1500 Archers on a 28.8: Network Programming in Age of Empires and ...

1500 Archers on a 28.8: Network Programming in Age of Empires and ...


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  • revision
  • fiche de synthèse - matière potentielle : metering
  • cours - matière potentielle : the game with the visible line
1500 Archers on a 28.8: Network Programming in Age of Empires and Beyond Paul Bettner Mark Terrano (Presented at GDC2001 - 03/22/2001 2:30p) Introduction This paper explains the design architecture, implementation, and some of the lessons learned creating the multi-player (networking) code for the Age of Empires I & II games; and discusses the current and future networking approaches used by Ensemble Studios in its game engines.
  • slowest machine
  • multi-player
  • command latency
  • lik-lik-lik-lik
  • poor machine performance with normal latency frameprocess
  • frame-rate
  • turn
  • game
  • communications
  • problems



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Membrane Processes Practice Quiz/AP Biology Choose the response which best completes the following statements or answers the following questions. 1. Ifa solution outside a cell is more concentrated so that the cell loses water to its  environment,the external solution is said to be __________ to the cell contents.  (1.)hypertonic (2.) in equilibrium (3.) isotonic (4.) hypotonic
2. Whichmechanism requires energy? (1.) facilitated diffusion (2.) osmosis (3.) diffusion  (4.)active transport
3. Pinchingin of fluids by a unicellular organism is the process of (1.) phagocytosis  (2.)osmosis (3.) pinocytosis (4.) exocytosis (5.) facilitated diffusion
4. Certaintypes of lymphocytes (white blood cells) in the lymph nodes ingest bacteria  anddebris. This function most likely occurs by (1.) exocytosis  (2.)passive transport(3.) phagocytosis (4.) pinocytosis (5.) facilitated transport
5. Osmosisis a process that (1.) involves the movement of particles from saturated solutions  (2.)moves water molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of  lowerconcentration, using energy(3.) involves the active transport of dissolved solids  (4.)continues until the medium on each side of the membrane has become hypertonic  (5.)equalizes the concentration of particles by the movement of water molecules
Use the information below and your knowledge of biology to answer questions 6 through 7 which follow the reading passage.
Each student in a biology laboratory received two solutions. One solution was distilled water. The other was a salt solution with concentrations of salts slightly greater than that of a living cell. The solutions were labeled X and Y, respectively. The students were instructed to place some freshwater protozoans in each of the solutions and to identify the solutions on the basis of their observations. Theprotozoans in solution X shriveled. Those in solution Y swelled up and burst.
6. Theseresults indicate that (1.) solution X was salt water (2.) solution Y contained  killerprotozoans (3.) solution Y was salt water (4.) solution X was distilled water  (5.)solution X was tap water
7. Theprotozoans in solution X shriveled because (1.) an antagonistic substance was placed  intothe solution (2.) their membranes were more permeable to the passage of water than  theorganisms in Y (3.) osmotic pressure failed to operate (4.) a disproportionate amount  ofwater diffused from the protozoans (5.) golgi bodies in the test organisms lost  theirfunction
8. Inpond water, protozoans pump out excess water by means of their (1.) pellicle  (2.)trichocyst (3.) cell membrane (4.) contractile vacuole (5.) pseudopodia
9. Whichsubstance would have normally have the LEAST difficulty crossing a cell  membrane?(1.) water (2.) protein (3.) carbohydrate (4.) salt (5.) there would be  littledifference in any of the above
10. Whichrequires the chemical energy of the cell to occur? (1.) diffusion  (2.)facilitated diffusion (3.) osmosis (4.) active transport (5.) none of the previous 11. A______ protein allows a particular molecule or ion to freely cross the  plasmamembrane as it enters or exits the cell.(1.) cellrecognition  (2.)carrier (3.)receptor (4.)enzymatic (5.)transport or channel 12. A______ protein combines with a substance and helps to move it across  themembrane. (1.)carrier (2.)channel (3.)cellrecognition  (4.)receptor (5.)enzymatic 13. Whichcell process is represented by the diagram below?
(1.) pinocytosis (2.) osmosis (3.) diffusion(4.) exocytosis 14. Whichprocess requires membrane proteins?(1.) exocytosis  (2.)phagocytosis (3.)receptormediated endocytosis(4.) pinocytosis 15. Whatis the term used to describe the movement of any material from high to  lowconcentration called?(1.) facilitated diffusion(2.) equilibrium(3.) osmosis  (4.)diffusion (5.)active transport 16. Whichsubstance is important to the structure of the cell membrane because it  helpsthe cell membrane keep its shape?(1.) cellulose(2.) cholesterol  (3.)lipid bilayer(4.) protein 17. Whichterm is used to describe thecarryingof molecules across a membrane  thatdoes not require energy.(1.) osmosis(2.) facilitated diffusion  (3.)active transport(4.) diffusion 18. Mostof the cell membrane is made up of fats that are arranged in a  (1.)lipid bilayer(2.) cholesterol layer (3.) protein layer  (4.)none of the above
