Martial Arts Assessment 1

Martial Arts Assessment 1

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  • mémoire
  • exposé
  • mémoire - matière potentielle : malleability
  • mémoire - matière potentielle : sensory events
Martial Arts Assessment 1 Running head: PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MARTIAL ARTS Psychological Testing and Assessment of the Martial Arts John C. Price Capella University
  • free response drills
  • standard tests
  • unique perspective to the pattern-matching problem
  • standard sample
  • sensory perceptions
  • effective response
  • areas of research
  • martial arts
  • psychological testing

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EUROPE
Europe, the land of medieval renaissance and modern industrial revolution, is home to mapping technologies. Always at the forefront in the application of geospatial technology, Europe is in the vanguard with pathbreaking initiatives like INSPIRE, Galileo and GMES. Global economic slowdown notwithstanding, geospatial sector continues a steady pace fed by panEU initiatives and infrastructure investments in east Europe. Here's a lowdown on European geospatial scenario by Prof Ian Dowman, Editor Europe, Geospatial World
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urope is the home of modern mapping with a clear line of development from early explorers and car-ToEmToms and Tele Atlases. National mapping organisa-tographers like Mercator to the modern era of tions provided the basic framework to which modern data is linked and Europe led the way in providing regional ref-erence frames such as the European Terrestrial Refer-ence System. European organisations and companies also mapped large areas overseas with British and French agencies in the lead and aerial survey companies were responsible for mapping many parts of the world including much of Africa. However, much has changed in the past 20 years; political changes caused major adjust-ments to the way in which governments and industry operate and economic conditions affected national map-ping organisations and pushed companies to merge and form multi-disciplinary organisations. The use of out-sourcing and the development of the tiger economies of Asia also had an influence on the industry in Europe. Two major instruments of change have been the for-mation and expansion of the European Union (EU) and the breakup of the Soviet Union. The EU was instrumental in unifying many activities and sponsoring development such as INSPIRE and Galileo. The breakup of the Soviet Union left countries in Eastern Europe with a need to build new infrastructures and to reform their land tenure systems. Collaboration within Europe also led to the development of a strong space segment. The European Space Agency (ESA) has led this. Many European coun-tries have their own space agencies and there is a strong private sector led by Astrium and RapidEye. A recent development has been public private partnerships which has led to sensors such as TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X. In the area of instrumentation, Europe has a strong history of development of reliable products. Companies such as Wild, Zeiss and Kern have an enviable reputation
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COVER STORY
Europe  Growth stats
GIS/geospatial industry growth, 20042009: Revenue growth estimate and forecast for North America, Europe and Asia/Pacific.
According to a market study by Daratech, sales of GIS/geospa tial software, services and data grew a robust 10.3% (world wide) in 2010 to USD 4.4 billion. "Demand for GIS/geospatial products is driven by an increasing global need for geographi cally correlated information," said Charles Foundyller, Daratech's CEO. "Our research indicates that the geospatial industry con tinues to grow faster in regions outside of Europe, North Amer ica and Asia Pacific," says Foundyller. However, this region accounts for just 8% of total industry sales, so it may be a while before it can make significant contribution to the industry's over all growth. On the other hand, North America, which accounts for almost half the industry's annual sales, enjoyed an 11% compounded annual growth rate for the last 8 years, while Asia/Pacific with an 8.7% CAGR leads Europe, a region that grew at a slower 7.9% compound annual rate.
of quality survey and photogrammetric instruments. Since the last decade of the twentieth century and the introduction of computerised instruments and the devel-opment of digital cameras, companies which market instruments have become global, although some, such as
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Hexagon, continue to hav headquarters in Europe.
