Contribution to the study of the central tracking system of the CMS ...
71 Pages
English
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Contribution to the study of the central tracking system of the CMS ...

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71 Pages
English

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  • dissertation
Universite Libre de Bruxelles Faculte des Sciences Contribution to the study of the central tracking system of the CMS detector at the LHC collider and to the elaboration of its online triggering system Dissertation presentee en vue de lobtention du titre de Docteur en Sciences Gilles DE LENTDECKER Decembre
  • cms tracker
  • msgc
  • high voltage supply
  • msgcgem detector
  • compact muon
  • gas electron multiplier gem
  • energy-loss
  • energy loss
  • detectors
  • conclusions
  • data analysis
  • data for analysis

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IGCSE HISTORY REVISION 2006
ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES
The examiners expect you to:
• recall, select, organize and show your knowledge about a specific topic;
• show that you understand:
• change & continuity, cause & consequence, similarity & difference;
• the motives, emotions, intentions and beliefs of individuals in history;
• understand, interpret and use different sources as evidence of certain events, individuals or
groups.
Your exam is made up of three papers: Papers 1, 2 & 4:
• P aper 1: (1 hour 45 minutes – divided into 2 sections)
th• Section A has 4 questions about 20 century history, answer any 2,
• Section B is about Germany (1919-1945) and there are 2 questions, do 1.
All the questions are structured into 3 parts and will be based on stimulus material i.e.
there will be a picture or written source at the beginning of each question.
• P aper 2: (2 hours – only 1 topic)
th• 20 century topic: The Treaty of Versailles
• P aper 4:
• Do any one question on Germany 1919-1945thT he 20 Century – International Relations since 1919
BIG QUESTION: Were the peace treaties (1919-23) fair?
• What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles?
• Why did all the victors not get everything they wanted?
• What was the impact of the peace treaty on Germany up to 1923?
• Could the treaties be justified at the time?
• Peace treaties of 1919-23
• Roles of individuals like Wilson, Clemenceau and Lloyd George on the peacemaking
process
• The impact of the treaties on the defeated countries
• Modern opinions about the treaties
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BIG QUESTION: To what extent was the League of Nations a success?
• How successful was the League in the 1920’s?
• How far did weaknesses in the League’s organization make failure inevitable?
• How far did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult?
• How successful was the League in the 1930’s?
• League of Nations: strengths and weaknesses in its structure and organization
• Successes and failures in peacekeeping during the 1920’s
• The impact of the Great Depression on the work of the League after 1929
• The failures of the League in the 1930’s, including Manchuria and Abyssinia
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BIG QUESTION: Why had international peace collapsed by 1939?
• What were the long-term consequences of the 1919-23 peace treaties?
• What were the consequences of the failures of the League in the 1930’s?
• How far was Hitler’s foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939?
• Was the policy of appeasement justified?
