LCPC is a public sector institution recognised both in France and abroad for its expertise in structures and infrastructure as well as for its capacity to undertake experimentation in the field of civil engineering Thanks to this reputation public facility managers French central government and local and regional authorities private concerns and construction companies regularly request input from LCPC research teams in evaluating pathologies or damage and in testing new products

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Niveau: Supérieur, Doctorat, Bac+8
52 LCPC is a public-sector institution recognised both in France and abroad for its expertise in structures and infrastructure, as well as for its capacity to undertake experimentation in the field of civil engineering. Thanks to this reputation, public facility managers (French central government and local and regional authorities), private concerns and construction companies regularly request input from LCPC research teams in evaluating pathologies or damage and in testing new products. LCPC and the entire LPC network of laboratories are also heavily involved in civil engineering product certification procedures. In close coordination with certification bodies (A2C, ASQPE, AFCAB, ACQPA and ASQUER), LCPC is engaged throughout the year as an inspection or testing authority over a wide range of materials and products, spanning concrete, steel, anti-corrosion paints and road- related equipment. During 2006, LCPC (inspection notification number 1165) awarded 105 «EC Aggregates» certificates for 225 quarries and 2 «EC Fillers» certificates; these awards may be consulted on the LCPC Website under the heading «Products / EC Marking». 1. Example of a VIPP viaduct. Completion of the reliability study on 116 VIPP-type viaducts In 2005, LCPC formed a joint venture with the structures teams of the CETE network of public works research centres in response to a call for tender issued by highway facility management companies to perform an analysis of risks presented by 116 independent-span viaducts with prefabricated prestressed beams (French acronym VIPP).

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52
Expert evaluations, studies,
tests and certifcation
LCPC is a public-sector institution recognised both in up until production. The advantage of such a strategy is
France and abroad for its expertise in structures and to propose a proven methodological framework in order
infrastructure, as well as for its capacity to undertake to streamline the analytical phase of identifying risks,
experimentation in the feld of civil engineering. Thanks justifying the need for in-depth studies and determining
to this reputation, public facility managers (French central risk-detection capabilities.
government and local and regional authorities), private
concerns and construction companies regularly request The analysis was sequenced as follows:
input from LCPC research teams in evaluating pathologies • an internal functional analysis served to inventory
or damage and in testing new products. the various data required: design, state of repair,
construction, maintenance, prestressing, etc.
LCPC and the entire LPC network of laboratories are also • this inventory then led to a preliminary risk analysis
heavily involved in civil engineering product certifcation aimed at both identifying the factors or events able
procedures. In close coordination with certifcation bodies to limit structural performance and scoring structures
(A2C, ASQPE, AFCAB, ACQPA and ASQUER), LCPC is by their level of risk exposure based on a set of pre-
engaged throughout the year as an inspection or testing established criteria;
authority over a wide range of materials and products, • in conjunction with this step, a risk quantifcation
spanning concrete, steel, anti-corrosion paints and road- analysis is undertaken to evaluate criticality in terms
related equipment. of limit state strength, in both the original and a
deteriorated state;
During 2006, LCPC (inspection notifcation number 1165) • the qualitative indicator (APR) and quantitative indicator
awarded 105 «EC Aggregates» certifcates for 225 quarries (QR) can then be combined in a criticality grid,
and 2 «EC Fillers» certifcates; these awards may be intended to derive a method for ranking structures
consulted on the LCPC Website www.lcpc.fr, under the by assigning a unique overall score to each individual
heading «Products / EC Marking». structure.
The 116 viaducts targeted by this study were Completion of the reliability
analysed using this operational safety methodology,
yielding a criticality grid, broken down into four study on 116 VIPP-type
categories for which various actions were proposed
viaducts by means of an original logic chart. n
1.
Example of
a VIPP viaduct.
In 2005, LCPC formed a joint venture with the structures
teams of the CETE network of public works research
centres in response to a call for tender issued by highway
facility management companies to perform an analysis
of risks presented by 116 independent-span viaducts
with prefabricated prestressed beams (French acronym
VIPP). The works conducted between November 2005
and June 2006 by the LCPC-CETE consortium on these
structures, part of the national network of motorway
concessions, were sponsored by the ASFA Association of
French Motorway Companies on behalf of eight motorway
concessionaires.
