Shays’s Rebellion, the Anti-Federalists
5 Pages
English
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Shays’s Rebellion, the Anti-Federalists

-

Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer
5 Pages
English

Description

  • expression écrite - matière potentielle : the opponents
  • cours - matière potentielle : elections
  • expression écrite
Shays's Rebellion, the Anti-Federalists, and the Consolidating Constitution By Geoffrey Plauché POLI 7998 April 12, 2004
  • elite about the ability of the common people
  • republican principles
  • laws of a free government rest on the confidence of the people
  • old system of government
  • massachusetts elite
  • backcountry farmers
  • men
  • people
  • government

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Language English

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Maxine Ames mra34@cornell.edu Cornell University Biological Sciences BS candidate 2010 Ladybugs, Paper Wasps and Spiders: Hungry and Helpful! We often think of insects and spiders as pests, but they perform a vital function as natural enemies and predators of other insects that attack and eat crop plants.Without these fascinating predators to suppress populations of insect pests there would be greater reliance on potentially toxic pesticides. Lady Bugs What are they? They are small beetles (scientifically named Coccinellids) that are usually red, yellow or orange in color with black spots on their backs and wing covers. There are over 5000 species that have been classified, and they can be found on every continent except Antarctica. What do they eat? Ladybugs are predatory insects. They specialize on killing small insects such as aphids, mites, and scale bugs (in the family Hemiptera, or ‘true bugs’) all of which are pest important pests in gardens on plants.Both the larva and the adults are predatory on small soft bodied insects.
Why are ladybugs so helpful? It is their voracious appetite for garden pests that make them so important in the maintenance of agriculture fields, orchards and other types of agricultural areas. Ladybugs may be used be used as biological control agents.They often are introduced into new areas as a means of protecting the garden from small parasitic insects, and as a way to avoid the use of harmful pesticides. Why are ladybugs so brightly colored? The color acts as a warning coloration to ward off potential predators.The scientific term for warning coloration is aposematism.The predator learns to avoid the color of the ladybugs because it associates it with a bad taste. Where do ladybugs live? Ladybugs can live all over the world, except in Antarctica!! During the cold seasons (winter months) ladybugs over winter (called diapause), they congregate on the south side of large objects such as trees or even houses and wait out the winter.Where do ladybugs lay their eggs? Ladybugs lay clutches of eggs that consist of a few eggs to a few dozen eggs on leaves near to where the larvae are likely to find sources of food.Larvae are voracious predators! They will eat between 200 and 300 aphids as they grow and get ready to pupate.
Paper Wasps What are they? Paper wasps are in the family Polistinae and the subfamily vespid.They are between ¾ to 1 inch in length and black, brown or red in coloring with yellow markings.Paper wasps are named for the manner in which they make their nests.They combine fibers from dead wood and plant stems with saliva to make a brown papery substance which they craft into a nest.There are 22 species of paper wasps in America and over 700 species world wide. What do paper wasps eat? Adult paper wasps live off of nectar. However, their larvae need to eat meat!The adults forage for caterpillars which they chew up to carry back and feed to their young.Wasps catch many important crop pests such as corn earworms, armyworms, tobacco bornworms, making them extremely beneficial to the growth and production of agricultural products. What is the paper nest used for? The combs are used for rearing the developing wasp larvae or brood. The nest consists of a single layer of brood rearing cells.The wasps can secrete a substance which helps to repel ants and the like and it is sprayed around the base of the nest and near the eggs to protect them from being taken or eaten. How many wasps live in a single nest? It depends on the species, some species may have as many as 50 wasps living on the same nest!! Are paper wasps aggressive? Paper wasps, unlike their relatives the yellow jacket are not known for being particularly aggressive.In general they will only attack then provoked; however, paper wasps are very territorial when protecting their developing offspring and siblings, so when near a nest it is important to be careful. How are paper wasps helpful? Paper wasps are natural enemies of common garden and agricultural pests. They provide a natural and pesticide free way to protect our crops from insect damage. Theyprovide some risk to humans but when treated with respect pose very little threat.
Spiders What makes a spider a spider?Two body parts (abdomen and cephalothorax), eight legs, chelicerae or fangs, pedipalps, no wings, no antennae, silk, pedipalps, venom, external digestion What do spiders eat?All spiders eat other living things they are voracious predators.Some spiders eat mostly insects, other spiders eat other spiders.Some spiders have even been known to eat vertebrates. How do spiders eat? All spiders first use venom to kill or paralyze their pray.The venom is release through hollow fangs (called chelicerae). Spidersutilize external digestion. Afterthe prey is immobilized the spider regurgitates digestive enzymes that liquefy the prey outside of the body and suck it up to eat it. Where do spiders live?Spiders have been found everywhere except in the ocean and in Antarctica. Are all spiders poisonous to humans? No!! In fact most spiders do not have large enough chelicerae to bite through skin and do not have venom adapted to hurt humans.In the US there are only four groups of poisonous spiders: the black widow, the brown recluse, hobo and yellow sac spiders Do all spiders make webs? No! All spiders make silk but not all spiders make webs! Silk is also used to wrap prey, line burrows, wrap egg sacs and in some cases during mating.
Arthopod Predator Resources About Ladybugs http://www.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/ef105.aspAn excellent source for ladybug facts.It is well organized with clear pictures. http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/predators/ladybintro.htmlAn easy to use website focused on ladybug use for biological control. http://www.lostladybug.org/The Lost Ladybug Project is a fantastic way to get students involved in conservation. “AcrossNorth America ladybug species distribution is changing. Over the past twenty years several native ladybugs that were once very common have become extremely rare.During this same time ladybugs from other places have greatly increased both their numbers and range.Some ladybugs are simply found in new places.This is happening very quickly and we don’t know how, or why, or what impact it will have on ladybug diversity or the role that ladybugs play in keeping plantfeeding insect populations low.We're asking you to join us in finding out where all the ladybugs have gone so we can try to prevent more native species from becoming so rare.” About Paper Wasps: http://www.everythingabout.net/articles/biology/animals/arthropods/insects/wasps /paper_wasp/A very well organized site with basic paper wasp information. http://ohioline.osu.edu/hygfact/2000/2077.htmlA very specific and more scientifically based website containing more in depth information about paper wasp biology. About Spiders ‘A Romance with Spiders’ by Linda Rayor.This is a free Cornell Cybertower online video introduction to spider biology and behavior. The appealing 1hour video is broken into seven short (6 to 12min) segments about different aspects of spider biology (arachnid diversity, molting, habitat use, predatory behavior, sexual proclivities, and my social spider research and outreach programs). Along with my lectures, there are exceptional sequences of spiders in action (see molting & prey capture!), along with many still images. Suitable for all ages. You need to use QuickTime (free) to view the videos on the web. Sign in to =>http://cybertower.cornell.edu =>click on the Study Room ‘A romance with spiders’. Arachnology home page. Theverybest userfriendly resource for spider information.It includes extensive information on all aspects of spider, scorpion, and other arachnids.A number of sites are for teachers or students.Click on ‘Web’. http://www.arachnology.org/