• How important was the Nazi-Soviet Pact?
• Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in September 1939?
• The collapse of international order in the 1930’s
• The increasing militarism of Germany, Italy and Japan (Axis Powers)
• Hitler’s foreign policy to 1939: the Saar, remilitarization of the Rhineland, Anschluss
with Austria, appeasement crises over Czechoslovakia and Poland
• The outbreak of war
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BIG QUESTION: Who was to blame for the Cold War?
• Why did the USA-USSR alliance begin to break down in 1945?
• How had the USSR gained control of Eastern Europe by 1948?
• How did the USA react to Soviet expansionism?
• What were the consequences of the Berlin Blockade?
• Who was more to blame for starting the Cold War, the USA or the USSR?• The origins of the Cold War: the 1945 summit conferences and the breakdown of the
USA-USSR alliance in 1945-6
• Soviet expansionism into Eastern Europe to 1948 and American reactions to it
• The occupation of Germany and the Berlin Blockade
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BIG QUESTION: How effectively did the USA contain the spread of Communism?
• America and events in Cuba, 1959-62
• American involvement in Vietnam
• Events of the Cold War: American involvement in Cuba from 1959 until 1962, reactions
to the Cuban Revolution, the missile crisis and its aftermath & involvement in Vietnam
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BIG QUESTION: How secure was the USSR’s control over Eastern Europe, 1948-1989?
• Why was there opposition to Soviet control in Hungary 1956 and Czechoslovakia in 1968, and
how did the USSR react to this opposition?
• How similar were events in Hungary (1956) and Czechoslovakia (1968)?
• Why was the Berlin Wall built in 1962?
• What was the significance of Solidarity in Poland for the decline of Soviet influence in Eastern
Europe?
• How far was Gorbachev personally responsible for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern
Europe?
• Soviet power in Eastern Europe: resistance to Soviet power in Hungary (1956) and
Czechoslovakia (1968)
• Berlin Wall
• Solidarity in Poland
• Gorbachev and the collapse of the Soviet Empire
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CASE STUDY: Germany, 1919 – 1945
Was the Weimar Republic doomed from the start?
• How did Germany emerge from defeat at the end of WW I?
• What was the impact of the Treaty of Versailles on the Republic?
• To what extent did the Republic recover after 1923?
• What were the achievements of the Weimar Period?
Why was Hitler able to dominate Germany by 1934?
• What did the Nazi Party stand for in the 1920’s?
• Why did the Nazi’s have little success before 1930?
• Why was Hitler able to become Chancellor by 1933?
• How did Hitler consolidate his power in 1933-34?The Nazi regime: how effectively did the Nazi’s control Germany from 1933-45?
• How much opposition was there to the Nazi regime?
• How effectively did the Nazi’s deal with the political opponents?
• How did the Nazi’s persecute any groups in Germany society?
• Was Nazi Germany a totalitarian state?
The Nazi regime: what was it like to live in Nazi Germany?
• How did young people react to the Nazi regime?
• How successful were Nazi policies towards women and the family?
• Did most people in Germany benefit from Nazi rule?
• How did the coming of war change life in Nazi Germany?
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sources
Primary Sources: Primary sources are contemporary to the time studied (From that time).

