**DuPont™ ISCEON® 9 Series Refrigerants, technical information
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**DuPont™ ISCEON® 9 Series Refrigerants, technical information

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  • fiche de synthèse - matière potentielle : the basic retrofit steps
DuPont™ ISCEON® 9 Series REFRIGERANTS Technical Information ART-44 Retrofit Guidelines for DuPont™ ISCEON® 9 Series Refrigerants DuPont™ ISCEON® MO59 (R-417A) DuPont™ ISCEON® MO79 (R-422A)
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SIMPLY HISTORY Prehistory to the Middle Ages Robert Taggart
Table of Contents To the Reader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v A Note About Dates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii Topic 1: The Earliest People Chapter 1: The First Communities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3  Chapter 2: Mesopotamia, the First Civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7  Chapter 3: The Civilization of the Nile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13  Chapter 4: Other Cultures of the Fertile Crescent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Topic 2: The Ancient Greeks Chapter 5: Early Greek Civilizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29  Chapter 6: The Rise of the City-States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34  Chapter 7: The Golden Age: The Gifts of Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42  Chapter 8: Alexander the Great and Hellenism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Topic 3: Ancient India and China Chapter 9: Ancient India: The First Civilizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57  Chapter 10: Ancient Indian Empires and Dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63  Chapter 11: Ancient China: The First Civilizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68  Chapter 12: Ancient China: The Qin and Han Dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Topic 4: The Ancient Romans Chapter 13: Ancient Italy and the Early Republic of Rome . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82  Chapter 14: Rome: The Middle Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89  Chapter 15: Rome: The Late Republic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94  Chapter 16: The Roman Empire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Topic 5: Europe in the Middle Ages Chapter 17: An Empire Divided: The East . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110  Chapter 18: An Empire Divided: The West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117  Chapter 19: Life in the Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123  Chapter 20: The Rise of Nations in Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Topic 6: The Middle East and the Rise of Islam Chapter 21: The Rise of Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140  Chapter 22: Life in the Islamic World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145  Chapter 23: Invasions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150  Chapter 24: The Ottoman Turks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
iii Simply History: Prehistory to the Middle Ages
Table of Contents,continued Topic 7: South and East Asia Chapter 25: The Great Era of China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162  Chapter 26: The Mongol Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169  Chapter 27: India Prospers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175  Chapter 28: Early Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Topic 8: Africa and the Americas Chapter 29: Early African Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184  Chapter 30: The Influence of Christianity and Islam in Africa . . . . . . . . . 188  Chapter 31: The Great Kingdoms of West Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191  Chapter 32: Early American Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Appendices  A.Dates to Know209. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  B.Names to Know. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215  C.Places to Know221. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  D.Events to Know. . . . . 226. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary. . . . . . 227. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
iv Simply History: Prehistory to the Middle Ages
To the Reader Welcome toSimply History: Prehistory to the Middle Ages.This book reviews the key people, places, and events in the history of the world from the beginning of human life to about 1600. You will also learn how these elements of history continue to affect societies around the world today. This book strives to present a brief, even-handed overview of selected highlights. Topic 1, The Earliest People,discusses the first people and first communities on Earth and how these groups developed into the world’s first civilizations. Topic 2, The Ancient Greeks,describes Greek civilization and its lasting effects on today’s world, including the development of democracy. InTopic 3, Ancient India and China,you will learn about the development of these two great civilizations, which remain the basis of many Asian societies. Topic 4, The Ancient Romans,reviews Roman civilization and the spread of Roman culture throughout the far-flung lands of the Roman Empire. Topic 5, Europe in the Middle Ages,describes the gradual development of European societies and the beginnings of today’s nation-states. Topic 6, The Middle East and the Rise of Islam,covers the rise of the world religion of Islam and the spread of Islamic culture throughout the vast Islamic Empire. InTopic 7, South and East Asia,you will learn about developments in China, the Mongol Empire, India, and early Japan from the 300s to the 1600s. Topic 8, Africa and the Americas,provides an overview of early societies in Africa and the Americas, and about the great kingdoms of West Africa. (continued)
v Simply History: Prehistory to the Middle Ages
To the Reader,continued Simply History: Prehistory to the Middle Ageshas many special features. “Of Note” sections show you how what you are reading applies to the world today. In addition, the “Dates to Know,” “Names to Know,” “Events to Know,” and “Places to Know” lists at the back of the book are handy reminders and reviews of key elements of world history. We hope that you find this book helpful, refreshing, and a joy to read.
vi Simply History: Prehistory to the Middle Ages
Chapter 1: The First Communities
Earth and the First People Planet Earth probably began as a hot, glowing ball. It took millions of years to cool and form into giant landmasses surrounded by oceans. Life probably began in the water. As living things grew and changed, life spread onto the land.
