Filles - Garçons : les inégalités durant l
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Filles - Garçons : les inégalités durant l'enfance influencent l'orientation professionnelle et les perspectives d'emploi, selon l'OCDE

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The ABC of Gender Equality in Education ApTiTud E, BEh Aviour, Confid En CE Programme for International Student Assessment The ABC of Gender Equality in Education Aptitude, Beh Aviour, Confiden Ce This work is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and the arguments employed herein do not necessarily refect the offcial views of the OECD member countries. This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Please cite this publication as: OECD (2015), The ABC of Gender Equality in Education: Aptitude, Behaviour, Confdence, PISA, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264229945-en ISBN 978-92-64-23002-6 (print) ISBN 978-92-64-22994-5 (PDF) The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law. Photo credits: © Flying Colours Ltd /Getty Images © Jacobs Stock Photography /Kzenon © khoa vu /Flickr /Getty Images © Mel Curtis /Corbis © Shutterstock /Kzenon © Simon Jarratt /Corbis Corrigenda to OECD publications may be found on line at: www.oecd.org/publishing/corrigenda.

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Published 05 March 2015
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The ABC of Gender
Equality in Education
ApTiTud E, BEh Aviour, Confid En CE
Programme for International Student AssessmentThe ABC of Gender Equality
in Education
Aptitude, Beh Aviour, Confiden CeThis work is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The
opinions expressed and the arguments employed herein do not necessarily refect the offcial
views of the OECD member countries.
This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or
sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and
to the name of any territory, city or area.
Please cite this publication as:
OECD (2015), The ABC of Gender Equality in Education: Aptitude, Behaviour, Confdence, PISA, OECD Publishing.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264229945-en
ISBN 978-92-64-23002-6 (print)
ISBN 978-92-64-22994-5 (PDF)
The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities.
The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem
and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.
Photo credits:
© Flying Colours Ltd /Getty Images
© Jacobs Stock Photography /Kzenon
© khoa vu /Flickr /Getty Images
© Mel Curtis /Corbis
© Shutterstock /Kzenon
© Simon Jarratt /Corbis
Corrigenda to OECD publications may be found on line at: www.oecd.org/publishing/corrigenda.
© OECD 2015
You can copy, download or print OECD content for your own use, and you can include excerpts from OECD publications,
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for public or commercial use shall be addressed directly to the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) at info@copyright.com or the
Centre français d’exploitation du droit de copie (CFC) at contact@cfcopies.com.Foreword
To compete successfully in today’s global economy, countries need to develop the potential of
all of their citizens. They need to ensure that men and women develop the right skills and fnd
opportunities to use them productively. Many countries are working towards achieving gender
parity at the workplace and in access to jobs. In education, too, many countries have been
successful in closing gender gaps in learning outcomes. Yet, as this report reveals, even when
boys and girls are equally profcient in mathematics and science, their attitudes towards learning
and aspirations for their future are markedly different – and that has a signifcant impact on their
decisions to pursue further education and their choice of career.
The ABC of Gender Equality in Education: Aptitude, Behaviour, Confdence tries to determine
why 15-year-old boys are more likely than girls, on average, to fail to attain a baseline level of
profciency in reading, mathematics and science, and why high-performing 15-year-old girls still
underachieve in areas such as mathematics, science and problem solving when compared to
highperforming boys. In 2012, 14% of boys and 9% of girls surveyed by the PISA exercise did not
attain the PISA baseline level of profciency in any of the three core subjects. On the other hand,
in the top-performing economies in PISA, such as Shanghai-China, Singapore, Hong Kong-China
and Chinese Taipei, girls perform on a par with their male classmates in mathematics and attain
higher scores in mathematics than boys in most other countries and economies around the world.
As the evidence in the report makes clear, gender disparities in performance do not stem from innate
differences in aptitude, but rather from students’ attitudes towards learning and their behaviour in
school, from how they choose to spend their leisure time, and from the confdence they have – or
do not have – in their own abilities as students. In fact, the report shows that the gender gap in
literacy profciency narrows considerably – and even disappears in some countries – among young
men and women in their late teens and 20s. Giving boys and girls an equal opportunity to realise
their potential demands the involvement of parents, who can encourage their sons and daughters
to read; teachers, who can encourage more independent problem solving among their students;
and students themselves, who can spend a few more of their after-school hours “unplugged”.
This report is a valuable contribution to the OECD’s work on gender issues, which examines
existing barriers to gender equality in education, employment and entrepreneurship with the
aim of improving policies and promoting gender equality in both OECD and partner countries.
It shows clearly that we cannot rest complacent. We can provide a better future to our children
if we act upon the evidence presented in this report.
