University of Reims Champagne Ardenne Ph D School of Science of Man and Societal Science of Reims

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Niveau: Supérieur, Doctorat, Bac+8

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University of Reims Champagne Ardenne Ph.D. School of Science of Man and Societal Science of Reims Laboratory of Applied Psychology – EA 4298 Eötvös Lóránd University Ph.D. School of Psychology, Program of Socialization and Societal Processes Ph.D Dissertation of Classical System Subject: Social Psychology Presented by Gábor OROSZ Social representation of competition, fraud and academic cheating of French and Hungarian citizens Under the supervision of Márta FÜLÖP and Christine ROLAND-LÉVY Members of the jury Pr. Márta FÜLÖP, Eötvös Lóránd University, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Pr. Erich KIRCHLER, University of Vienna Pr. János LÁSZLÓ, University of Pécs Pr. Christine ROLAND-LÉVY, University of Reims Champagne Ardenne

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University of Reims Champagne Ardenne
Ph.D. School of Science of Man and Societal Science of Reims
Laboratory of Applied Psychology – EA 4298
Eötvös Lóránd University
Ph.D. School of Psychology, Program of Socialization and Societal
Processes
Ph.D Dissertation of Classical System
Subject: Social Psychology
Presented by Gábor OROSZ
Social representation of competition, fraud and academic
cheating of French and Hungarian citizens
Under the supervision of Márta FÜLÖP and Christine ROLAND-LÉVY
Members of the jury
Pr. Márta FÜLÖP, Eötvös Lóránd University, Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Pr. Erich KIRCHLER, University of Vienna
Pr. János LÁSZLÓ, University of Pécs
Pr. Christine ROLAND-LÉVY, University of Reims Champagne ArdenneAcknowledgements
First of all I would like to say thank you to my supervisors. I would like to say thank you to
Marta who taught me how to work precisely. She corrected five times my texts, she explained
always how to correct what I wrote; she spent a lot of time on training me how to work in an
academic way. I would like to say thank you to her because she shared with me her works;
she also introduced me to so many fantastic people.
I would like to say thank you to Christine who helped me in bad times; who gave me her
office for weeks in order to carry out the experiments. She tried to teach me how to respect
deadlines; however, I think I need more training in this respect… Thank you Christine for
showing me a good example of how to work hard and how to enjoy life at the same time, and
thank you for the unforgettable finishing of the work.
I would like to say thank you to Professor Hunyady who showed how to be a good diplomat
in bad times, and I would like to say thank you to Professor Pléh Csaba who suggested me
this scholarship.
I need to thank the Franco-Hungarian agreement which allowed me to postulate for the
scholarship without which I could not have carried out this co-tutelle PhD, and to spend many
months in the university of Reims. I also need to thank the Region of Champagne-Ardenne
which provided me with an extra scholar ship during my stay in France, along with lodging
facilities.
I would like to say thank you to Szokolszky Ági who always supported me, and who allowed
me to do the Ph.D in France despite the fact that I should had to work in Szeged.
I would like to thank my friends who helped me during the whole work. I would like to thank
my friend and my first tutor Dezsi who always suggested me to finish it earlier and who found
such articles that I couldn’t. Furthermore, without him and Zsuzsi, I couldn’t support the first
hard times in Reims, and the last hard times in Hungary. I would like to say thank you to
Aurélie, who helped me in France when I needed so many things as I was preparing the
experiment, and thank you for the cigarette breaks. Thanks to Sophie who was always open-
minded and smiley and who explained me how a factor analysis works. I would like to say
thank you to Sofiane who will be a fine researcher one day, and who helped me with his force
and enthusiasm when we worked in the laboratory during week ends. Thank you to Aigline
for the lots of French corrections in the tests and for her help in the preparation of the experiment. Thanks to Lucie who gave me two computers immediately, when it was badly
needed in order to carry out the experiment. Thanks to Mouni who helped me in the analysis
of the results of the experiment, it was a pleasure to work together. Thanks to the students of
M1 in 2008/2009 who contributed to providing a good atmosphere in the laboratory of
Applied Psychology, and who supported especially me during spring 2009, thanks Fatima and
Emilie.
I would like to say thank you to Hédi and Erna who helped me to find students who fill in
questionnaires. I would like to say thank you to Carol and Márk for the help with statistics.
