Evolutionary Programming as a Solution Technique for the Bellman ...
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Evolutionary Programming as a Solution Technique for the Bellman ...


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Evolutionary Programming as a Solution Technique for the Bellman Equation∗ Paul Gomme Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, P.O. Box 6387, Cleveland, OH 44101–1387, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C., V5A 1S6, CANADA, and CREFE/UQAM, Case postale 8888, succursale centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8, CANADA First Draft: April 1996 This Draft: October 1997 Abstract: Evolutionary programming is a stochastic optimization procedure which has proved useful in optimizing difficult functions.
  • bellman equation iteration
  • value func- tion for the best guess
  • top half of the population
  • member with a corresponding member
  • evolutionary program
  • grid point
  • capital
  • member
  • solution



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Lecture 28
Lecture 28 Other Tropical Starch Crops Sweet potato:Ipomoea batatas,Convolvulaceae New World Origin, has become naturalized in the Pacific. One theory is that it was carried by Polynesian travelers from Easter Island, but more likely it came from the Philippines where it was introduced by the Spanish conquistadors. Adapted to tropical lowlands and an important food in Asia. In tropics most cultivars are white fleshed. Has now has become an important temperate crop.
Sweet Potato: 2001 World Production 1000 Continent tonnes Chief countries World 135,919 Africa 10,203 Uganda (2,515), Nigeria (2,468), Rwanda (1,137) North America 1,158 US (651), Cuba (200), Haiti (174) South America 1,250 Brazil (485), Argentina (335), Peru (273) Asia 122,645 China (115,122), Indonesia (1,686), Viet Nam (1,610) Europe 59 Portugal (22), Spain (21), Italy (14) Oceania 602 Papua New Guinea (485), Solomon (79), New Zealand (16)
Morphology of the sweetpotato plant.
Lecture 28
Potato:Solanum tuberosum,Solanaceae
Lecture 28
Also known incorrectly as Irish potato (but is not from Ireland) and white potato (but there are yellow and red types). A tropical highland crop but now the most important temperate tuber vegetable. Still grown in tropical highlands. Crop is very sensitive to daylength. S. tuberosum(4x, a tetraploid) tubers in short days and long days = a long day selection of S. andiginum) S. andiginum(4x); tubers only in short days S. demissum(6x); small and colorful potatoes of Peru S. phureja(2x) S. stenotomum(2x)
Continent World Africa
Potato: 2001 World Production
North America
South America
1000 tonnes 308,195 11,776
Chief countries
Malawi (2,000), Egypt (1,800), South Africa (1,555) US (20,174), Canada (4,030), Mexico (1,610) Colombia (3,013), Peru (2,799), Brazil (2,787) China (64,045), India (25,000), Turkey (5,350) Russian Federation (34,500), Poland (20,401), Ukraine (13,500) Australia (1,250), New Zealand (500), New Caledonia (1)
Plant and flowers of potato.
Lecture 28
The potato tuber is an underground stem. The eyes are buds.
Potato blight
Minor Peruvian Root Crops
Inca crops in a market in Ipiales, Colombia
Lecture 28
Collection of Peruvian Root Crops
Ulluco Ullucus tuberosus
Oca,Oxalis tuberosus
Lecture 28
Palms and Cycads
The stems of Cycads and Palms are a source of carbohydrates inside the stem. They are harvested by cutting down the tree and scraping the stem.
Sago:Metroxylon sagu, Palmaceae An enormous palm, originated in Malaysia. Grows 10 to 15 years before it flowers, during this period it accumulates starch. It is not widespread but found now in New Guinea.
Cycad cone
Lecture 28