). Somatotype as related to age at
peak velocity and to peak velocity in height, weight and static strength in boys. Human Biology, 59, 641-655.

Beunen, G., Claessens, A. and van Esser, M. (1981). Somatic and motor characteristics of female gymnasts. In The
Female Athlete, ed. J. Borms, M. Hebbelinck and A. Venerando, pp. 176-185. S. Karger, Basel.

Beunen, G., Ostyn, M., Renson, R., Simons, J., Swalus, P. and Van Gerven, D. (1977). Somatotype and physical fitness
in fourteen year-old boys. In Frontiers of Activity and Child Health, ed. H.Lavallee and R.J. Shephard, pp. 115-
123. Pelican, Quebec.
4
Beunen, G. and Van Hellemont, A. (1980). Body structure and somatotype in physical education students.
Anthropologiai Kozlemenyek, 24, 15-21.

Bevans, M.T. (1977). A comparison of somatotypes in female gymnasts and distance runners. MS Thesis, Springfield
College. (University of Oregon, Microform PE1991f)

Blaha, P. and Seifertova, V. (1979). Dilci vysledka z longitudinalniho sledovani telesneho rozvoje deti sportovnich
trid. In Telesna Kultura V Zivote Dietata. Materialy z celostatnej konferencie usporiadanej pri prilezitosti
Medzinarodneho roka dietata Bratislave, 265-268.

Bodel, J.K., Jr. (1950). Distribution and permanence of body build in boys. PhD Thesis, Harvard University.

Bodzsar, E.B. (1982). The indices of the physique and the socio-economic factors based on a growth study in Bakony
girls. Anthropologiai Kozlemenyek, 26, 129-134.

Boennec, P., Prevot, M. and Ginet, J. (1980). Somatotype de sportif de haut niveau. Resultats dans huit disciplines
differentes. Medecine du Sport, 54, 5,309-318.

Bok, V. (1974). A comparison of selected illustrations of creative works from the point of view of constitutional
typology. Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Gymnica, 10, 2,79-91.

Bok, V. (1976). Comparison of somatotypes in certain works of art with the view to the beauty of the living human
body. In International Conference on Physical Education, A.I.E.S.E.P., ed. R. Linc, pp. 191-196. Universita
Karlova, Prague.

Bok, V. (1981). Prispevek k poznani dedicne podminenosti somatotypu a nekterych anthropometrickych
charakteristik. PhD Dissertation, Universita Karlova, Prague.

Bok, V. (1983). The comparison of Adams' and Eves' depiction in selected style periods from the point of view of
somatotype. Acta Univeristatis Carolinae, Gymnica, 19, 1,73-84.

Bok, V. and Tlapekova, E. (1982). New ways of somatotyping and their application. Acta Universitatis Carolinae,
Gymnica, 18, 5-19.

Bolonchuk, W.W., Hall, C.B., Lukaski, H.C. and Siders, W.A. (1989). Relationship between body composition and
the components of somatotype. American Journal of Human Biology, 1, 3, 239-248.

Borms, J. and Hebbelinck, M. (1977). Profiles of Physical Education Teachers and Students. Vrije Universiteit Brussel,
Brussels.

Borms, J., Hebbelinck, M. and Ross, W.D. (1972). Somatotype and skeletal maturity in 12 year old boys. Pediatric
Work Physiology, Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium, ed. O. Bar-Or, pp. 85-91. Wingate
Institute, Israel.

Borms, J., Hebbelinck, M. and Schraepen, D. (1976). Anthropometric assessment of the self-portraits of eleven and
twelve year old boys. In Physical Education, Sports and the Sciences, ed. J. Broekhoff, pp. 307-320. Microfilm
Publications, University of Oregon, Eugene.

Borms, J., Hebbelinck, M. and Van Gheluwe, B. (1977). Early and late maturity in Belgian boys, 6 to 13 years of age
and its relation to body type. In Growth and Development: Physique, ed. O. Eiben, pp. 399-406. Akademiai
Kiado (Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Budapest.