BUSINESS DRIVERS, EU AND GOVERNMENT A major driver in Europe is the European Union (EU). EU2020 is an overarching plan for growth and within this is the EU Digital Agen-da. This is a new action plan for making the best use of information and communi cation technologies (ICT) speed up economic recover lay the foundations of a su digital future. Digital Agenda areas Europe needs to focus on to put the virtu-ous cycle in Figure 1 (next page) in motion. This is not specifically targeted at geospatial data, but EU provides funds for infrastructure development in less developed areas and undertakes major projects which help the member countries work together and to provide services for members. The directives of EU create the necessity to collect information and distribute the same. In Europe, policy framework includes the specific direc-tive establishing an infrastructure for spatial information - the INSPIRE Directive, and the Directive on Public Access to Environmental Information, which obliges pub-lic authorities to provide timely access to environmental information. EU recognises the fact that public sector is the largest producer of information in Europe and that
Potential of solar roof surfaces based on laser scanning data
tial social and economic fits stand to be gained if this ormation were available for ccess and reuse. However, private companies would suffer if national mapping agencies had a monopoly on selling this data, and producers of value added information products would be at a competitive disadvantage if they did not have clear policies or uni-rm practices to guide them relation to access to and of public sector information. Os have sought to overcome  establishing partnerships with industry. Ordnance Survey in UK has over 200 partnerships; the businesses range from global giants to single entrepreneurs, but all use location data to create business opportunities.
INSPIRE:INSPIRE mandates authorities to implement standards for interoperability, but also involves bodies such as OGC and ISO in developing the standards and requires consultation with users. INSPIRE has acted as a catalyst in the introduction of eGovernment. Steven Ram-age, Executive Director, Marketing and Communication of OGC says, "INSPIRE is one of the greatest things for OGC in terms of stimulating the European economy or the member states to get awareness about OGC standards."
Galileo:EU funded projects, such as Galileo, create work for European industry in constructing the satellites and communication systems, and, more importantly for the geospatial industry, which provides positioning data to facilitate better traffic management, docking vessels in busy ports, management of mining and precision agricul-ture. Galileo opens the doors to a wide range of innovative applications for the benefit of citizens and studies show that it will deliver around EUR 90 billion to the EU econo-my over the first 20 years of operations in the form of direct revenues for the space, receivers and applications industries and in the form of indirect revenues for society. The European Union also requires members to pro-vide environmental information. The European Environ-
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ment Agency overseas this at the European level but many companies carry out work on topics such as vege-tation monitoring and in determining rain water run-off.
GMES:Another EU activity, managed by the European Space Agency (ESA) is GMES (Global Monitoring for Envi-ronment and Security). GMES provides services, linked to value-added activities tailored to more specific public or commercial needs. This is intended to stimulate the downstream sector. Public investment will therefore con-stitute an important contribution to EU2020 strategy.
Local Governments:These EU policies feed down to national and regional level. In Germany and the Nether-lands there is a mandate for local authorities to provide information online for citizens. In many cases, industry feeds the municipalities with data. Blom and Cyclomedia, European data acquisition companies, have signed an agreement to produce BlomSTREET in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark, and are also investigating similar agreements for other areas in Southern Europe. Cyclomeadia reports that 75 percent of local authorities in the Netherlands make use of its data. There is a large market for this, based on the requirement in Germany and the Netherlands. There are examples of authorities generating 3D models which can show the solar potential of roofs, considering slope, aspect and shadow effects of relief and near range objects or the effect that a planning
Rotterdam: Pioneering ggovernance
Rotterdam, in the Netherlands, is one of the finest examples of how geospatial technolo gy can be used to enhance the overall func tioning of a city. Rotterdam Municipality cre ated its own map more than 150 years ago and is continuously updating it. Today, the municipality has extremely detailed topo graphic maps in centimetre level accuracy, besides other small scale maps. Apart from that, there are utility basemaps, which makes it convenient to work on the ground and plan for the future. The agency also procures other products like street view from Cyclomedia and cadastre maps from Dutch Kadastre.
Rotterdam Municipality acts as a vital cog in the functioning of the civil servants by pro
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Interior model generated from point cloudsCourtesy: casestudies.pointclouds.org.uk
application can have on the environment. These visualisa-tions are linked to web services which allow citizens to vote on if a project should go ahead or not. Geoplex, a German company set up as a spin-off from Osnabrueck University, offers products such as cost profit analysis and investment planning for the use of photovoltaic systems; concepts to strengthen renewable energies; material cal-
viding them with specific maps that embed administrative data using GIS analysis. The municipality's huge geographic database can be obtained easily through the internet via the GISweb tool. There are about 20 basic geographic information data layers and an extra 300400 specific data from the users, most of which are available to all the civil servants in Rotterdam for free. The data is also available to other agencies but with certain terms and conditions. All the data produced in Rotterdam confirms to the national standard and thus the municipality contributes to the national spatial data infra structure.