Thanks to Ciaran, Benjo Sam, Mark and the other English teachers in Reims who corrected
my English and who showed me what a true friend looks like.
I would like to say thank you to my parents, and I would like to apologize for coming home
so rarely because of the work. I would like to say thank you to my brother for the good
advices regarding the preparation of the work.
And finally, thanks to the lovely Rose, who was waiting for me when I wrote. Table of contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................. 1
TABLE CAPTIONS .................................... 7
FIGURE CAPTIONS................................................................... 8
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................ 9
INTRODUCTION ...... 14
THEORY OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS .......................................................... 17
Émile Durkheim .................................................................................................................. 17
Lucien Lévy-Bruhl .............. 18
Moscovici’s guiding principles regarding the present research project ......................................................... 23
Differences between Everyday Representations and Scientific Knowledge ................... 25
Definitions of Social Representation .................................................................................................................. 26
The object of social representations .................. 27
Functions of Social Representations .................................................................................................................. 28
Bridging individual and collective psychological phenomena ......... 31
Bridging individual and collective levels on the basis of Doise ....................................................................... 37
Intra-individual level ................................................................... 38
Inter-individual and intra-situational level .. 42
Differences in terms of position and social status ....................................................... 43
Level of universalized ideological beliefs ................................... 45
Reconstruction of the Reality and Structure of the Representations ............................. 51
Objectification and Anchoring ......................................................................................................................... 52
Structure of Social Representations .................. 54
Abric‟s Central Core Hypothesis ................. 54
The Periphery .......................................................................................................................................... 58
A social representation is a duplex system ............................. 59
Doise‟s organizing principles and Abric‟s structural approach .............................. 60
Social Representation, Practices and Behavior ................................................................................................ 61
Social representations, practices and behavior – from Moscovici to Jodelet and Abric ... 61
Social representations and Valsiner‟s theory of enablement – a recent debate in the Papers on Social
Representations ................................................................................................................................................ 67
Previous studies concerning competition and fraud within the framework of social representations ........ 79
Social representations of competition .............. 79
Social representations on fraud ........................................................................................................................ 83
Conclusion regarding social representations .................................... 89
1 COMPETITION ......................................................................................................... 92
Introduction ......................................................... 92
About the meaning of competition ..................................................... 93
Pre-Deutsch period ............................................................................................................. 94
Roots of competition in psychology ................. 94
Research on competition influenced by Deutsch .............................................................................................. 95
Deutsch, his theory and his research ................................................ 96
Game theory in the social psychology of competition ..................... 98
The afterlife of game theory and Deutsch‟s heritage regarding the psychology of competition .................... 101
Post-Deutsch period in the social psychology of competition ........................................................................ 103
Re-definition of the concept of competition ................................... 104
The multifaceted competition ......................................................................................................................... 106
1. Perceived resources: open vs. closed competition ................. 107
2. Time-perspective of competition ........................................................................... 108
3. Intensity of competition ......................... 108
4. Energy ................................................................................... 108
5. Spontaneous vs. structured competition ................................................................................................ 109
6. Relationship between competitors ......... 109
7. Used means and the focus of the competitive processes ....... 111
8. Morality in competition ......................................................... 111
This dimension of competition will be demonstrated in the following in details, because this aspect is
central regarding our research topic........................................................................................................... 111
9. Norms .................................................... 111
10. Fields and their values concerning competition ................... 112
11. Reward structure of competition ......... 112
Constructive and destructive competition ...................................................................................................... 113
Long-term process ................................. 115
Motivational and cross-cultural researches after the paradigm change .......................... 121
Competition and motivation after the paradigm change ............ 121
Researches that revealed cultural characteristics of competition after the paradigm change .................... 123
Previous researches on competition with Hungarian and French participants – a summary ..................... 126
Different levels of analysis which can influence the appearance moral/immoral aspects of competition . 132
Intra-individual level concerning immorality and competition ...................................................................... 132
Morality of competition in intragroup and situational level ........... 137
Morality of competition in intergroup level ................................... 148
Morality of competition cross-culturally ........ 150
Summary of this chapter .................................................................................................. 153
ACADEMIC CHEATING ......................................................... 156
Forewords for this chapter ............................................................... 156
Definitions and classification of academic dishonesty .................................................... 157
Demography ...................................................................................................................... 159
Intra-individual characteristics and processes ............................................................... 161