Humanlike creatures appeared perhaps 1 to 2 million years ago. They stood on two legs but looked more like apes than human beings. These early humans used simple tools that they made from stone. This was the beginning of the Old Stone Age—and the beginning of human history. The Old Stone Age lasted until about 10,000 years ago (c. 8000b.c.e.).
The first modern humans, who looked much like we do today, appeared some 100,000 years ago. They lived in a world that was often quite cold. Huge sheets of ice, called glaciers, covered most of the land. This era is also called the Ice Age. From time to time, Earth would get warmer. The glaciers would melt at the edges, making the oceans rise. But then it would become cold again, and the glaciers would regrow.
The first humanlike beings emerged in Africa. From there, they fanned out widely to other continents. As they moved, these more modern humans were able to use their intelligence to figure out ways to adapt to each environment they found.
Living as Hunters and Gatherers In the Old Stone Age it was very cold, and people had to wear animal skins to keep warm. There were no towns or houses. People were nomads— always on the move, looking for caves in which to stay. If you were a man, you went hunting with the other men. Men hunted in small groups for animals that they could kill and eat. Men hunted deer, bison, or perhaps the giant, elephant-like animals called woolly mammoths. Families had to follow these animals as they moved from place to place. The only weapons
3 Chapter 1: The First Communities • Simply History: Prehistory to the Middle Ages
were knives and spears. Knives and spears either had sharp stone tips or were carved out of animal bone. If you were a woman or a child, you gathered food, such as berries, nuts, and fruit. Food gatherers used sticks to dig up roots. They had to know which plants were good to eat, and which plants could make people sick or even kill them. Since families had to keep moving, homes were very simple. They may have been caves or tents made of animal hides (skins) or huts made of branches. But some caves had something special—paintings on their walls. Old Stone Age artists made paints out of things they found, such as berries and clay. Their paintings showed the animals that they hunted. These amazing pictures help people of today imagine what Old Stone Age life was like.
The New Stone Age About 10,000 years ago (c. 8000b.c.e.), the Ice Age came to an end. Earth grew warmer, and the glaciers shrank in size. At this point, human life changed in a very significant way. Historians refer to this time as the beginning of the New Stone Age and the end of the Old Stone Age. The new, warmer climate was better for plants. People discovered that they could grow plants on their own. They began to clear the land, plant seeds, and take care of the growing plants. In other words, they began to cultivate crops. The crops they grew included wheat, barley, rice, and beans. They also discovered that certain wild animals could be tamed. People began to domesticate these animals. Animals such as sheep, cows, and goats were domesticated and used as sources of milk, meat, and hides. The people of the New Stone Age had stopped being hunters and gatherers and had become farmers.
Village Life Because they were planting and growing crops, families had to stay in one place. They could no longer be nomads, following animal herds. As 4 Topic 1: The Earliest People • Simply History: Prehistory to the Middle Ages
more and more families settled down, they began to live together in small agricultural villages. Instead of using caves or making temporary shelters, people built more permanent homes. If there were trees, they made wooden houses. If there were no trees, people built huts out of earth and clay. They also built pens to house their animals. Now there was plenty of food to eat, so people did not have to hunt and gather their food. They could learn new skills. Some became potters or weavers, making storage pots from clay and baskets out of straw. Toolmakers invented better tools, using metals like copper and iron. People from one village traded the goods they made and extra food with people from nearby villages. Many villages sprang up in river valleys. People learned to fish. Boatbuilding became an important craft. Communities began to grow.
The Earliest Cities As villages continued to grow, they A S I A became towns. Some towns grew Black Sea large enough to be called cities. Two of the earliest cities were A S I A M I N O R C¸ atal Hu¨ yu¨ k Jericho and Çatal Hüyük. Caspian Mediterranean Se The town of Jericho was builtJericho Sea around 7500b.c.e.in the Jordan Dead Persian Sea A F R I C AGulf River valley. Today, this area is in the country of Jordan, which Red Sea is in the Middle East. Jericho Jericho and Çatal Hüyük covered four acres of land and was surrounded by a wall that was over twelve feet high. The wall was put up to protect the people of the city from outsiders. You can still see the ruins of this magnificent city. In the 1950s, scientists discovered the ruins of another ancient city in Turkey. It was named Çatal Hüyük, and it contained what is now the world’s oldest pottery and wool clothing. This early city was built a bit later than Jericho, in a region that used to be called Asia Minor. Çatal Hüyük was at least eight times as big as Jericho. It contained many large brick and stone buildings packed tightly together with no streets or alleys
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between them. Apparently, to get from one house to another, a person had to travel across roofs and go down stairways or ladders. As time went on, more cities sprang up. These set the stage for the next major development in human history—the birth of civilizations.