The extensive list of users that benefit from the municipality's data include police, fire
brigade, disaster management, transport, utility and maintenance companies. The agency is developing a 3D model of the city that will have tremendous value in the detection of changes to the city landscape over the years. Besides, the model also helps in predicting which parts of Rotterdam will be flooded if and when sea water gets into the city. Another novel application com bines spatial and administrative data to help various agencies in their functioning. For example, the tax department can determine how people are making changes to their houses and hike/lessen tax accordingly.
(With imputs from Louis Smit Rotterdam Municipality)
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Vessel manoeuvring with use of GNSSCourtesy: Marinestar
culation and costing; investment planning for the con-struction and real estate industry; solutions for spatial and urban land use planning, based on geospatial data. Local authorities also need more information to manage their facilities. Some have their own substantial geospatial organsiations, an example of this being Rotterdam. Infrastructure:Another driver is government policy on funding infrastructure. In some countries government provides funds or enables public-private partnerships, for construction projects. In UK, Crossrail, a rail link across central London is providing work for geospatial industry. A new development in architecture, construction and asset management is building information management (BIM), which provides a single coordinated source of structured information for all stages of a building. Geospatial information is an essential ingredient and the industry needs to contribute to this development.
3D:3D city models have long held a fascination for offi-cials and the public and they are finding a use in local cit-izens' websites. There is evidence that they are used in construction and refurbishment projects and there is a growing interest in building information models. Award-winning architect Pozzoni LLP is using computer-gener-ated 3D models in UK to redesign some railway stations.
Cadastre:There has been much activity in recent years on the establishment of modern cadastre systems in Eastern Europe. A recent example is Ukraine where a draft law 'On the State Land Cadastre' has been signed. The law provides a legal, economic and organisational framework to activities of the state land cadastre and, according to experts, will pave way to lift ban on the purchase and sale of agricultural land. This will encourage development and help boost the economy. An application of interest is the use of geospatial data to detect properties on which taxes
are being paid. The World Bank recently approved a proj-ect in Croatia to modernise the land administration and management system to improve the efficiency, trans-parency and cost effectiveness of government services. The project involves modernisation of spatial information and cadastre system.
Energy:The drive for cheaper and more efficient energy is a major driver and offshore exploration and development is particularly strong in Europe. Fugro is one company working on this, but there are other companies involved in offshore work. Airborne Hydrography AB ("AHAB") from Sweden develops and markets Hawk Eye II bathymetric airborne laser survey systems for hydrographic surveys.
Others:Other important drivers are the need for disaster management; expansion of telecom industry; and safety requirements. Intermap, the company providing digital elevation models from airborne synthetic aperture radar interferometry (IfSAR) reports good business in Europe. It is evident from the above that businesses have enormous appetite for information. As the value of geospatial information becomes understood, businesses look for ways in which information can be used. Business intelligence is the current buzzword, risk assessment is an example and geospatial information is needed for locating assets and assessing the risk associated with them. Many businesses, not related to geospatial, also need geospatial data but only want information derived from it. This is known as business intelligence and numerous companies provide software and advice on this.
INDUSTRY STATUS The situation within the geospatial industry in Europe has changed significantly during the past five years. The glob-al economic downturn has reduced the funds available for mapping projects. Mergers and acquisitions have taken place in both the hardware and software providers and
Europe has a strong tradition of supporting developing countries. Space agencies and companies dothis by providing data and training, so do NMOs such as IGN in France and Kadaster in the Netherlands
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the mapping companies. It can be seen that the market is changing as more organisations see the value of geospa-tial data. A leading industry source thinks mergers drive inno-vation. He says, "Today, we live in a world of interdepen-dent technologies. A technology that may turn the world upside down today might be a commodity tomorrow. There is always a need for new innovation, new technolo-gy. I think it is an old fashioned idea to think that small companies can develop innovative new technologies that will take over the world. Innovative new technologies need to be combined and interrelated with other technologies." This does not seem to mean that small businesses are going out of existence. At INTERGEO 2011, many small businesses exhibited, offering services in niche markets.Another feature of recent years has been out-sourcing of routine tasks. There is no firm information on the effect this has on businesses in Europe, but anecdot-al evidence suggests mixed results.
