5 E Lesson Design: It's Greek to Me

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  • cours - matière potentielle : prerequisite concepts
  • leçon - matière potentielle : words
  • fiche de synthèse - matière potentielle : writing
  • leçon - matière potentielle : pretests
  • revision
  • leçon - matière potentielle : strategies
  • expression écrite
  • cours - matière potentielle : design
15 E Lesson Design: It's Greek to Me “It's Greek to Me” focuses on reading strategies to help students comprehend difficult text. Given a scientific article on microbial matsstudents will explore ways to make meaning of a text, explain how they reached the conclusions they did and apply these strate- gies to other reading experiences. Reading strategies include applying grammer and context clues to further comprehension, using knowledge of Greek and Latin prefixes, suffixes, and roots to break down unfamiliar words and determine their meaning, retelling and other methods to help determine meaning.
  • context clues to further comprehension
  • word meaning
  • context clues
  • article
  • passage
  • words
  • knowledge
  • text
  • strategy
  • strategies



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If you done it, it ain’t bragging.
Baseball great \Dizzy" Dean
1. Introduction
This is the cover of the magazine Magyar Sakkelet (Hungarian Chesslife), the
o cial organ of the Hungarian Chess Federation, from May 1954. It records the
last chess game I played in a tournament. (I am the youngster on the right side of
This is how the story starts about my chess compositions. I am a mathematician,
and as such I am not used to writing in the rst person singular. But if I want the
story told, I have to tell it myself. Almost everybody in this story is dead, most
long dead.
When my picture appeared in the chess magazine, I was about to graduate from
grade 12. The team I played for, Tipogr a a (Typography), just won the Budapest
championship. The leader of our team was asked to write an article for the magazine
about our team, so he asked us to look over the games we played in this tournament,
and look for positions in which we were clever, so he can write them up.
It was a big chore to look over the thirty or so games. The result was extremely
disappointing. Even though I rated 85%, every win was due to an error of the
opponents. I decided that the time I spend on chess would be more satisfying if I
created chess problems|these are absolute and not illusory, not dependent on your
opponents ignorance and psychology.
Dr. Jen} o B an (1919{1979), one of the chess masters at the chess club, introduced
us to chess compositions, especially endgames (white plays and wins or draws).
I gured that if I compose endgames, and I state that white wins (or draws), these
ought to be absolute, and not dependent on mistakes by the opponent. I started
studying endgames; you have to be familiar with thousands of them to create
original ones.
My second mentor was Gy orgy P aros (1910{1975). Unquestionably the world
1leading chess composer in helpmates. He taught me how to aim at uncluttered
positions, few pieces, and elegant ideas.
P aros told me the story of one of his most famous compositions; how he struggled
with the idea for years, and how he woke up one morning and set up the position
on his chess board. And that is why I quit after about two years. The subconscious
work necessary for success in chess compositions competed against the same for
mathematical research, and I had to give one of them up.
I look back at this period, 1954{56, with great satisfaction. For this time period,
my endgame #11 was o cially placed the second best in Hungary|which is not
bad because I was so young and just starting. And the one placed rst proved to be
Acknowledgement. Having moved in the last 50 years to two new countries, it is
not surprising that I have no record of my chess compositions. M aria Halmos did
all the work to nd them, and I do believe that she found most of them.
J anos Mikitovics (JM)|the author of the splendid Website: Hungarian Chess
Composers: http://www.magyarsakkszerzok.com/index.html|went through my
compositions and sent me a long document, analyzing them. He also took the time
to educate me about the technical advances that have happened, especially, Fritz
(I now have version 11) and the Knowledge4IT Website. Another huge advance is
the Nalimov endgame databases, now complete up to 5 pieces (consider that my
Composition #1 had only 5 pieces), and covering all the 6 piece positions without
1In ahelpmate both sides are cooperating to checkmate black. The rst move is made by black.
So in a \helpmate in two", black moves, then white moves, then black moves again, and nally
white checkmates black.4 GEORGE GRATZER
2. Picking favorites
I agree with MJ. If you want to see only three chess compositions of mine, pick
the endgames No. 1b, No. 11 and the helpmate No. 13.SELECTED CHESS COMPOSITIONS 5
3. Chronological listing
1a. 1954 Hungarian National Endgame Competition
Sixth place
Magyar Sakkelet 1954, issue 11/12, p. 285 (revised)
White draws
This was my rst endgame composition; I was 18. It was published in 1954
in Magyar Sakkelet, so it participated in the 1954 Hungarian National Endgame
Competition, placing sixth.6 GEORGE GRATZER
Solution (Magyar Sakkelet 1954, issue 11/12, p. 285):
1.Kg6!(1. g4? d5 2. g5 d4 3. g6 d3 4. g7 Bc4 | black wins) 1. {, d5
2. Kf5 d4 3. Nd7! (3. Ke4? d3 4. Ke3 Ke1 |black wins) 3. {, d3
4. Nb6! (4. Nf6? Bc6 |black wins) 4. {, d2 5. Nd5 Ke2 6. Nc3+
(6. Kf4? Bc6 7. Nc3+ Kd3 8. Nd1 Bg2: | black wins) 6. {, Kd3 7. Ne4! d1Q
8. Nf2+|draw.
5. {, Kg2: 6. Nc3, Kf3 7. Ke5 Ba4 8. Kd4 Bc2 9. Nd1 Ke2 10. Nb2
1b. OTSB Nyeviczkey Memorial Competition
First prize (revised)
Magyar Sakkelet 1956, issue 11/12
White draws
Two years later, I composed this endgame. This leads to the opening position
of 1a, when in move 6 black appears to capture the white knight with Bb5.8 GEORGE GRATZER
Solution (Magyar Sakkelet 1956, issue 11/12):
1. b7 Rh4+ 2. Kg7 Rg4+ 3. Kh8: Rg8+ 4. Kh7 Bc4 5. b8Q Rb8: 6.
Nb8: Bb5 |now continue as in #1, white draws.