Angel Gurría
OECD Secretary-General
The ABC of Gender equAliTy in eduCATion: Ap TiTude, Beh Aviour, Confiden Ce © OECD 2015 3Acknowledgements
This report is the product of a collaborative effort between the countries participating in PISA
and the OECD Secretariat. The report was drafted by Francesca Borgonovi and Marilyn Achiron,
with contributions from Giannina Rech and Angelica Salvi del Pero. Andreas Schleicher,
Michael Davidson, Yuri Belfali, Monika Queisser, Francesco Avvisati and Joel Rapp provided valuable
feedback at various stages of the report. François Keslair, Louise Caron, Lorena Ortega Ferrand,
Célia Braga-Schich, Sophie Limoges, Alfonso Echazarra, Daniel Salinas, Miki Tadakazu,
Juliet Evans, Claire Chetcuti, Elisabeth Villoutreix and Louise Binn provided statistical, editorial and
administrative support. The development of the report was steered by the PISA Governing Board,
which is chaired by Lorna Bertrand (United Kingdom).
The ABC of Gender equAliTy in eduCATion: Ap TiTude, Beh Aviour, Confiden Ce © OECD 2015 5Table of Contents
ExEcutiv E Summary .............................................................................................................................................................. 13
rE ad Er’ S Guid E ................. 17
CHAPTER 1 EmEr GiNG GENd Er Ga PS iN Educati ON ............................................................................. 19
Historic progress in young women’s education ......................................................................................................... 21
Low-performing boys .................................................................................................................................................................... 24
High-performing girls ................................................................................................................................................................... 27
What happens as girls and boys pursue further education or work .......................................................... 32
CHAPTER 2 tac KLiNG u Nd Er PEr FOrma Nc E a mONG BOyS ............................................................. 35
How do boys and girls spend their time outside of school? Wired and connected ......................... 37
Video gaming and student performance ............................................................................................................. 42
How do bohool? u nplugged .................................................. 45
Reading for enjoyment .................................................................................................................................................... 45
Doing homework ................................................................................................................................................................ 49
a ttitudes towards school and learning ............................................................................................................................. 51
Gender differences in self-regulation ............................................................................................................................... 53
Grade repetition and marks ......................................................................................................................................... 53
Investing effort ...................................................................................................................................................................... 56
CHAPTER 3 Gir LS’ Lac K OF SELF-cONF id ENc E ............................................................................................... 63
Studying the “intangibles” that affect learning .......................................................................................................... 68
Self-effcacy in mathematics and science ........................................................................................................... 69
Self-concept in mathematics and science 74
Anxiety towards mathematics .................................................................................................................................... 76
u nderperforming at the top .................................................................................................................................................... 77
Opportunity to learn mathematics ..................................................................................................................................... 81
c hoking under pressure .............................................................................................................................................................. 88
t hinking like a scientist ............................................................................................................................................................... 89
The ABC of Gender equAliTy in eduCATion: Ap TiTude, Beh Aviour, Confiden Ce © OECD 2015 7Table of Con TenTs
CHAPTER 4 ExPEctati ONS a Nd r Ea Lity FOr Sc HOOL-LEav Er S .................................................... 97
Preparing for a job ...................................................................................................................................................................... 100
Forming expectations about further education and work ............................................................................... 104
Differences in ambition ............................................................................................................................................... 105
Differences in choice of preferred occupations .......................................................................................... 110
Expectations of careers in computing and engineering ......................................................................... 113
Expectations of careers in health services ....................................................................................................... 113
Expectations vs. reality ................................................................................................................................................. 116
u sing mathematics in the future ....................................................................................................................................... 118
What happens after compulsory education .............................................................................................................. 121
Gender differences in literacy and numeracy among young adults .............................................. 121
Inter-generational differences .................................................................................................................................. 122
Gender differences in using skills ......................................................................................................................... 126
Financial literacy........................................................................................................................................................................... 130
CHAPTER 5 HOW Fami Ly, Sc HOOL a Nd SOci Ety a FFEct BOyS’ a Nd Gir LS’
PEr FOrma Nc E at Sc HOOL ............................................................................................................................................. 137
t he role of families ..................................................................................................................................................................... 138
Parents’ expectations for their children ............................................................................................................. 139
t he role of schools ...................................................................................................................................................................... 141
The relationship between what happens in the classroom and the gender gap
in achievement .................................................................................................................................................................. 144
t he impact of social norms ................................................................................................................................................... 145
CHAPTER 6 POLici ES a Nd Practic ES t O HELP BOyS a Nd Gir LS
Fu LFiL t HEir P Ot ENtia L 151
r elationship between the gender gap in reading and the gender gap in mathematics .............. 152
Policy implications ...................................................................................................................................................................... 155
Give students a greater choice in what they read ...................................................................................... 155
Allow some video gaming, but homework comes frst .......................................................................... 156
Train teachers to be aware of their own gender biases 157
Build girls’ self-confdence ........................................................................................................................................ 157
Help students look ahead .......................................................................................................................................... 158
Learn from experience ................................................................................................................................................. 159
ANNEX A WHat SOmE c Ou Ntri ES ar E d OiNG t O Pr OmOt E
GENd Er EQu a Lity iN Educati ON ......................................................................................................................... 163
ANNEX B LiSt OF ta BLES avai La BLE ON LiNE ........................................................................................... 173
8 © OECD 2015 The ABC of Gender equAliTy in eduCATion: Ap TiTude, Beh Aviour, Confiden Ce