Physiology of the Grid
17 Pages
English
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Physiology of the Grid

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Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer
17 Pages
English

Description

  • exposé
The Physiology of the Grid An Open Grid Services Architecture for Distributed Systems Integration Ian Foster1,2 Carl Kesselman3 Jeffrey M. Nick4 Steven Tuecke1 1 Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 3 Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA 90292 4 IBM Corporation, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601 foster@mcs.
  • grid technologies
  • open grid services architecture
  • distributed systems
  • integration
  • computing
  • service
  • resources
  • management
  • services
  • enterprise

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Reads 9
Language English

Exrait

BLUE GOLD
The Abuse of Water

Grade Level: Grade 11
Subject: Chemistry
Unit Length: 3 x 70-minute lessons
Author: Stacie Theis
Contact: stacietheis@hotmail.com

Narrative Synopsis:
Introduction:
Water is essential to all life. No living organism can survive without it. Yet the way in which
humans treat the essence of what keeps us alive is frightening. We pollute our lakes and streams and we
waste water by letting the water run while we brush our teeth. On a global scale, 1 billion people out of the
6 billion on earth do not have access to safe drinking water (Environment Canada, 2008). In other words,
one out of every six people is without water. We as Canadians do not think about water because we are a
water wealthy nation. We have about 20% of the world’s fresh water supply. Canada is a nation of water.
Our livelihood and industries relies on water. Canadian recreation is centered around water: skiing,
swimming, skating and hockey just to mention a few (Environment Canada, 2008). Industries that rely on
water include: forestry, mining, fisheries, paper and pulp mills, agriculture. Even our art and literature
focuses on the theme of water. Water is a strong part of our identity as Canadians and yet we as Canadians
use 350 litres per person a day. That is the second highest amount of water per person a day in the world
(highest consumption rate is the United States) [Environment Canada, 2008]. Even though we are a ‘water
wealthy nation’, we must be socially and globally responsible with our use of water and we should protect
water: it is what connects us to everything and everyone on the planet. The molecule of water we drink
today was the same molecule that the dinosaurs drank and after we are finished with it, it will be used by
future generations. There is a need for conservation, stewardship and public ownership on this issue.
A famous quote states that the wars of the present are fought over oil, but the wars of the future
will be fought over water (Shiva, 2002). Water is coined as being “blue gold” and is predicted to become
more valuable than either gold or oil in the future (Shiva, 2002). The youth of today needs to aware of
Canada’s role in the potential future water crisis and the impact Canadians have on water and its usage. The
classroom is a place where controversial ideas should be presented in order to aid students in the
development of critical thinking skills and to develop a global perspective of issues of sustainability. This is
why the theme of water as blue gold is to be built into the grade 11 university chemistry strand, solutions
and solubility. Lessons will be tailored to include the theme of water on local, national and global levels
with a focus on solution oriented approach.
Impacts of Water Scarcity:
The planet is 90% covered by water, however 99% of this water is unusable as it is salt water or
hidden deep underground (Environment Canada, 2008). The remaining 1% is fresh water, most of which is
in the frozen ice caps in the northern and southern poles. Using the example form the Otesha book, From
Junk to Funk, if all water on the planet was represented by 1 L of water, the amount of water that is fresh
water is only 30 ml and the amount available for use is a drop of water. (This analogy will help put it into
perspective for students our consumption who may become overwhelmed by numbers.) In analysing the
past water usage of the planet, it has increased six fold during the 20th century and it continues to be
increasing two times as fast as the world population grows (World Water council, 2005). The demand of
water is growing faster than the environment’s ability to replenish water (Environment Canada, 2008).
Simply put, we as a species are using too much water. Through everyday activities, making our food and
clothes, we use too much water and our current usage is squandering the world’s most precious resource.
A prime example is the Aral Sea, located in central Asia. It was the fourth largest lake in the world forty
years ago, yet due to over-use, it has been reduced to a mere fraction of its original size (Environment
Canada, 2008) *See reference #5 in the “References / Resources” section below*. The Aral Lake, like
many other bodies of water, are important for climate, agriculture, human health, fishing and local
environment and we will need to make a concentrated and global effort to protect and hopefully replenish
the remaining water ways.
Water shortages are increasing and if we as Canadians, whose Great lakes hold 18% of the
world’s surface fresh water, think we are exempt than we are truly naive (World Water council, 2005).
Canada has had and will have water problems and shortages. For example, eight million Canadians rely
exclusively on groundwater for their daily water needs (Environment Canada, 2008). In a previous report in
1999, 26% of Canadian municipalities with water distribution systems reported that there were problems
with water availability during the last five years (Environment Canada, 2008).
Another common misconception is that all sewage and waste water is treated and disposed
properly. Of waste water, Canada treats 97% of wastewater through primary, secondary or tertiary levels,
however, one trillion tons of sewage are dumped directly into Canadian waterways each year (Otesha
project, 2004). Industries, however, dump 70% of waste untreated into surface waters which further pollute
our water supply. The denial of access to clean drinking water contributes to further problems and it is even
more prevalent globally.
Water-borne diseases are the major factor of death in three to four million people, 2 million of
which are children who die from diarrhea. Access to water is a fundamental human right, like education or
health yet one out of every six people are denied this right. Water stress occurs when there is less than 1
700 m3 of water per person per year; the situation is called stressed when there is less than 1 000 m3 per
person (World Water Council, 2005). As of today there are 600 million people who face water scarcity and
future water scarcity is projected to increase to roughly 3 billion (range is 2.7 to 3.2 billion dependant on
population growth) [Environment Canada, 2008]. The future presents problems that we as Canadians must acknowledge and take steps to reduce.
The unit is about awareness, raising acknowledgment, personal responsibility and empowerment for
change.
Key questions students will think about critically during this unit are:
• What role doles desalination play in managing water shortages?
• Is water a fundamental human right?
• Is water a commodity to be bought and sold?
• How do Canadians influence the use and the value of water? How does this relate to other
countries?
• Where does my water come from and where does it go? What impacts does this have on the
local environment?
• How do I as an individual protect and consume water?