5 Borms, J., Ross, W.D., Duquet, W. and Carter, J.E.L. (1986). Somatotypes of world class body builders. In
Perspectives in Kinanthropometry, ed. J.A.P. Day, pp. 81-90. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Borms, J., Van Der Meer, J., De Schepper, P., Hebbelinck, M. (1978). A multivariate comparison of the physical and
socio-psychological profile of Belgian physical educators and general subject teachers. In Proceedings of
Twentieth World Congress of Physical Education, Health and Recreation, July 1977, Mexico City, Vol.2, Mexico
City, SODIFEF, 627-639.

Bosze, P., Eiben, O.G. and Laszlo, J. (1982). Somatotype analysis of patients with hypergonadotropic primary
amenorrhoea. (In Hungarian). Humanbiologia Budapestinensis, 13, 61-63.

Bouchard, C. (1977). Univariate and multivariate genetic analysis of anthropometric and physique characteristics of
French Canadian families. PhD Thesis, University of Texas, Austin.

Bouchard, C., Demirjian, A. and Malina, R.M. (1980a). Heritability estimates of somatotype components based upon
familial data. Human Heredity, 30, 112-118.

Bouchard, C., Demirjian, A. and Malina, R. M. (1980b). Path analysis of family resemblance in physique. Studies in
Physical Anthropology, 6, 61-70.

Bouchard, C., Landry, E., LeBlanc, C. and Mondor, J. (1974). Quelques-Unes Des Caracteristiques Physiques et
Physiologiques des Jouers de Hockey et Leurs Relations avec La Performance. Mouvement, 9, 1,95-110.

Bridges, P.K. and Jones, M.T. (1973). Relationship between some psychological assessments, body-build, and
physiological stress responses. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 36, 839-845.

Brief, F.K. (1986). Somatotipo y caracteristicas antropometricas de los atletas Bolivarianos. Universidad Central de
Venezuela, Caracas.

Broekhoff, J. (1966). Relationships between physical,socio-psychological,and mental characteristics of thirteen year
old boys. PhD Thesis, University of Oregon, Eugene (Microcard PSY248.)

Broekhoff, J. (1976). Physique types and perceived physical characteristics of elementary school children with low
and high social status. In Physical Education, Sports and the Sciences, ed. J.Broekhoff, pp. 332-335. Microfilm
publications, University of Oregon, Eugene.

Broekhoff, J., Nadgir, A. and Pieter, W. (1986). Morphological differences between young gymnasts and non-athletes
matched for age and gender. In Kinanthropometry III, ed. T. Reilly, J. Watkins, & J. Borms, pp. 204-210, E. &
F.N. Spon, London.

Broekhoff, J., Santomier, J. and Bennett, J. (1978). Somatotypes and personality profiles of male and female physical
education students. In Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Physical Education, Health and
Recreation, July 1977, Mexico City, Vol. 2. Mexico City, SODIFEF, 706-718.

Brouwer, D. (1957). Somatotypes and psychosomatic diseases. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 2, 23-34.

Brown, G.M. (1960). Relationship between body types and static posture of young women. Research Quarterly, 31,
403-408.

Brown, G.M. and Mott, P.H. (1951). Somatotyping: two technical modifications of the Sheldon procedure. Medical
Radiography and Photography, 27, 20-22.

Brozek, J. (1960). The measurement of body composition. In A Handbook of Anthropometry, ed. M.F.A. Montague,
pp. 78-120. C.C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.
6
Brozek, J. (1965). Human Body Composition. Pergamon Press, New York.

Brozek, J. and Keys, A. (1952). Body-build and body composition. Science, 116, 140-142.

Buday, J. and Eiben, O.G. (1982). Somatotype of adult Down's patients. Anthropologiai Kozlemenyek, 26, 71-77.

Bulbulian, R. (1984). The influence of somatotype on anthropometric prediction of body composition in young
women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 16, 4,389-397.

Bulbulian, R, Johnson, R.E., Gruber, J.J. and Darabos, B. (1987). Body composition in paraplegic male athletes.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19, 195-201.

Bullen, A.K. (1945). A cross-cultural approach to the problem of stuttering. Child Development, 16, 1-88.

Bullen, A.K. (1952). Some problems in the practical application of somatotyping. Florida Anthropologist, 5, 17-20.

