Lab Session 5, Experiment 4 Chemical Nomenclature
59 Pages
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Lab Session 5, Experiment 4 Chemical Nomenclature

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Learn all about the services we offer
59 Pages


  • fiche de synthèse - matière potentielle : sheet
  • fiche de synthèse - matière potentielle : sheet chemical nomenclature cations
  • expression écrite
Lab Session 5, Experiment 4 Chemical Nomenclature Objective: To learn how to read and write formulas of compounds Background: Many of the substances you will encounter in this laboratory are ionic compounds. They are made up of ions which have an unequal number of protons and electrons. Ion is a charged species. If an element loses an electron, is it called at cation resulting in a positive charge. If an element gains an electron, is it called an anion resulting in a negative charge.
  • -2 oxalate cr2o7
  • anion with an –ide ending
  • data summary sheet
  • anion
  • cation
  • compounds
  • formula
  • ion
  • charge
  • name



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A Dissertation presented in part consideration for the degree of
I would like to thank my supervisor, Nick Bacon for his invaluable advice and
guidance throughout the project.
I would like to thank all the participants who participated in my research.
I would like to thank my family and friends for their guidance and encouragement
throughout the project, without which the project would have been impossible.
This dissertation seeks to present the effectiveness of the appraisal system of a Multi
national company in India. Hence, the performance appraisal system of this company
was studied. The study also explains how performance appraisal systems have
encouraged employee development in the organization considered.
The study explores the importance of performance appraisal in the organization. It
explores how organizations have to be organized and systematic in their approach, so
that they can extract the exact performance from their employees which can help
them, to create a balance between performance and achieving organizational
objectives. This paper, explains how performance appraisal helps in evaluating and assessing
the employees on a common ground and helps to establish training and development program
which helps the employee to grow in the organization. It also helps, to understand how
performance appraisal helps in other personnel decisions like promotion, salary increments
Pg. no
Performance appraisal overview 7
How widespread is performance appraisal? 8
Objective of study 9
Overview of chapters 9
How was performance appraisal evolved? 11
Linkage of Human resource management 14
and Performance appraisal
Purpose of performance appraisal 17
Perception of PA in organization 20
How is Pa conducted? 23
Management by Objective: 25
Graphic Rating Scale 26
BARS and BOS 26
Motivation and Goal setting theory 27
Feedback 29
360 degree feedback 30
Summary of Literature Review 31
Research objective 34
Research methods 34
Quantitative Vs Qualitative 34
Why Qualitative? 35
Research Tactics 36
Primary data 36
Design of interview questions 36
When was research done? 37
Secondary research 38
Limitation of Qualitative research 38
Summary of research methods 39
Summary of chapter 53
5Exploring the effectiveness of Performance Appraisal in Multi
national company.
The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the effectiveness of performance
appraisals in Multi national company and its effect on the employees and the
organization. This paper, explains how performance evaluation helps in assessing,
evaluating and appraising employees in the organization as well as
rewarding employees and providing them with the necessary training and
development. It tries to explain, how it motivates employees when goal setting theory
is applied in order to perform better in the organization. The, study basically
highlights the impact of performance appraisal on the employees and on the
The key purpose of performance management in organizations is that it helps in;
measuring the effectiveness of performance in the organization also, it helps in
identifying training needs and largely promotes motivation towards work. But, how
exactly does performance appraisal help in running the organization? Every
organization has a set of objectives and functions and the main task is to accomplish
the desired objectives and functions. This can only be achieved, if the employees
know their duties well. Employees form an important asset of the company, therefore
they should be provided with a proper package, remuneration and good training and
development. All these facilities will only help the employee to be, highly motivated
towards their work and would help in producing the right output i.e. performance.
Performance appraisal is used all over the world. Many organizations use
6performance appraisal in order to develop a clearer picture of their organization. The
performance appraisal process allows an organization to measure and evaluate an individual
employee’s behavior and accomplishments over a specific period of time (DeVries et al.,
1981).In recent years the attention towards performance appraisal has increased rapidly, due
to its important potential implications ,relating to fair employment practices and the because
of increasing concerns about employee productivity in the organization.(Pearce and
Porter,1996 ) What ultimately lies is the end product which is performance which has
to proper, therefore, in order to achieve that, the employees should be utilized to the