Cognitive variables on individual level .......................................................................... 161
Ability indicators – academic aptitude ...... 161
Expectation of success ................................ 161
Morality, moral development, moral reasoning and their relationship with cheating ............................... 162
Locus of control ......................................................................................................... 163
2 Motivation- and emotion-related variables on intraindividual level............................................................... 164
Test-anxiety ............................................................................................................................................... 166
Guilt ........................... 166
Self-esteem ................ 167
Need for approval ...................................................................................................................................... 167
Attitudes toward cheating .......................... 168
Machiavellism ........... 169
Franternity and sorority membership ......... 170
Partying ..................................................................................................................................................... 170
Situational and interpersonal factors .............. 171
Situational factors that influence academic cheating ...................... 171
Honor codes ............................................................................................................................................... 171
Study conditions ........ 172
Perceived grade and other pressures .......... 172
Risk of detection ........ 172
Expected punishments ............................................................................................................................... 174
The role of rewards for task success and importance of exam .................................. 176
Interpersonal factors ....... 177
Norms towards cheating ............................ 177
Norms toward reporting cheaters ............................................................................................................... 178
Acquaintance between students and seating arrangement ......... 179
Cultural differences in academic dishonesty .................................................................................................. 180
Summary of the self-reported prevalence of exam cheating in different cultures .......... 181
Summary of culturally based institutional factors and culturally based values concerning academic dishonesty
........................................................................ 182
Culturally based institutional characteristics and pressures ....................................................................... 182
Culture related values behind cheating ...................................... 184
Summary of institutional and culture-based factors that can have impact on academic cheating .................. 186
Cultural values and their relationship with the prevalence of academic dishonesty ...... 187
Prevalence of cheating and perception on corruption ................................................................................ 187
Country specific values and self reported cheating rate ............ 190
Other, possibly related variables ................................................ 192
How cultural dishonesty bias hypothesis can be validated within the framework of the present study? ....... 202
Links between high school cheating, higher education dishonesty and workplace misconducts ............... 203
Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................... 205
THE DARK SIDE OF THE HUNGARIAN COMPETITIVE BUSINESS LIFE .......... 208
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 208
Historical overview about competition in Hungary from 1948 until 1989 ................... 209
Competition in Hungary in the light of the change of regime and the last twenty years ............................ 213
The Business Environment in Hungary on the Basis of International Surveys ........................................... 216
Perception of Economic Competition in Hungary ......................................................................................... 217
Business dishonesty in Hungary....................................................... 218
Corruption ...................................................... 218
The presence and characteristics of tax evasion in Hungary .......................................................................... 223
The aim of the present study ............................................................................................................................ 225
Participants ........................................................ 226
3 Method ............................................................................................................................................................... 226
The process of category forming .................... 227
Results ................................ 229
Immorality ...................................................................................................................................................... 229
Immorality in general 230
Dishonesty that was committed or accepted by the respondent himself ................... 230
Dishonesty between companies ................ 231
Dishonesty between individuals or within organizations .......................................................................... 231
Specified forms of dishonesty: corruption, tax evasion and mafia ................................................................. 231
Corruption and bribery .............................................................................................. 231
Money and corruption as means for success ......................... 232
Corruption and public procurements..... 232
Tax evasion ................................................................................................................................................ 232
Reasons of dishonesty .... 234
The legacy of the socialist regime ............. 234
Change of regime ...................................................................................................................................... 234
Destructive effects of monopolies ............. 234
Unregulated nature of competition ............ 235
Honesty .......................................................................................................................................................... 235
Honesty as personal principle ................... 236
Honesty in the own sector ......................... 236
Importance of honesty in general .............................................................................................................. 236
Perceived improvement concerning honesty in the field of business competition .... 237
Suggestions what should be done in order to make fair business competition .......... 237
Socialization ........................................ 237
Regulations ........................................................................................................... 237
Connections .................... 238
Negative aspects ........ 239
Neutral aspects ........................................... 239
Positive aspects .......................................................................................................... 239
Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................... 240
Discussion ........................... 244
HUNGARIAN AND FRENCH ECONOMICS STUDENTS’ SOCIAL
REPRESENTATION OF COMPETITION, FRAUD AND CORRUPTION............... 247
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 247
Competition in Hungary and France .............. 248
Corruption in Hungary and France ................................................................................................................ 248