Bullen, A.K. and Hardy, H.L. (1946). Analysis of body build photographs of 175 college women. American Journal of
Physical Anthropology, 4, 37-65.

Burdick, J.A. and Tess, D. (1983). A factor analytic study based on the Atlas of Men. Psychological Reports, 52, 511-
516.

Burian, R.J. (1969). A study of the relationship between female body physique and a number of psycho-social
correlates. PhD Thesis, Arizona State University, Tempe.

Butts, N.K. (1982). Physiological profile of high school female cross-country runners. The Physician and
Sportsmedicine, 10, 11,103-111.

Caldeira, S., Matsudo, V.K.R., Vivolo, M.A. and Sessa, M. (1986). The somatotype characteristics of South American
volleyball players. In Celafiscs - Dez Anos de Contribuicao as Ciencias do Esporte, p. 136. Laboratorio de
Aptidao Fisica de Sao Caetano do Sul, SP, Brasil. (abstract in Portuguese).

Caldeira, S., Stanziola, L. and Matsudo, V.K.R. (1986). Relationship between somatotype and agility among top
athletes. In Celafiscs - Dez Anos de Contribuicao as Ciencias do Esporte, p. 139. Laboratorio de Aptidao Fisica
de Sao Caetano Do Sul, SP, Brasil. (abstract in Portuguese).

Caldeira, S., Vivolo, M.A. and Matsudo, V.K.R. (1986a). Somatotype among Brasilian volleyball players. In Celafiscs -
Dez Anos de Contribuicao as Ciencias do Esporte, pp. 116-119. Laboratorio de Aptidao Fisica de Sao Caetano
do Sul, SP, Brasil. (In Portuguese).

Caldeira, S., Vivolo, M.A. and Matsudo, V.K.R. (1986b). Somatotype characteristics from college volleyball players
from different Brazilian regions. In Celafiscs - Dez Anos de Contribuicao as Ciencias do Esporte, p. 137.
Laboratorio de Aptidao Fisica de Sao Caetano do Sul, SP, Brasil. (abstract in Portuguese).

Caldeira, S., Vivolo, M.A. and Matsudo, V.K.R. (1986c). Somatotype of athletes at different sports in Olympic center
of training and research. In Celafiscs - Dez Anos de Contribuicao as Ceincias do Esporte, p. 137. Laboratorio de (abstract in Portuguese).

Carruth, W.A. (1952). The relationships of constitutional build and motor ability. PhD Thesis, New York University.

Carter, J.E.L. (1958). An analysis of somatotypes of boys aged twelve to seventeen years. MA Thesis, State
University, Iowa, Iowa City.

7 Carter, J.E.L. (1964). The physiques of male physical education teachers in training. Journal of the Physical Education
Association of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 56, 66-76.

Carter, J.E.L. (1965). The physiques of female physical education teachers in training. Journal of the Physical
Education Association of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 57, 6-16.

Carter, J.E.L. (1966). The somatotypes of swimmers. Swimming Technique, 3, 76-79.

Carter, J.E.L. (1968). Somatotypes of college football players. Research Quarterly, 39, 476-481.

Carter, J.E.L. (1970). The somatotypes of athletes: a review. Human Biology, 42, 535-569.

Carter, J.E.L. (1971). Somatotype charateristics of champion athletes. In Anthropological Congress dedicated to Ales
Hrdlicka, ed. V.V. Novotny, pp. 242-252. Academia, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague.

Carter, J.E.L. (1974). Somatotype, growth and physical performance. In The Regulation of the Adipose Tissue Mass,
ed. J. Vague and J. Boyer, pp. 254-264. Exerpta Medica, Amsterdam.

Carter, J.E.L. (1978). The prediction of outstanding athletic ability - the structural perspective. In Exercise Physiology,
ed. F. Landry and W.A.R. Orban, pp. 29-42. Symposia Specialists, Miami.

Carter, J.E.L. (1980a). The Heath-Carter somatotype method. (Third Edition) San Diego State University Syllabus
Service, San Diego.

