physical disabilities and sensory impairments solutions for ...

physical disabilities and sensory impairments solutions for ...

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1 Explainthe two categories of Bhakti movement .
 (I)Saguna with attributes; included tradition that focussed on specific
 deitiessuch as Shiva ,Vishnu and his incarnation and forms of the
 Goddessoften conceptualized in anthropomorphic forms .
 (ii)Nirguna bhakti was worship of an abstract form of worship2
2 Mention any two ways in which the inscriptions of land grants help us to
 know rural society in ancient times .
Rural society in ancient times .
 (i)Land grants provide some insight into the relationship between cultivators
 andthe state .
 (ii) Whatwere the things produced in the village .?
 (iii) Whowere the recipients of the land grants ? Why were they granted the
 lands. 2
3 Giveany two reasons why travel accounts of foreigners are important for
 studyingMedieval times .
 (i)They are attentive to the routine activities which were taken for granted by Indian writers .
(ii) Theygave varied information of social life as they were looking at popular customs ,traditions and folklore .2
Do any four
4 Howis Buddhist theory of a social contract different from the Brahmanical view
 ofsociety derived from the Purusha Sukta ?
 According to the Brahmans society was based on the four fold cast system.
(ii) This division was divinely ordained as the four social categories were supposed
 Tohave come from the body of Brahma .
(iii) Budddhist developeda different view ;humans initially lived in state of contentment, taking from nature what they needed .
(iv) But in course of time they greedy leading to conflict in society.
(v) The institution of king emerged as a social contract which means humans could regulate and control the institution.5
5 Towhat extent does the knowledge of Buddhist literature help in
 understandingsculpture at Sanchi i) By studying Buddhist literature art historians realized that early sculptures did not show the Buddha in human form but through symbols .
(ii) Sculpture of beautiful women holding onto a tree; a study of various literary
 Traditionsshowed this was a representation of a shalbhanjika .
(iii) Severalanimal stories of the Jatakas have been depicted at sanchi often used as symbols of human attributes .
(iv) Anothermotif shown is that of a women surrounded by lotus and elephant which seem to be sprinkling water on her interpreted as Maya or Goddess Gajalakshmi .
(v) The motif of serpent seems to be derived from popular traditions which were not recorded in text .5
6 Whatinspired the kings to choose the site of Vijaynagara ? Which new features
 intemple architecturewere introduced by Vijayanagara kings ?
 (i)It is likely that the very choice of the site was inspired by the existence of
 theshrine of Virupaksha and Pampadevi .
 (ii)New features included structures of immense scale the mark of imperial
 (iii)Royal gateways higher than the towers on central shrine.
 (iv)Other distinctive features include mandapas or pavilions and long pillared  Corridorsthat often ran around the shrines within the temple complex.  (v)The halls were used for a variety of purposes .5
7 Writein brief about the AiniAkabri . Ain is made up of five books ,of which three books describe the administration.  Thefirst book Manzil abadi concern imperial household and its maintainance .
 Thesecond book sipah abadi covers the military and civil administration .
 Thethird book mulk abadi deals with fiscal side of the empire .After giving
 Detailsof suba. Aingives detailed picture of sarkars .This it does in form
 Oftables which has eight columnsgiving variety of information. The fourth
 Andfifth book deals with religious and literary and cultural tradition of the
 Peopleof India and also contain a collection of Akbar s auspicious sayings . 5
8 Compareand contrast the perspective from which IbnBattua and Bernier
 wrotetheir accounts .
(i) IbnBattuta highlighted anything which was unfamiliar and different .
(ii) He sought to write narrative which could give details ,information of the country he visited .
(iii) Bernier was comparing and contrasting what he saw in India with France .
(iv) He focussed on depressing situations and showed India in bad light .
(v) While comparing he emphasizes on superiority of France .
Do any one
9 Discussthe ways in which panchayats and village headmen regulated
 Ruralsociety .
 (i)The decision of it was binding on the villagers .
 (ii) Headmanwas chosen by the village elders to be ratified by the zamindars .
 (iv)the function of the headman was to supervise the village accounts .
 (v) ThePanchayats derived its funds from its contributions made by villagers .
 (vi)Expenses on welfare activity ,construction of bundor digging canal were met
 Fromthe common financial pool .
 (vi) To ensure to uphold the cast boundaries .
 (vii) Panchayatalso had the power to levy the fines and inflict other forms of punishment
 (viii)Each cast in the village had jati panchayat .
 (Each point to be improved ) 10
10 What were the distinctive features of the Mughal nobility? How was their relationship with the emperor shaped ?
(I) A heterogeneous body composed of diverse ethnic and religious body .
(ii) No faction was allowed to become too powerful to challenge the authority .
(iii) Rajputs and Indian muslims also entered the rank .
(iv) People who excelled in education or accountancy were also inducted into the ranks of nobility .
(v) Iranians prospered at the time of Jehangir .
(vi) In theory the nobility was purely official in character which was to be returned after the death .
(vii) Nobles led extravagant life and squandered away their money .
th (viii) During the 18century the character of nobility deteriorated and they ceased to discharge any useful function .
(ix) The empire plunged into civilwars ,confusion and anarchy .
(x) Political instability invited the foreign invasion and trading companies also started interfering in the government .(10x1)
11 Read the paragraph and answer the questions that follow it
 Reverencefor the Jogi
 Mayyour Reverence remain in peace and happiness ever under the protection
 OfSri ShivJio. A piece of cloth for the cloak and a sum of R.25 which have been sent as an offering will reach.......Your Reverence may write to us whenever there is any service which can be rendered by us .
(i) Whois the deity the saint worships ? How do you know it ?
 LordShiva .Words like Shiv Jio .
(ii) Howdoes Aurangzeb show his respect to him ?
 Bysending cloth and cash money .
(iii) Howdid universal practices of Islam accommodate regional influences in India ?
 Giveany four examples .
 (i)The influence of local customary practices of converts from different social milieus .
 (ii)Adoption of local language .
(iii) Adoptionof local customs such as matrilinyand matrilocal residence.
(iv) Some architectural features of Mosque are universal .However there are several features that show variations such as roofs and building material .
12 Identify the places related to Buddha and Buddhism marked in the map of India .  1x6