WEIGHTED NORM INEQUALITIES ON GRAPHS

English
30 Pages
Read an excerpt
Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more

Description

Niveau: Supérieur, Doctorat, Bac+8
WEIGHTED NORM INEQUALITIES ON GRAPHS NADINE BADR AND JOSE MARIA MARTELL Abstract. Let (?, µ) be an infinite graph endowed with a reversible Markov kernel p and let P be the corresponding operator. We also consider the associated discrete gradient ?. We assume that µ is doubling, an uniform lower bound for p(x, y) when p(x, y) > 0, and gaussian upper estimates for the iterates of p. Under these conditions (and in some cases assuming further some local Poincare inequality) we study the comparability of (I?P )1/2f and?f in Lebesgue spaces with Muckenhoupt weights. Also, we establish weighted norm inequalities for a Littlewood-Paley-Stein square function, its formal adjoint, and commutators of the Riesz transform with bounded mean oscillation functions. 1. Introduction It is well-known that the Riesz transforms are bounded on Lp(Rn) for all 1 < p <∞ and of weak type (1,1). By the weighted theory for classical Calderon-Zygmund op- erators, the Riesz transforms are also bounded on Lp(Rn, w(x)dx) for all w ? Ap, 1 < p <∞ and of weak type (1,1) with respect to w when w ? A1. Besides, the Euclidean case, several works have considered the Lp boundedness of the Riesz transforms on Riemannian manifolds.