Hardware and software providers Two large hardware and software suppliers, Hexagon and Trimble, have taken over other geospatial companies. They supply both traditional mapping companies and also organisations concerned with facility management. Both are putting emphasis on flow-lines with built-in quality control so that software can be used by non-experts. The solutions offered can involve a range of sensors, including cameras, navigation platforms and laser scanners. These companies also sell software and European companies such as InPho and Definiens have been acquired, but con-tinue with their core activities. The ability to generate dense point clouds from air-borne or terrestrial lasers scanners, or from optical images, has led to a growth in companies offering soft-ware or services to extract information from the point clouds. Pointools, recently taken over by Bentley offers powerful software to visualise point clouds and extract features.
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A prominent feature of European market during the recent years has been out sourcing of routine tasks to countries in Asia. Although there is no firm information on the effect this has on businesses, but anecdotal evidence suggests mixed results
Mapping The use of geospatial data in Europe is rooted in tradition-al mapping activities with national or regional mapping organisations providing basic mapping at a wide range of scales and commercial companies providing large scale data. National Mapping Organisations (NMOs) are forced to change (refer Geospatial World, May 2011 edition). NMOs must work with government, industry and users to provide geospatial information for national needs, but at the same time not compete unfairly with commercial providers. NMOs have generally been responsible for implementing INSPIRE. At the Cambridge Conference convened by Ordnance Survey in UK in July, there was an interesting panel discussion during which director gener-als from Europe were asked what INSPIRE means for them. The answers were generally positive with the clear message that implementing INSPIRE increased collabo-ration between government departments and agencies. Mapping companies have merged to form organisa-tions which can cover a wide range of activities. Blom, which has19 offices in Europe, 7 in Eastern Europe, offers a range of services such as data acquisition data model-ling and analysis and a wide range of products. TomTom offers complete navigation systems. It acquired Tele Atlas and with it the basic route information and are now devel-oping models for carbon footprint and traffic flow and is looking at '48-hour map freshness'. The company saw a slow down recently but Marten van Gool, Managing Direc-tor of Licensing sees the use of geospatial data as a way of companies becoming more cost effective. Fugro is
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The use of geospatial data in Europe is rooted in traditional mapping activities with mapping organisations providing basic mapping at a wide range of scales and commercial companies providing largescale data
another company which has made acquisitions. Fugro has geotechnical, geoscience and survey divisions; their sur-vey line works mainly in satellite positioning. 70 percent of their business is in oil and gas, focusing on dynamic posi-tioning and works for manufacturers that build bridge systems. It has a manoeuvring system which helps ships in docking and berthing. Erik Hammega, Managing Direc-tor, Marinestar, Fugro Satellite Positioning BV says, "Marinestar will focus particularly on hydrography, gov-ernment agencies, fisheries, large fishing trailers, dredg-ing markets." Fugro reports no slow down. It is generally accepted that the demand for geospatial data has increased enormously over the past few years, but mapping companies are feeling the effect of global economics: in western Europe, money is not being spent on infrastructure and so there is less work; in eastern Europe there is a need for infrastructure development; money is coming from organisations such as the World Bank and this has enabled work to be done, but not nec-essarily in the most efficient manner. There is slowing down of development. According to a survey by the Balkan GEO Network, an EU FP7 project concerned with earth observation activities in the Mobile Mapper Balkan region, [www.balkan-GEO.net] has identified 278 stakeholders in 12 Balkan coun-tries and 235 EO activities and programmes. Trimble sees a very new approach in which national mapping agen-cies are taking responsibili-ties for geodetic control or for the
overall geographic mapping, but where land records and land registration is delegated to lower authorities. There are land administration projects happening in Eastern Europe and elsewhere in the world. A major growth activity is mobile mapping, with laser scanning becoming a tool of interest. A number of new companies have started operating in this area. Estab-lished companies are expanding into mobile mapping; these companies report that their business with tradition-al mapping companies continues but that business with organisations which require geospatial data is increasing. StreetMapper mobile laser scanning system devel-oped by 3D Laser Mapper and IGI is a major success. 3D laser mapping either sells that system or uses it for clients who process their own data. StreetMapper is a survey grade mapping system which produces positional accuracy of better than 20 mm and the point-to-point accuracy within the data is 10 mm. Graham Hunter, CEO, says that at the moment his main business is overseas. ''StreetMapper is a European export success. The market in Europe is subject to the economy and at time when money is not available, less expensive survey methods are used, which do not require capital investment and use existing resources."