1

The consortium implemented an operational safety
approach and introduced a risk-reduction analysis and Contact christian.cremona@lcpc.fr
action methodology initially designed for all project phases Division for Structures Behaviour and Durability (FDOA)ACTIVITY REPORT 2006 | CHAPTER 3 53REsEARCH APPLICATIons
(2)sounding . The good correlation between these LCPC involved in a Greek
images has enabled proceeding with an exhaustive
heritage restoration project automated diagnostic of some ffty mosaics from the
Katholikon, with a high output rate achieved using a
LCPC has been engaged since 2002 in a methodology that flters out operator subjectivity.
collaborative venture with the Hellenic Republic’s
(1) A modern Greek term designating the main church of a monastery Monument Restoration Division within the Culture
(2) Technique consisting of examining a surfacing material (mosaic,
Ministry, in accordance with a partnership agreement concrete, etc.) by striking it, either by hand or with an instrument, and
then evaluating its state from the sound produced. signed in 2005. This collaboration has focused on the
non-destructive diagnostic assessment of masonry
Contact philippe.cote@lcpc.frand mosaics from a Byzantine site dating back to the
xavier.derobert@lcpc.fr 11th century, whose structure had been considerably
Division for Soil Mechanics and Site Surveying (RMS)
undermined by a 1999 earthquake.
(1)The building examined is a Katholikon from the
Daphni Monastery located in the outskirts of Athens.
Tests on synthetic cables The work programme developed has called for the
following sequence of phases: using the LCPC fatigue bench• f easibility testing,
• c reation of diagnostic methodologies (radar and sonar),
• g uidance and training of local teams, The behaviour of heavy marine rope made from synthetic
• exhaustive mapping of over 50 mosaics, cable has been tested on the LCPC fatigue bench, within
• defnition of grouting monitoring methodologies. the scope of research conducted by the IFREMER French
Marine Research Institute, which has requested these
The examples included illustrate this collaborative tests in order to validate the numerical models the Institute
effort. Figure 2 shows the comparison of results developed. The complex cable behaviour (including
from a radar mapping derived by LCPC with those relations between force and elongation, braiding effects)
obtained by Greek curators by means of manual could only really be understood by setting up a full-scale
testing campaign, aimed at ensuring a controlled use of
new materials for marine ropes.
1. and 2.
Maps generated
from a single
mosaic: radar 1
(bottom) and 3
manual sounding
performed by
curators (top). The The LCPC fatigue bench has proven especially well
clear radar zones
suited to this type of cable and can handle a maximum correspond with
the high amplitudes load on the order of 800 tons. This effectiveness is
of surface radar
measured not just in terms of actual forces deployed, echoes, whereas
the sounding but also by its geometric adaptability and electronic
zones in blue are
control capabilities. The effects of sea swells on associated with de-
lamination between these ropes, simulated to reproduce operating
the mosaic and
conditions typical of the Gulf of Mexico, could thus be supporting
masonry.programmed and applied by the fatigue bench to test
the cables under such specifc conditions. n 3.
The LCPC fatigue
bench has been
used to test syn-
Contact bertrand.philippot@lcpc.fr thetic cables on
2 Ifremer’s request.
Division for Metals, Reinforcements and Cables in Structures (MACOA)54
Static loading tests Compliance testing of
absorbent materials for
Static loading tests on cement piles serve to better
understand how a foundation functions prior to building a road applications
structure. The roughly 500 tests carried out over the past
30 years have indeed made it possible to develop the set
of computation rules currently in effect in France. As part
of the national project entitled «Soil improvement through
rigid inclusions (ASIRI)», two static loading tests were
conducted in June 2006 on instrumented elements, in
the aim of testing the difference in load-bearing capacity
between two types of piles, one driven the other not.
This experiment was not only intended to estimate the
load-bearing capacity of each rigid inclusion, performed
on a site run by the Paris Port Authority in Saint-Ouen
l’Aumône (Val d’Oise, north of Paris), but also to compare
behaviour during the loading phase in terms of both 1
settlement and creep.
Adopted in 1999 following serious material placement
The tested rigid inclusions were ftted with a reservation problems that caused a fatality, a procedure for using
tube to enable inserting the LCPC removable strain absorbent materials in a road context has since limited
gauge, since this instrument had been designed to material choice to products derived from diatomaceous
provide, following interpretation, the force distribution earth and clays calcined at 800°C or more. Following an
along the inclusion at various depths vs. load applied at initial report issued by LCPC regarding the mineralogy
the head. The measurements of pile head penetration vs. of the main types of road absorbents, an administrative
time and load were also recorded during this campaign. order has enabled granting authorisations for use on the
The failure limit loads (bearing capacities) measured national highway network.