  • oscillation functions

  • lp-poincare inequality

  • weighted norm

  • littlewood-paley-stein square

  • calderon-zygmund

  • following weighted estimates

  • inequality only


Subjects

Informations

Published by
Reads 18
Language English
Report a problem
WEIGHTED NORM INEQUALITIES ON GRAPHS
´ ´ NADINE BADR AND JOSE MARIA MARTELL
Abstract.Let (Γ, µgraph endowed with a reversible Markov kernel) be an infinite pand letPbe the corresponding operator. We also consider the associated discrete gradientr. We assume thatµis doubling, an uniform lower bound forp(x, y) whenp(x, y)>0, and gaussian upper estimates for the iterates ofp these. Under conditions(andinsomecasesassumingfurthersomelocalPoincare´inequality)we study the comparability of (IP)1/2fandrfin Lebesgue spaces with Muckenhoupt weights. Also, we establish weighted norm inequalities for a Littlewood-Paley-Stein square function, its formal adjoint, and commutators of the Riesz transform with bounded mean oscillation functions.
1.Introduction
It is well-known that the Riesz transforms are bounded onLp(Rn) for all 1< p <andofweaktype(1,1).BytheweightedtheoryforclassicalCalder´on-Zygmundop-erators, the Riesz transforms are also bounded onLp(Rn, w(x)dx) for allwAp,1< p <and of weak type (1,1) with respect towwhenwA1. Besides, the Euclidean case, several works have considered theLpboundedness of the Riesz transforms on Riemannian manifolds. In general, the range ofpfor which we have theLpboundedness is no longer (1, there are numerous results). Although on this subject, so far the picture is not complete, we refer the reader to [2] and [1] for more details and references. For weighted norm inequalities on manifolds see [5]. Another context of interest where one can study theLpboundedness of the Riesz transform is that given by graphs, see [16], [17], [6]. Our purpose in this paper is to develop the weighted theory on graphs for the associated Riesz transforms as was done in [5 We] for manifolds. also consider the corresponding reverse weighted inequalities where one controls the discrete Laplacian by the gradient, in which case, taking into account the unweighted case thoroughly studied in [6rofyfew,htru]usemresalaoPlacor´eiincaalitnequp < doing that,2. In we need to prove weighted estimates for a Littlewood-Paley-Stein square function and its formal adjoint which are interesting on their own right. Finally, weighted estimates for commutators of the Riesz transform with BMO functions are obtained. The plan of the paper is as follows. We next give some preliminaries of graphs, the geometrical assumptions and recall the definitions of the Muckenhoupt weights. In Section2we state our main results on Riesz transforms, reverse inequalities and square functions. The proofs of these results are in Section3 short discussion. A on commutators of the Riesz transform with bounded mean oscillation functions is
Date: April 14, 2010. 2000Mathematics Subject Classification.60J10, 42B20, 42B25. Key words and phrases.Graphs, discrete Laplacian, Riesz transforms, square functions, Mucken-houpt weights, spaces of homogeneous type. The second author was supported by MICINN Grant MTM2007-60952, and by CSIC PIE 200850I015. 1
2
´ ´ NADINE BADR AND JOSE MARIA MARTELL
in Section4 Appendix. Finally,AxulimoaenissnoatcepytdnumgZyn-´oerldCaryia results from [3dnvedourmainresultu]estdpooraldCr´de-Zonmuygdnasoslaiewaethg decomposition for the gradient that extends [6].
1.1.Graphs.following presentation is partly borrowed from [The 10], [6 Γ be]. Let an infinite set and letµxy=µyx0 be a symmetric weight on Γ×Γ. We call (Γ, µ) a weighted graph. In the sequel, we write Γ instead of (Γ, µ). Ifx, yΓ, we say that xyif and only ifµxy>0. Denote byEthe set of edges in Γ: E={(x, y)Γ×Γ;xy},
and notice that, due to the symmetry ofµ, (x, y)∈ Eif and only if (y, x)∈ E. Givenx, yΓ, a path joiningxtoyis a finite sequence of edgesx0=x, ..., xn=y such that, for all 0in1,xixi+1 definition, the length of such a. By path isn that Γ is connected, which means that, for all. Assumex, yΓ, there exists a path joiningxtoy all. Forx, yΓ, the distance betweenxandy, denoted byd(x, y), is the shortest length of a path joiningxandy. For allxΓ and all r0, letB(x, r) ={yΓ, d(y, x)r}the sequel, we always assume that Γ is. In locally uniformly finite, which means that there existsN1 such that, for allxΓ, #B(x,1)N(#Edenotes the cardinal of any subsetEof Γ). For allxΓ, setm(x) =PµxyΓ is connected we have that that as . Notice yx m(x)>0 for allxΓ. IfEΓ, definem(E) =Pm(x all). ForxΓ andr >0, xE we writeV(x, r) in place ofm(B(x, r)) and, ifBis a ball,m(B) will be denoted by V(B). For all 1p <, we say that a functionfon Γ belongs toLp, m) (orLp(Γ)) if 1 kfkLp(Γ)=xXΓ!/p |f(x)|pm(x)<. Whenp=, we say thatfL, m) (orL(Γ)) if
kfkL(Γ)= sup|f(x)|<. xΓ We definep(x, y) =µxy/m(x) for allx, y thatΓ. Observep(x, y) = 0 ifd(x, y)2. For everyx, yΓ we set p0(x, y) =δ(x, y), pk+1(x, y) =Xp(x, z)pk(z, y), kN zΓ Thepk’s are called the iterates ofp. Notice thatp1pand that for allxΓ, there are at mostN also that, for all Observenon-zero terms in this sum.xΓ, Xp(x, y (1.1)) = 1 yΓ and, for allx, yΓ, p(x, y)m(x) =p(y, x)m(y).(1.2)
Given a functionfon Γ andxΓ, we define P f(x) =Xp(x, y)f(y) yΓ
WEIGHTED NORM INEQUALITIES ON GRAPHS
3
(again, this sum has at mostNnon-zero terms). Fromp(x, y)0 for allx, yΓ and (1.1), one has that for all 1p≤ ∞ kP fkLp(Γ)≤ kfkLp(Γ).(1.3) We observe that for everyk1,Pkf(x) =Pypk(x, y)f(y). By means of the operatorP a function Considerwe define a Laplacian on Γ. fL2(Γ), by (1.3), (IP)fL2(Γ) and h(IP)f, fiL2(Γ)=Xp(x, y)(f(x)f(y))f(x)m(x) x,y)f(y)|2m (1.4)( ) 21Xp(x, y)|f(x x , = x,y where we have used (1.1) in the first equality and (1.2 As) in the second one. in [9] we define the operator “length of the gradient” by 1 rf(x) =12yXΓp(x, y)|f(y)f(x)|22 Then, (1.4) shows that h(IP)f, fiL2(Γ)=krfk2L2(Γ).(1.5) Notice that (1.2) implies thatPis self-adjoint onL2(Γ). Thus, by (1.5),IPcan be considered as a discrete “Laplace” operator which is non-negative and self-adjoint onL2 means of spectral theory, one defines its square root ((Γ). ByIP)1/2. The equality (1.5) exactly means that (IP)1/2fL2(Γ)=krfkL2(Γ).(1.6) 1.2.Assumptions. We say that (ΓWe need some further assumptions on Γ., µ) satisfies the doubling property if there existsC >0 such that, for allxΓ and all r >0, V(x,2r)CV(x, r).(D) Note that this assumption implies that there existC, D1 such that, for any ballB andλ >1, V(λ B)C λDV(B).(1.7) Under doubling (Γ, d, µ) becomes a space of homogeneous type (see [8]). Notice that since Γ is infinite set, it is also unbounded (as it is locally uniformly finite) and thereforem(Γ) =(see [15]). The second assumption on (Γ, µ) is an uniform lower bound forp(x, y) whenxy, i.e.whenp(x, y)>0. Givenα >0, we say that (Γ, µ) satisfies the condition Δ(α) if, for allx, yΓ, xy⇐⇒µxyαm(x),andxx.(Δ(α)) The next assumption on (Γ, µ) is a pointwise upper bound for the iterates ofp. We say that (Γ, µ) satisfies (U E) (an upper estimate for the iterates ofp) if there exist C, c >0 such that, for allx, yΓ and allk1, pk(x, y)VC(,xm(y)k)ecd2(kx,y).(U E)