19. Thecurrent theory of the structure of the plasma membrane is best described  bythe _______ model.(1.) sandwich(2.) fluidmosaic(3.) unit membrane  (4.)electrochemical (5.)unipermeable 20. If a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, which will occur?  (1.)Salts will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.  (2.)Water will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.  (3.)Salts will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.  (4.)Water will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.  (5.)None of the above will occur. 21. Ifa cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, which will occur?  (1.)Salts will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.  (2.)Water will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.  (3.)Salts will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.  (4.)Water will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.  (5.)None of the above will occur. 22. Freshwaterprotozoans react to a/an _______ environment by removing  waterthrough ________________________ (1.)hypertonic, turgor pressure  (2.)hypotonic, turgor pressure(3.) isotonic, a contractile vacuole  (4.)hypertonic, a contractile vacuole(5.) hypotonic, a contractile vacuole 23. Largeamoeboidtype cells, called macrophages, remove bacteria and wornout  redblood cells by a process called(1.) facilitated diffusion(2.) osmosis  (3.)exocytosis (4.)phagocytosis (5.)pinocytosis 24. Theprocess by which a vesicle is formed at the plasma membrane to  bringsubstances into the cell is called .  (1.)endocytosis (2.)exocytosis (3.)plasmolysis (4.)hemolysis 25. Whichtype of solution has a lower percentage of solute than the cell?  (1.)isotonic solution(2.) hypotonic solution(3.) hypoosmotic solution  (4.)hypertonic solution 26. Whichstructure prevents the plant cell from bursting when placed in a  hypotonicsolution? (1.)central vacuole(2.) lysosome(3.) Golgi apparatus  (4.)cell wall(5.) plasmamembrane 27. A______ protein has a specific shape such that only a particular molecule can  bindto it.(1.) enzymatic(2.) receptor(3.) cellrecognition(4.) channel  (5.)carrier 28. Phospholipidmolecules in a membrane are arranged with their ____ on the  exteriorand their ____ on the interior.(1.) hydrophobic heads ... hydrophilic tails  (2.)hydrophilic heads ... hydrophobic tails(3.) nonpolar heads ... polar tails
 (4.)hydrophobic tails ... hydrophilic heads(5.) hydrophilic heads ... hydrophobic tails 29. Inosmosis, water always moves toward the ____ solution: that is, toward the  solutionwith the ____ solute concentration.  (1.)isotonic ... greater(2.) hypertonic ... greater(3.) hypertonic ... lesser  (4.)hypotonic ... greater(5.) hypotonic ... lesser 30. Theconcentration of calcium in a cell is 0.3%. The concentration of calcium in  thesurrounding fluid is 0.1%. How could the cell obtain more calcium?  (1.)passive transport(2.) diffusion(3.) active transport(4.) osmosis  (5.)any of the prior methods could be used 31. Themovement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of  lowerconcentration is called _____.(1.) diffusion(2.) endocytosis  (3.)phagocytosis (4.)active transport(5.) osmosis 32. Whichstatement best describes phagocytosis?  (1.)Cells use this process to export products such as insulin or thyroxine.  (2.)A cell engulfs a particle by wrapping pseudopodia around it and  packagingit within a vacuole.(3.) Small droplets of extracellular fluid and  allthe dissolved solutes enter the cell by this process.  (4.)Only specific extracellular ligands enter the cell in this fashion.  (5.)After entry, the endocytotic vesicle migrates to and fuses with the  Golgiapparatus. 33. Thesecretion of neurotransmitters out of the nerve cell, from small vesicles at the  endof the axon, can be considered an example of(1.) exocytosis(2.) endocytosis  (3.)phagocytosis (4.)pinocytosis (5.)osmoregulation 34. Thetransport of molecules of a particular solute from inside an animal cell  acrossthe cell membrane to the extracellular fluid always requires energy when  (1.)the lipid bilayer is permeable to the solute  (2.)the concentration of the solute is higher inside the cell than outside it  (3.)the concentration of the solute is lower inside the cell than outside it  (4.)a transport protein is involved in the movement of the molecules  (5.)the cytoskeleton blocks all available channels 35. Ifthe volume of a cell increases when it is placed in an aqueous solution,  thatsolution is said to be __________ to the cell.(1.) hypertonic  (2.)subatomic (3.)isotonic (4.)cold and cough tonic(5.) hypotonic
36. Whichprocess is best represented by the diagram below
(1.) endocytosis (2.) activetransport (3.)exocytosis (4.) biocytosis 37. Oxygenenters the blood from the alveoli in the lungs by the process of  (1.)phagocytosis (2.)active transport(3.) osmosis(4.) diffusion  (5.)facilitated diffusion Identify the structures on the cell membrane below AND briefly but completely discuss their functions.
Link to theanswers for this practice quiz