full extent.
Organizations have to be organized and systematic in their approach, so that they can
extract the exact performance from their employees which can help them, to create a
balance between performance and organizational objectives.
Performance Appraisal : Overview
The most basic purpose of performance appraisal is to provide information to the
employees about their job and the amount of effort and behavior expected from them.
Performance appraisal (PA) systems aim to help, develop individuals, improve
organizational performance and to develop the basis from which builds a baseline for
planning for the future. Generally PA includes the following main purposes: 1
Creation of a shared vision of the organization's objectives, occasionally through a
mission statement communicated to all employees.2 Setting of individual
performance targets relating to the operating unit's target within the overall
organization.3 A formal review of progress towards these targets, and/or the
identification of training needs. 4 The PA system assessed regularly to evaluate its
effectiveness for overall organizational performance. (Coates,1994)
7McEvoy and Cascio(1990) suggested that employees should be told their duties i.e.
they should be told what is expected from them plus effective orientation towards
effective performance. As a result, the intention is to provide employees with an
adequate understanding about their job, and encourage employees to work towards
their organizational goals. When objectives are set for the employees it becomes
simpler for them to attain the desired task. Performance can be obtained, when a
desired goal is given. Locke’s ( 1968) Goal setting theory emphasizes the importance
of conscious goal levels as determinants of employee performance. Goal setting
theory is summarized as follows- a. hard goals produce a higher level of performance
than easy goals, b. some specific hard goals produce higher level of output; c.
behavioral intentions regulate choice behavior.
How widespread is performance appraisal?
Performance appraisal is widely used in many Western countries. In US the
percentage of organizations using performance appraisal increased from 89 percent to
94 percent from 1970s to 1980s.(Locher and Teel,1988) Similarly, in UK the use of
formal performance appraisal system has rapidly increased.(Armstrong and
Baron,1998) Appraisal is particularly prominent in some big industrial sectors in the
UK, such as financial services. Cully et al (1998) add that performance appraisal has
developed from an initial application to the middle managers and professional
occupations and is now frequently applied to non-managers and professionals.
8Performance appraisal is also used in non-western countries like China, India, Hong
Kong and Japan.
Objective of the study:
The aim of this study is to explore the operation and effects of performance appraisal
in Multi national company. It will assess whether the appraisal process creates a
positive response or negative response from employees and assess the subsequent
impact on employee attitudes and behaviors. The appraisal process studied is that of a
Multi national company in India.The appraisal system of this company was designed
to improve employee productivity. The findings, suggests that the performance
appraisal system is important in the Multi national company among employees and
the organization. The study also explains how performance appraisal systems have
encouraged employee development in the organization considered. An over view of
the existing literature relevant to this topic is considered in the following chapter.
Over view of the chapters:
Chapter 1: Introduction:
A brief introduction about the purpose of the research is given. A brief overview of
performance appraisal is presented. Then the research objective is mentioned. Then a
brief description about the remaining chapters is given.
Chapter 2 : Literature review:
Chapter 2 comprises of Literature review. It starts with the history of performance
appraisal system. It explains how performance appraisal system was evolved in the
industry and what its current importance in the industry is. The chapter then, explains
9the various concepts relevant to the subject. The purpose and perception of appraisal
system is explained. This is followed by the process of performance appraisal. The
literature review was designed to explain the main motive of the research, therefore
accordingly the relevant literatures pertaining to the research was only considered.
Chapter 3 : Research methods
Chapter 3 comprises of research method adopted in the. This chapter gives an
overview of the research and the research objective. It then explains the purpose of
qualitative research adopted in the research. It then highlights the relationship
between the study and the research method adopted. The majority of the chapter
explains how the data was collected for the research and the process of data analysis.
Chapter 4 : Analysis of Data
Chapter 4 comprises of the Analysis section. This section gives a brief introduction to
the parameters on which the employees are tested in the organization and the scale on
which they are judged are explained. This chapter then explains the findings of the
research. This section broadly explains the reaction of the employees, of the appraisal
system of their company.
Chapter 5 : Conclusion
Chapter 5 concludes the research by stating briefly the findings of the research and
sums up the whole research. The conclusion also suggests recommendations for fur