The Beginner
143 Pages

The Beginner's Guide to Arabic

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  • cours - matière potentielle : part time
  • cours - matière potentielle : online
  • cours - matière potentielle : on the arabic alphabet
  • cours - matière potentielle : with plenty of hours of instruction
  • expression écrite
  • expression écrite - matière potentielle : hand
  • cours - matière potentielle : on arabic script
  • cours - matière potentielle : around the world
  • wrong thing
  • lots of practice
  • such thing as capital letters versus small letters
  • formal arabic
  • beginning of a word
  • letters
  • arabic
  • full time
  • language
  • course



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BME Department of Cognitive Science
Pszchologie Linguistique
Informatique Anthropologie
NeurosciencesBAl Ato Nvilágo S, SEpt EMBEr 4 to 7, 2011
A str Ategic workshop org Anized by the
Standing Committee for the Humanities
of the European Science Foundation.
Co-sponsored by the Central European Cognitive
Science Association and the Department
of Cognitive Science,
Budapest University of t echnology and Economics.

o rg Anizing committee:
Matti Sintonen, Helsinki
Alain Peyraube, Paris-Lyon
Csaba Pléh, Budapest
Eva Hoogland, Strasbourg, ESF
AssistA nts:
Judit Fazekas, Budapest
Kamilla Pléh, Budapest
Abstr Act book edited by
Csaba Pléhz
tAB l E o F Co Nt ENt S
iNtroDUC tory N otES By tHE org ANi Er S 5
progr AM o v Ervi Ew 7
k ey notes
NAt Ur Al pEDA gogy9
g ergely c sibra
MUltili Ng UAli SM AND t HEory o F MiND (t oM):
Evol Utio NAry ANC iENt AND CUlt Ur Ally
MAllEABl E Co Mpo NENt S oF t oM 14
Ágnes melinda k ovács
wH y i Mit Atio N iS SEl ECtiv EANDCo St- SENSitiv E,
AND w HAt D iFFEr ENCE it MA kES20
o livier morin and Jean-baptiste André
Bio CUlt Ur Al A ppro ACHES to M iND
AND k Nowl EDg E: AN ov Ervi Ew33
e ugenia r amirez-g oicoechea
tHE i t EM/SySt EM pro Bl EM iN CUlt Ur Al Evol Utio N 48
n . J. e nfeld
tHE E vi DENCE For t 72
peter J. r icherson
t eleconference81
Judit g ervain
po St Er ABS tr ACt S iN AlpHABE ti C or DEr 86
t HE NUMBEr S iNDiCAt E 86
t HE po St Er A llo CAtio NS AND 86
t HE prESEN t AtioN orDE r86
opo St Er N 1 87
Valentina bambini
o po St Er N12 92
n icolas c laidière
opo St Er N 296
r iccardo fusaroliopo St Er N 3 100
Arnaud h alloy
opo St Er N 7104
Atle w ehn h egnes
opo St Er N 17108
mikołajh ernik
opo St Er N 16110
d ora k ampis, ildikó k irály, k ata k reko, József topál
opo St Er N 14 112
k is, Anna and w ilkinson, Anna
opo St Er N 5113
Ai k eow l im
opo St Er N 6117
o livier mascaro120
opo St Er N 4121
b ence n ánay
opo St Er N 8 124
iciar Álvarez pérez
opo St Er N 9128
r ajna Šošić
opo St Er N 13130
c hristine s chwab, Tomas b ugnyar
opo St Er N 10132
s zabolcs s zámadó and istván zachar
opo St Er N 15 134
e rnő t églás
opo St Er N 11136
Jan Verpooten , y annick Joye
NAMEiNDEX137In T r ODu CTO ry n OTES By THE Org An Iz Er S
iNtro DUCtory Not ES By t HE org ANizEr S
Scientifc background and rationale to study naturalistic approaches to culture
Te main aim of the workshop is to explore the possibilities and limitations of nat-u
ralistic approaches to mind and culture. Te most important new vistas arise from
modern evolutionary theory but the issues also have, in the background, the tra-
ditional debates on reductionism and biological determinism. Two broad kinds of
approaches will be discussed and compared:
1. During the past two decades with the advent of evolutionary psy-
chology and related developments a new serious challenge has
been made regarding the biological routing of some of the most
cherished cultural achievements and features of humans. This
challenge basically involves the idea that some of our cultural hab -
its and propensities are the results of interactions between bio -
logical constraints and cultural shaping, rather then being con-
structed by culture alone.
2. Many scientists and scholars have argued, on the other hand, that
the notions of the “biological” and the “cultural” are based on dua-l
istic thinking that is increasingly problematic. Man has increasingly
powerful means for refashioning nature through the “culturing” of
natural environment and through molding living organisms e.g. by
help of biotechnology and synthetic biology. Te biological and the
cultural also intermingle through human impacts on global climate
and environment. Tus, many scholars have found it necessary to
speak of “naturecultures” and “biosocialities”. Tere are, furthe-r
more, technical issues that need to be addressed. One major obsta-
cle to a better understanding and collaboration between scientists
and cultural/humanities scholars is that of diferences in thods and
approach. Tis constitutes a barrier for communication within the
sub-disciplines in naturalistic domains and across the naturalistic
and cultural felds.
5A discussions between these two paradigms was the main moving idea for the
Standing Committee of the Humanities of the European Science Foundation to
support the strategic workshop. The two above broad paradigms need to be tho-r
oughly discussed, annotated by some of the technical barriers to understanding,
e.g., the barriers to understanding due to the technical and theoretical jargon in
using neuroscience data and similar issues.
Some of the challenging issues involved are:
• the “natural” origin and “biology” of sociality
• the naturalistic origins of human cognitive capacities, including cultural
phenomena such as art, literature, music, etc.
• the usefulness of the concepts of “naturecultures” and “biosocialities”
• the interface between biological evolution and cultural evolution
• adaptation as exaptation in explaining culture
• biological (most importantly neural and genetic) determinism and
the prediction of human behavior
• universal and specific aspects of cultural systems such as languages
• the neural circuitry of primary (language like) and secondary (writing
like) cultural systems
The organizers of the workshop hope both for a fruitful discussion and rea-son
able proposals to continue the nature/culture discussions in a more regular basis
in the framework of the ESF.
2011. spring Matti Sintonen – Helsinki
Alain Peyraube – Paris-Lyon
Csaba Pléh – Budapest
Eva Hoogland – Strasbourg, ESF
In T r ODu CTO ry n OTES By THE Org An Iz Er S w
Pr Ogr AM Ov Erv IEw
progr AM o vErvi E
Sunday, 4 September
12:00-16:00 Arrival, registration
19:00 Welcome dinner and reception
Monday, 5 September
Opening by Csaba Pléh, Department of Cognitive Science,
9:00 – 9:15
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Introduction to the European Science Foundation and its Standing
9:15 – 9:30
Committee for the Humanities, Eva Hoogland, European Science
Natural pedagogy as an evolutionary adaptation
Gergely Csibra, Cognitive Development Center, 9:30 - 10:30
Central European University, Budapest               
10:30 - 11:00 Coffee break
Multilingualism and Theory of Mind
11:00 - 12:00 Ágnes Kovács, Cognitive Development Center, Central European
University, Budapest  
Why imitation is selective and cost-sensitive,
and what difference it makes?
12:00 - 13:00 Olivier Morin and Jean-Baptiste André
Institut Jean Nicod, Paris  and CEU, Budapest
13:00 – 15:00 Lunch
Discussion Developmental science and
the nature-nurture issue
15:00 – 16:00
Teleconference with Judit Gervain, Laboratoire Psychologie
de la Perception, CNRS, Paris
Chaired by Csaba Pléh
16:00 – 16:30 Coffee break
Discussion How to explain cultural behavior
16:30 – 17:30 on the basis of evolution and neuroscience?
Chair: Gergely Csibra
Poster session I. Language and culture
Orchestrated by Ágnes Kovács
17:30 – 19:30
Bambini, Fusaroli, Halloy, Nánay, Lim,
Mascaro, Hegnes, Pérez, Sosišc
19:30 – 20:30 DinnerTuesday, 6 September
Biocultural approaches to mind and knowledge
9:00 - 10:00 Eugenia Ramirez-Goicoechea, Department of Social and Cultural
Anthropology, UNED, Madrid
10:00 - 10:30 Break
The evidence for culture led gene-culture coevolution
Peter Richerson, Department of Environmental Science and Policy,
10:30 - 11:30 University of California Davis
11:30 - 12:00 Break
The Item/System Problem in Cultural Evolution
Nick Enfeld, Max-Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics and
12:00 - 13:00
Randboud University, Nijmegen
13:00 - 15:30 Lunch
Discussion “How is culture shaping the mind?”
15:30 - 16:30
Chair: Matti Sintonen
Poster session II. Culture in animals and children
Orchestrated by Olivier Morin
16:30 - 18:30
Számadó/Zachar, Claidiere, Verpooten/Joye, Schwab/Bugnyar,
Kis/Wilkinson, Téglás, Kampis/Király/Krekó/Topál
19:30 – 20:30 Dinner reception
Wednesday, 7 September
Discussion “How to move ahead: is there a naturalistic theory of all
9:00 – 12:00
culture, or are there grounds to expect that one will emerge?”
(incl. coffee break)
Chair: Peter Richerson
12:00 – 14:00 Lunch
14:00 Departure