Carter, J.E.L. (1980b). The contributions of somatotyping to kinanthropometry. In Kinanthropometry II, ed. M.Ostyn,
A.Beunen and J.Simons, pp. 411-424. University Park Press, Baltimore.

Carter, J.E.L. (1981). Somatotypes of female athletes. In The Female Athlete, ed. J. Borms, M. Hebbelinck,and A.
Venerando, p. 85-116. S. Karger, Basel.

Carter, J.E.L. (Ed). (1984a). Physical Structure of Olympic Athletes. Part II. Kinanthropometry of Olympic Athletes. S.
Karger, Basel.

Carter, J.E.L. (1984b). Somatotypes of Olympic Athletes from 1948 to 1976. In Physical Structure of Olympic Athletes.
Part II. Kinanthropometry of Olympic Athletes, ed. J.E.L. Carter, pp. 80-109. S. Karger, Basel.

Carter, J.E.L. (1985a). A comparison of ratings by Heath and Sheldon of somatotypes in "Atlas of Men". In Physique
and Body Composition, vol. 16, ed. O.G. Eiben, pp. 13-22. Humanbiologia Budapestinensis, Budapest.

Carter, J.E.L. (1985b). Morphological factors limiting human performance. In The Limits of Human Performance, The
American Academy of Physical Education Papers, No. 18, ed. H.M. Eckert and D.H. Clarke, pp. 106-117. Human
Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Carter, J.E.L. (1987). Somatotypes of children in sport. In Children and Sport, ed. R.M. Malina, (in press). Human
Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Carter, J.E.L., Aubry, S.P. and Sleet, D.A. (1982). Somatotypes of Montreal Olympic athletes. In Physical Structure of
Olympic Athletes. Part I. The Montreal Olympic Games Anthropological Project, ed. J.E.L. Carter, pp. 53-80. S.
Karger, Basel.

Carter, J.E.L. and Brallier, R.M. (1987). Physiques of specially selected female gymnasts. In Children and Sport, ed.
R.M. Malina, (in press). Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Carter, J.E.L. and Heath, B.H. (1971). Somatotype methodology and kinesiology research. Kinesiology Review, 10-19.
8
Carter, J.E.L. and Heath, B.H. (1986). Comparison of somatotypes of young adults by two methods. In
Kinanthropometry III, ed. T. Reilly, J. Watkins, and J. Borms, pp. 63-67. E. & F.N. Spon, London.

Carter, J.E.L. and Lucio, F.D. (1986). Body size, skinfolds, and somatotypes of high school and Olympic wrestlers. In
Perspectives in Kinanthropometry, ed. J.A.P. Day, pp. 171-180. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Carter, J.E.L. and Parizkova, J. (1978). Changes in somatotypes of European males between 17 and 24 years. American
Journal of Physical Anthropology, 48, 251-254.

Carter, J.E.L. and Phillips, W.H. (1969). Structural changes in exercising middle-aged males during a two year period.
Journal of Applied Physiology, 27, 787-794.

Carter, J.E.L. and Rahe, R.H. (1975). Effects of stressful underwater demolition training on body structure. Medicine
and Science in Sports, 7, 304-308.

Carter, J.E.L. and Rendle, M.L. (1965). The physiques of Royal New Zealand Air Force Men. Report to the R.N.Z.A.F.,
Air Department, Wellington, New Zealand. (University of Oregon, Microcard PSY188, )

Carter, J.E.L., Rendle, M.L. and Gayton, P.H. (1981). Size and somatotype of Olympic male field hockey players. New
Zealand Journal of Sports Medicine, 9, 8-13.

Carter, J.E.L., Ross, W.D., Duquet, W. and Aubry, S.P. (1983). Advances in somatotype methodology and analysis.
Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 26, 193-213.

Carter, J.E.L., Ross, W.D., Kasch, F.W. and Phillips, W.H. (1965). Body types of middle-aged males in training. Journal
of the Association for Physical and Mental Rehabilitation, 19, 148-152.

Carter, J.E.L., Sleet, D.A. and Martin, G.N. (1971). Somatotypes of male gymnasts. Journal of Sports Medicine and
Physical Fitness, 11, 2-11.

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