equalled 400 and 500 kN for the non-driven and driven In the absence of certifcation bodies with ties to the
inclusions respectively, with greater bearing capacity French Standards Association (AFNOR), compliance
in the case of driven inclusions. A complementary soil testing on road-related absorbent materials was
testing campaign was completed by the regional Ponts undertaken within the Ponts et Chaussées network
et Chaussées laboratory in Rouen (Normandy), for the of laboratories (LCPC, regional centres in Toulouse
purpose of obtaining geotechnical data necessary to and Nancy), under the responsibility of LCPC’s
interpret these two static loading tests. Material Physicochemistry Division. This past year,
7 more products were analysed and, at present, 29
The results obtained within the scope of the ASIRI road absorbents have been ruled compliant with
programme have served as a basis for modelling a block of specifcations and 4 noncompliant. A draft European
1. inclusions loaded by an embankment. n standard (PR NF EN 15366) should eventually replace
Road-related the current French standard. n
absorbents.
Contact gerard.platret@lcpc.fr 2.
Static loading test. Division for Material Physicochemistry (PCM)
Certifcation of the steels
and reinforcements used
in reinforced concrete
Created in 1990 in order to take over awarding
2
certifcations from the Public Works Ministry, the French
Association of Concrete Reinforcement Certifcation
(AFCAB) grants compliance certifcates to companies Contact frederic.rocher-lacoste@lcpc.fr
Divsion for Soil and Rock Mechanics and Engineering Geology (MSRGI)ACTIVITY REPORT 2006 | CHAPTER 3 55REsEARCH APPLICATIons
The Nantes Centre’s producing or using concrete reinforcements or various
accessories. LCPC is tied to this independent body ever reference track:
since its creation by a partnership agreement to conduct
both onsite audits of production facilities and laboratory A certifcation facility
tests. The LCPC Division for Metals, Reinforcements
and Cables in Structures (MACOA) is responsible for
(1)performing both a sector-specifc mission and the audit/
testing missions, while the Certifcation Unit handles all
pertinent administrative management.
In 2006, some 224 audit missions were completed on
behalf of AFCAB, with the entire set of certifcation tests
being carried out within the network’s seven testing
laboratories. n
(1) Fifteen LCPC and regional LRPC auditors, along with seven testing
laboratories accredited by the French Accreditation Committee (Cofrac), are
working under the coordination of the sector manager.
A new certifcation mark for hydraulic
road binders
After being approached in 2004 by professionals 1
working with road surfacing materials due to the
laboratory’s status as a mandated organisation
The Nantes Centre’s reference track is utilised frst and within the framework of creating a new certification
(1) foremost within the scope of research programmes mark for hydraulic road binders , LCPC was
performed on skid resistance and road noise, yet it granted admission in 2006 to fulfil the role of
also serves to conduct specifc testing campaigns technical secretariat. This transitional phase will
enable Afaq Afnor Certification to proceed with an at the request of laboratories from the Public Works
evaluation of LCPC. Upon completion of this period, Ministry’s Scientifc and Technical Network and can even
the authorization request will be proposed to the accommodate the requests of external organisations. In
NF Mark Committee. Also in 2006, LCPC’s efforts 2006, this track hosted the three devices for measuring
led to adopting the certification benchmark by longitudinal friction (i.e. the Adhera trailer) with a series of
consensus and established the set of actors to be recalibration tests just prior to undertaking their annual
involved. The Laboratory has been named as the measurement campaign on the French highway system.
future authorized entity and the regional Ponts et The track was also selected by both the Paris Airport
Chaussées laboratories in both Lille (for physical Authority (ADP) and the Civil Aviation Technical Agency 1.
tests) and Nancy (chemical tests) are designated Air photograph of (STAC) for running cross-referenced tests between skid
the reference track.testing sites. LCPC has moreover founded the
resistance measurement devices (called Imag) on airport
Special Committee (3 colleges) that it coordinates
pavements, with these tests intended for certifcation
and has developed an external
purposes. In addition, the Nantes reference track provides
Website (under heading
the site for testing the Automated Red Light Control
Products, NF-HRB Certification).
Systems (French acronym CA-FR) proposed by various
By the end of 2006, 4 plants and
industrial frms, whereby such systems are granted 5 products had already been
certifcation upon the successful completion of a number certified.
of tests performed at the specially-created intersection,
(1) Pavement sub-layers are often produced using a mix of located at the end of the track. 2006 marked the year of
aggregates and specifc cements, called: Hydraulic Road Binders the frst successfully-tested system. n
(or HRB for short).
Contact philippe.briquet@lcpc.fr Contact philippe.lepert@lcpc.fr
marquage_nf_hrb@lcpc.fr minh-tan.do@lcpc.fr
Division for Material Physicochemistry (PCM) Division for Road Maintenance, Safety and Acoustics (ESAR)
Diathem