Pr Ogr AM Ov Erv IEw nATur AL PEDAg Ogy – gE rg ELy C SIBr A
k eynote lectures
NAt Ur Al p EDAgogy
g ergely c sibra
Central European University, Budapest
While social learning and communication are both widespread in non-
human animals, social learning by communication is probably human spe-
cific. Humans can and do transmit generic knowledge to each other about
animal and artefact kinds, conventional behaviours to be used in specific situ-
ations, arbitrary referential symbols, cognitively opaque skills, and know-
how embedded in means-end actions. These kinds of cultural contents can
be transmitted by either linguistic communication or nonverbal demon-
strations, and such types of knowledge transmission contribute to the stabil-
ity of cultural forms across generations. We propose that by having evolved
specific cognitive biases, human infants are prepared to be at the receptive side
of such communicative knowledge transfer, which, together with adults’ incl-i
nation to pass on their knowledge to the next generation, constitute a system
of ‘natural pedagogy’ in humans.
w hile socially transmitted population-specifc cultural skills exists both in human
and non-human primate species (w hiten et al., 1999), the scope and kinds of cu-l
tural knowledge forms transmitted by humans suggests that our hominin ances-
tors may have evolved species-specifc social cognitive adaptations specialized for
cultural learning (Csibra & g ergely, 2006; Tomasello, 1999). Tere are a number
of signifcant properties that diferentiate the types of knowledge contents that are
transmitted and maintained across generations in human cultures when compared
to the much more restricted range of socially transmitted cultural skills that char-
acterize non-human primate cultures. First, human cultures are unique in that they
involve the transmission of cognitively opaque cultural knowledge that is not (or not