TECHNIC AL DEVELOPMENTS/INNOVATION Europe has also gone along with the global trend for new applications for geospatial data. Geospatial data is widely used in many industries such as managing transport net-works, in agriculture, facility management, heritage doc-umentation, insurance as well as in construction and mineral exploration. These applications have made use of new technologies such as laser scanning, high resolution digital imagery and global navigation satellite systems. In recent years, there has been much interest in academic circles in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles. At INTERGEO 2011 exhibition in Nuremberg, Ger-many, there were many UAVs, ranging from small units to large helicopters. These can provide an inexpensive but effective means of collecting imagery and, with current software which allows the processing of large number of images, the production of georeferenced orthoimages. UAVs are now being used commercially by large compa-nies. Blom has developed and tested the Personal Aerial Mapping System (PAMS) and the technology is being rolled out to countries in the Blom Group. A recent exam-ple is the successful completion of the ortho mapping of
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Europe in space
Europe is very strong in space technology and remote sens ing. According to European Commission sources, EC is increasing its expenditure on space. For the period 2007 13, it has earmarked over2.6 bn to space applications and activities, of which1 bn is earmarked for the Galileo satellite navigation pro gramme. In addition,2.4 bn was approved in December 2007 to ensure Galileo's full deployment. EU countries are investing just under3 bn each year through the Euro pean Space Agency (ESA) and a similar amount is being allocated to various national space programmes across Europe.
A large part of the funding not used for Galileo is directed to GMES. GMES (Global Moni toring for Environment and Security) is the European pro gramme for the establishment of a European capacity for earth observation. Policymak ers and public authorities, the major users of GMES, will use the information to prepare
environmental legislation and policies with focus on climate change, monitor their imple mentation and assess their effects. GMES also supports the critical decisions that need to be made quickly during emergencies.
GMES will provide users with services in 6 thematic areas: marine, land, atmosphere, emergency, security and cli mate change. Two additional GMES services address emergency response (e.g. floods, fires, technological accidents, humanitarian aid) and securityrelated aspects (e.g. maritime surveillance, border control). GMES servic es are all designed to meet common data requirements and have global dimension.
GMES is an EUled initiative. The coordination and man agement of the GMES pro gramme is ensured by the European Commission. The setting up of initial versions of the GMES services have been assigned to several projects partly financed through the
two towns: Panasesti (North West of Chisinau) and Isaco-va, both in Moldova. Recent PAMS operations are com-pleted in Austria, the Netherlands and Germany. The proj-ects to date have been for survey and mapping applica-tions of villages, golf courses, train stations, quarries, waste dumps, agriculture and forest areas to name a few examples. Orthophoto mosaics, digital terrain models and even 3D vector mapping can be produced from the imagery, typically captured between 5 cm and 8 cm GSD. It is particularly suited to these sites where access is dif-ficult and where health and safety restrictions prevent ground survey. It has proved to be most economic over sites that are too large for rapid land survey, yet too small to be cost effective for manned-aircraft aerial survey. Developments in inertial navigation systems and sta-bilised mounts have allowed the use of oblique imagery, which has found applications in many areas such as ski
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TerraSARX Satellite
7th Research and Develop ment Framework Programme of the European Union, while the developments related to the observation infrastructure are performed under the aegis of the European Space Agency for the space compo nent (i.e. Sentinel missions) and of the European Environ ment Agency and the Member States for the in situ compo nent. The future funding of GMES is uncertain and is dependent on input from intergovernmental agencies and member states.