Fraud in Hungary and France ......................... 249
Participants ........................................................................................................................................................ 251
Methods .............................. 251
Results ................................................................................................................................................................ 251
Competition .................... 252
Corruption ...................... 254
Fraud .................................................................................................................................................................. 256
Conclusion ......................... 258
4 A CONFIRMATORY STUDY ABOUT THE SOCIAL REPRESENTATION OF
COMPETITION AND FRAUD OF FRENCH AND HUNGARIAN STUDENTS ....... 261
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 261
Cultural differences between Hungary and France 262
The objective of the study ................................................................................................................................. 264
Confirmation of the first associative study: competition and fraud ............................. 264
Participants ..................................................................................................................................................... 264
Methods .......................... 265
Results ............................ 266
The structure of the French and Hungarian students’ social representations on competition and fraud –
relationship between the most peculiar elements ........................................................................................... 267
Methods .......................................................................................................................... 268
Results ............................ 268
Conclusions ........................................................ 271
Discussion ........................................................................................................................... 271
ACADEMIC DISHONESTY IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
OF FRENCH AND HUNGARIAN ECONOMICS STUDENTS ................................ 274
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 274
Hypotheses on the basis of individual differences .......................................................... 275
Hypotheses on the basis of cultural differences between Hungary and France ........................................... 276
Hypotheses on the basis of situational variables in the French and Hungarian cultural contexts ............. 279
Participants ........................................................................................................................................................ 281
Methods .............................. 281
Results ................................................................................................................................................................ 283
Culture-independent results ............................ 283
Results of culture based hypotheses ............................................................................................................... 285
The impact of demographical and situational variables on self-reported cheating and acceptance of cheating
regarding French and Hungarian samples separately ..................... 288
French sample ............................................ 288
Hungarian sample ...................................................................................................................................... 290
Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................... 291
Discussion ........................... 291
FRENCH AND HUNGARIAN STUDENTS’ CHEATING BEHAVIOR IN A
COMPETITIVE SITUATION ................................................................................... 293
Introduction ....................................................... 293
The theory of social representations and observational laboratory experiments ........................................ 293
5 Three main levels of measurement of cheating and competition that this study is aimed to concern ....... 295
Dependent variables, independent variables and hypotheses ....................................................................... 297
Dependent variables ....................................................................... 297
Independent variables ..... 297
Hypotheses ..................................................................................................................................................... 297
Participants ........................ 300
Methods .............................................................................................................................................................. 301
Experimental design ....................................... 301
Used materials in order to measure dependent variables ................................................ 303
Used materials referring to personality-related independent variables ........................... 304
Operationalization of open and closed competition ....................................................... 308
Results ................................................................................................................................ 308
Collaborative cheating – Hungarian-French group level comparison ............................ 308
Individual and overall cheating Hungarian-French group level comparison .................................................. 309
Collaborative and individual cheating – French-Hungarian individual level cheating... 310
Cheating behavior in open and closed competitive situations – group level .................. 311
Cheating behavior in open- and closed-competitive situations – individual level ......................................... 312
Relationship between competition-related personality factors and cheating behavior ... 313
Risk of detection ............................................................................................................. 315
Acquaintanceship and collaborative cheating ................................ 315
Academic aptitude and cheating behavior ...... 315
The impact of nationality, open- and closed-competitive conditions, attitudes toward self-developmental
competition and previous relationships on cheating in the whole sample ...................................................... 316
The impact of open- and closed-competitive conditions, attitudes toward self-developmental competition,
previous relationship between participants and grade point average on cheating among French and Hungarian
students ........................................................................................................................... 317
Conclusion ......................................................... 318
Discussion ........................................................................................................................... 319
CONCLUSION ....................................................................... 322
About the methods of the thesis ....................................................................................... 322
Conclusions from the perspective of social representations .......................................... 325
Conclusions regarding competition ................................................................................. 330
Conclusions regarding fraud and academic cheating .................................................... 336
Final concluding remarks regarding future researches ................................................. 339
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................... 340



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