Cultures and Civilizations Villagers of the New Stone Age lived, worked, and ate together. They shared language, ideas, and habits. As more and more people settled in villages, the culture grew, with more beliefs, more jobs, and more to learn. Soon, the villages needed a way to be organized so life could run smoothly. The villages grew into a civilization, a highly organized society that usually has a government to keep things in order. The government may be a n group of people or just a single ruler. a system of record keeping to keep track of crops and items of trade, n for example. (As you will see, a record-keeping system may grow into an actual written language.)
a class system. People in the highest class, such as kings, have power n and riches. People in the lowest class, like poor farmers, have to work hard just to make a living.
Historians and scientists believe that they know where the first civilization in the world arose. It was in a region where two rivers—the Tigris and the Euphrates—came together. This civilization will be explored in the next chapter.
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GLOSSARY abolished(uh-BO-lishd) got rid of; put an end to acropolis(uh-KRO-puh-lus) a hilltop fortress in an ancient Greek city; when spelled with a capital A, it refers to the fortress in the ancient city-state of Athens Age of Invasionsthe period of Indian history(AYJ UV in-VAY-zhunz) from about 500 to about 1500 agora(A-guh-ruh) the marketplace of an ancient Greek city-state agriculture(A-gri-kul-chur) the raising of crops and the keeping of domesticated animals; farming Allah(A-luh) the Arabic word for God ally(A-ly) a person or country that joins with another for a special purpose amphitheaters(AM-fuh-thee-uh-turz) outdoor theaters arranged in a half circle, with rows of seats rising outward from an open space or arena at the center ancestor worship(AN-ses-tur WUR-ship) the practice of worshiping ancestral spirits ancestral spiritsaccording to one belief, the(AN-ses-trul SPIR-uts) spirits of one’s ancestors that live on and play a vital role in the affairs of the living animism(A-nuh-mi-zum) the belief that spirit beings animate, or make alive, nature aqueducts(A-kwuh-dukts) structures like bridges that contain pipes or channels to carry water and that stretch over low ground or a river Arabic numerals(AR-uh-bik NOO-mur-ulz) numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on) developed by the Arab Muslims archaeologist(AR-kee-o-luh-jist) a scientist who studies the remains of the past to figure out how ancient people lived archbishops(arch-BI-shups) church officials in charge of archdioceses
227 Glossary • Simply History: Prehistory to the Middle Ages
INDEX Abraham,21 Abu Bakr,143 Acropolis,35 acropolis Etruscan, 84 meaning of Greek, 35 acupuncture,70 Aegean Sea,29 earliest Greeks along, 30 Aeneas,82 Aeneid (Virgil),82, 100 Aeschylus,46, 49 Aesop,46, 49 Africa,184.See alsoEast Africa; West  African kingdoms  as birthplace of humanity, 3, 185  Christian areas of (map), 189  Christianity in northern, 188–189  earliest history of, 185  early religious traditions in, 187  footpaths covering, 186  geography of, 184–185  Islam in, 189–190  Muslim areas of (map), 190  oral traditions, 186–187  villages in, 185–186 Age of Invasions,177–178 Agincourt, Battle of,134 agora,35 agriculture,131.See alsofarming  in Africa, 185  Chinese  beginning of, 163  improvements in, 167  in early Rome, 83  Japanese, 179 Akkad,10 Akkadians,10 Alexander the Great,25  death of, 87  empire of, 86  marches into northwestern India, 105–106 as student of Aristotle, 48–49  takes Egypt, 52–53  takes over Greece, 51–52
 takes Persia and India, 53 Alexandria,53  special features of, 54 Ali,143 Allah,142, 146  use of jihads to spread word of, 158 alphabet  Etruscan, 85  Greek, 34  Nubian, 20  Phoenician, 26  pinyin, 68  Roman, 85 Alps,82  Hannibal crosses, 90 Amazon River,199 the Americas,198  components of, 198–199  culture of Indians in, 200–201.See also Indians (of the Americas)  geography of, 198–199  Indian settlements throughout, 200  Mesoamerican cultures of, 201 Amorites,11 amphitheaters,46 Anatolia,59, 91, 155 ancestor worship,187 ancestral spirits,187 Andes Mountains,199, 204 animism,187 Antipater,52 Antoninus Pius,104 Apennine Mountains,82 apostles,106 aqueducts,93, 108 Arabic numerals,67, 148, 177–178 Arab Muslims,142–143  in Africa, tolerance of other religions  by, 189–190  control of northern Africa by, 189–190  help growth of trade centers in East  Africa, 196  influence on West African kingdoms  of, 191–192  trade of, 191
247 Index • Simply History: Prehistory to the Middle Ages