Secondary Sources: These sources come from after the time being studied. They are not contemporary.
Newspapers: Newspapers are both primary and secondary. The photographs are primary, but the reports
are not usually written by eyewitnesses, so are secondary. Therefore they contain both primary and
secondary sources. Definition of a newspaper: ‘It should be an accurate account of what happened in
the world, yesterday.’ This brings the conclusion that newspapers are mainly secondary.
Reminiscences: When people reminisce, they are primary to the event, but what they say is secondary
to the event. Reminiscences are unreliable for three reasons: exaggeration, lies and omission (they
forget).
Autobiographical Sources: Autobiographical Sources are seldom secondary: They are usually primary
sources.
Sources in the 20th Century: There is a multitude of new sources, mainly audio-visual archive material.
There are many computer data formats. There is also more literacy leading to more records. There is
such a flood of evidence, it is difficult to sift through it all. Fraud is easier this century. Sources can
often contradict, and the state confidentiality on its documents makes research difficult. As we have
not finished living the events, it is difficult to write about the results.
Cartoon Symbolism
Countries
Britain: Is usually represented by a John Bull figure (fat, prosperous, frock coat, gaiters,
crumpled hat, Union Jack waistcoat) or by a Lion
USA: She is usually shown as Uncle Sam (tall and thin, tall hat, wispy beard, striped
trousers, stars on waistcoat) or by an eagle.
France: The typical symbol is either a cockerel or a girl revolutionary whose most
characteristic garment is a pixie-style hat with a three-coloured cockade
(roseta).
Germany: Its usual figure up to the First World War is the Kaiser with a big moustache in
his military greatcoat and spiked, ‘pickel-haub’ helmet. Afterwards, of course,
the typical Hitler figure and the swastika dominate.
Russia: This country will be shown as a Cossack or other fur-hatted figure, sometimes
drawn to resemble the Tsar (pre-1917), as a menacing figure, worker or
soldier, featuring the Hammer and Sickle since the Revolution, or as a bear at
any time.
Italy: She is often shown as a young sailor in the past, though the Mussolini image
dominates the inter-war years.Japan: The symbol for this country is the rising sun, but during her militaristic era she
was also depicted as a ferocious, sword-wielding samurai warrior.
China: This nation is shown as a pigtailed Chinese man with a long and flowing
moustache, but is now characterized by the Chairman Mao figure in the typical
gray unisex pants and jackets.
Other symbols
Some other symbols which might appear are the fasces, a bundle of twigs bound together with an axe,
representing Fascist Italy, or a single star on military equipment, which would be red in fact (though
hardly so on an exam paper.) This indicates the Soviet or ‘red’ army.
Colours
Colours are often used or referred to in cartoons. The red, amber, green sequence of traffic lights may
represent danger, warning and safety. Red also stands for Communism, especially Russian. Black and
white (regrettably for the anti-racist lobby!) tend to stand for Darkness/Evil and Light/Good
respectively. Black also represents Fascism (Mussolini’s Blackshirts and Hitler’s SS) and is supported by
brown (Hitler’s SA). YYeellllooww means Japan or China.
Animals
Animals other than those specific to countries (see above) which may be used are the snake (evil or
danger), the rabbit (innocence or vulnerability) the donkey (stupidity), the raven (danger or death),
the dove, with or without an olive branch (peace), the horse (dogged determination, persistence or
hard work), the pig, (brutality), the sheep (docility or inability to think for oneself) and the cow
(docility or stupidity).
Flowers
Flowers represent friendship or good will, with the laurel (wreath) meaning victory.Changes in the Map of Europe (1914-1923)
(Refer to the maps showing Europe in 1914 and 1919 in your textbooks.)
The peace treaties that ended the First World War (1914-1918) altered the political map of Europe.
Allies Central Powers (*)