Astrium is the main company for space technology in Europe and has recently been awarded contracts to continue development of GMES, including Sentinel 4. Evert Dudok, CEO of Astrium
Satellites says, "As prime industrial contractor, Astrium will coordinate the work of 45 companies in 11 European countries in the construction of Sentinel4." He added that Astrium is already building two Sentinel satellites for Europe's GMES programme on behalf of ESA. Astrium operates Ter raSARX and TanDEMX to offer a wide range of services. In 2010, Astrium had a turnover of 5 billion and more than 15,000 employees worldwide. SSTL (Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd) from the UK builds small satellites and through its company DMCii, collects and distributes data from the satellites which it builds. RapidEye is a private company operating a constel lation of satellites to provide information to businesses.
resort and mountain management, cliff mapping as well as more conventional infrastructure mapping. The Swiss company Helimap System SA operates a versatile heli-copter for this work. Cyclomedia has its own camera sys-tems and has 30 year experience in developing its camera systems. It has a partnership with the University of Delft in developing the camera systems and already has a ninth generation recording system.
EDUC ATION AND RESEARCH Europe has always been very strong in education and research in geomatics, particularly geodesy and pho-togrammetry. Germany hosts many internationally recog-nised university institutes specialising in the topics. Stuttgart, Munich, Hannover and Berlin immediately spring to mind. Although student numbers have been falling in specialised courses, numbers in masters cours-
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The biggest challenge facing the geospatial industry in Europe at the moment is to cope with the economic situation and convince businesses that geospatial data can generate significant improvementsin their business
es taught in English have been thriving. The ITC, now the Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observa-tion of the University of Twente, has long been a major player in the education of students from developing coun-tries and ITC plays an important role in managing geospa-tial activities in many areas of the world. ITC recently merged with the University of Twente and is currently adapting to this change, and also changes in the funding arrangement within the Netherlands. Student numbers on these courses are correlated to the fees charged! Research in Europe is also strong, but frequently linked to industry or government priorities. Research and Development Framework Programme of the European Union, now in its 7th phase has been an impor-tant source of funding, with funds earmarked for projects such as Galileo and GMES. These projects require collaboration between researchers from different countries and this has been an important driver in encouraging research in the new EU countries. Projects such as OBSERVE, a 7th Framework project designed to strengthen and develop earth observa-tion activities for the environment in the Balkan area is an example of this type of project. Europe also has a strong tradi-tion of collaborative research to support NMOs through EuroS-DR, a European Spatial Data Research Network linking national mapping and cadas-tral agencies with research institutes and universities for the purpose of applied research in spatial data provision, management and delivery.
Other areas ripe for the use of more geospatial data are health. Organisations such as GEO and ICSU. The International Council for Science, made up of National Science Foundations and international scientific societies such as ISPRS and AGI have programmes for collabora-tive work in understanding diseases and tracking epi-demics. Control of recent epidemics such as the foot and mouth outbreak in the UK greatly benefited from the use of GIS. Europe has a strong tradition of supporting devel-oping countries. Space agencies and companies do this by providing data and training, as do NMOs such as IGN in France and Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency in the Netherlands.
CHALLENGES The biggest challenges facing the geospatial business in Europe at the moment is to cope with the economic situa-tion and convince businesses that geospatial data can generate significant improvements in their business. NMOs need to work with government to provide effi-cient e-government, aided by INSPIRE, and they need to accommodate community mapping and citizen expecta-tions on what can be done with geospatial data. Maarten van Gool, Managing Director-Licensing, TomTom says, "We could make monumental impact to the transportation, logistics, government and wireless world and these are the key areas we can really make a differ-ence for an enterprise. I think there is a lot to happen yet in real time adoption of location enabled services and content. That I think will allow the world to save lot of cost and increase service levels tremendously." Another major challenge is to prepare for the future. An industry source thinks that solutions that are develop-ing today could not have been predicted a few years ago. He considers that this is one of the phenomenons of Web 2.0 and the development of participatory mapping and participatory internet. The geospatial data community in Europe, industry, government and academia, is generally in good shape, although facing challenges brought about by the global economic situation. The European Union is supporting development which provides work for some sectors, and in strong commercial areas such as oil and gas, telecom and energy there has not been a significant slow down. Given the current situation in the Eurozone, sustainability is a major concern.
Prof Ian Dowman,Editor  Europe, Geospatial World,ian@geospatialmedia.net
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