Great Britain Germany

France Austria-Hungary

Russia (†) Bulgaria

Belgium Turkey

Italy (changed sides May 1915)
USA (joined 1917)

(*) The central powers were punished, they had to lose land and they had to pay reparations (payment
for war damages)
(†) Russia was also punished in 1919 because the Allies felt betrayed when Russia left the War early
(3/3/1918, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk)
German Losses
France regained Alsace-Lorraine. Posen-West Prussia went to Poland, forming a corridor to the coast.
Northern Schleswig was given to Denmark. Troppau was given to Czechoslovakia. Austria and Germany
were NOT allowed to unite.
Austro-Hungarian Losses
Austria and Hungary became two small, landlocked republics, Habsburg land was used to create two
new states: Czechoslovakia in the north, and Yugoslavia in the south. Yugoslavia was formed from
Austria and Serbia. Other countries gained land. Rumania got Transylvania, and roughly doubled in size.
Poland gained Galicia, Italy gained the Southern Tyrol.
Bulgarian Losses
Bulgaria loses Western Thrace to Greece.
Turkish Losses
Two treaties were signed with Turkey, in the first she lost land to Greece, and in the second it was
returned.
Russian Losses
Russia lost land to recreate Poland, and four countries became independent. Three were the Baltic
States, and the other was Finland.Treaties at the End of the First World War
• Treaty of Versailles with Germany - 28th June 1919
• Treaty of St. Germain with Austria - 10th September 1919
• Treaty of Trianon with Hungary - 1920
• Treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria - 27th November 1919
• Treaty of Sevres with Turkey - 1920
• Treaty of Lausanne with Turkey - 1923
The first five were named after palaces, and were also diktats. The last was the only negotiated treaty.
(A “diktat” is an imposed, unilateral document.)
The Treaty of Versailles – 28th June 1919
Introduction
By 1918 Germany was suffering defeat in most areas of the war. The German nation was hungry, war
weary and demanded peace. The German government eventually asked for an armistice, and on
11/11/1918, cease-fire began. The problem of peace remained. Many people hoped that a peace
settlement would prevent war from happening again. US President Wilson thought that he had the
answer to all Europe’s problems. He stated his views in ‘Fourteen Points’.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
On January 8th, 1918, Wilson outlined his peace proposals to the American Congress. These became
known as the ‘Fourteen Points’ and ‘Four principles’. On November 5th, 1918, Wilson sent a note to
the Germans. The Germans agreed to an armistice and expected a peace settlement to be based upon
the Fourteen points.
Of the fourteen points these were the most important:
• There were to be no secret treaties between powers like the treaties that had helped to cause
the First World War. (Open Diplomacy)
• Seas should be free in peace and in war to ships of all nations (Freedom of Navigation)
• The barriers to trade between countries such as custom duties should be removed (Free trade)
• All countries should reduce their armed forces to the lowest possible levels (Multilateral
disarmament.)
• The national groups in Europe should, wherever possible, be given their independence. Wilson
supported the idea of National Self-Determination (NSD), whereby a nation had the right to self-
government.
• Russia should be allowed to operate whatever government it wanted.
• Territorial changes:
• Germany should give up Alsace-Lorraine and any lands taken away during the war.
• The Italian frontier should be readjusted.
• Belgium should be evacuated.
• Poland should be given access to the sea.
• The defeated nations should not be made to pay for the war as a whole.
• A ‘League of Nations’ should be formed to protect world peace in the future.
Most of the points are very general: not all of them stated specific changes. Britain and France
considered the points as being too impractical, they thought that Wilson was hoping for far too much. They had used much of their wealth on the war, and France had suffered two German invasions (1870 &
1914). France wanted to ensure that a third attack would never take place, and wanted Germany to be
reduced to a minor European State. (The ideal situation would be of course NO GERMANY!!)
The Paris Peace Conference
The terms for peace were discussed in Paris from 18th January 1919 until June.
The conference was attended by thirty-two states, but the major powers dominated the conference:
Japan, Italy (Orlando), France (Georges Clemenceau, the Old Tiger), Britain (Lloyd George) and the USA
(Wilson).
‘The Big Three’ – Wilson, Clemenceau and Lloyd George made all the major decisions.
Germany and the defeated states were not invited to attend the conference.
Peace was difficult to make because of the widescale disruption to Europe during the war and the
general unrest that existed while the peace conference sat. When the Versailles Treaty was signed, few
of Wilson’s fourteen points were adhered to, though a ‘League of Nations’ was set up.
German Land Losses
(Refer to the map in your textbook showing German land losses.)
Clemenceau wanted to make sure that France was secure from German attack and so demanded that
her northeastern boundary was safe.
• Germany therefore lost Alsace-Lorraine.
• The Rhineland was demilitarised so that French borders were secure.
• Three frontier areas were given to Belgium.
• Northern Schleswig went to Denmark
• Troppau was transferred to Czechoslovakia.
• Poland gained West Prussia and Posen. This made up a ‘corridor’, giving Poland access to
the Baltic Sea. Poland also gained half of Silesia.
• East Prussia was separated from Germany.
• The League of Nations took control of certain areas:
• Industrial area of the Saar (Germany regained it in 1935).
• Port of Memel taken from Germany (annexed by Lithuania, 1923).
• Danzig made a free city under the control of the League of Nations.
• All Germany’s gains at the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (3rd March 1918) were surrendered.
Germany had made considerable gains when Russia made peace.
• Germany lost all of her overseas colonies covering a total of approx 2,000,000 square
kilometres. Britain gained Tanganyika in East Africa, part of Togoland and the
Cameroons. The remaining African colonies were shared between Belgium and South
Africa.
• In the Pacific, German possessions were shared between Britain, Australia, New Zealand
and Japan.
• The union (Anschluss) of Austria and Germany was forbidden.
As a result of these losses, Germany’s total territorial losses amounted to 28,000 square miles, and six
million people.
Military Losses