Unit Outline:

Lesson Topic Enduring Understanding Activity
1 Introduction to Water is often taken for granted PowerPoint introduction to introduce
Blue Gold by those to have easy access to the unit theme of blue gold and present
it. Water overconsumption and some facts about water. Modelling and
water pollution are major issues then a lab on preparing solutions from
that must be dealt with. a solid. Introduction to Watercan.
Alternatives in sources for fresh
water are being explored (e.g.
desalination).
2 What’s in Your Water is a universal solvent and “My Water Is Your Water” activity
Water? - Water is not owned by one person but demonstrating water contamination.
Purification by everyone. There are certain Direct instruction of water
dissolved components in water composition (e.g. organic compounds,
but too much of one or the other metallic ions). Students create their
tips the balance. own interpretation (short story or life
cycle) of water filtration.
3 Waste Water Water scarcity is a reality. There “Heavy as Gold” activity to
are differences in cultural uses, demonstrate the lengths some people
conservation and appreciation of in the world have to go to obtain
water between developed water. Read Mirror story from the
countries and underdeveloped Otesha handbook. Discussion on daily
countries. Big changes start with water consumption. Explanation of
individual choices. waste management and the
construction of toilet dams. Group
brainstorming and poster-making.

LESSON 1: Introduction to Blue Gold
Subject: Chemistry
Grade: Grade 11 (University)
Students: 30 students
Time: 70 minutes
Ontario curricular expectations:
- Strand(s): Solutions and Solubility
- Specific:
• Explain the current water situation on a national and global scale.
• Prepare solutions of required concentrations by dissolving a solute and by diluting a concentrated solution.
• Relate a scientific knowledge of solutions and solubility to everyday applications.
Safety:
- Burning ball of fire, flammability and risk of fire, make sure proper lab procedures are followed such as tying back
hair and loose garments, make sure fire extinguisher is handy.
- Lab setting using table salt.
Resources / materials:
- Water, isopropyl alcohol, rags
- LCD projector, laptop
- *See Appendix B, p. 113 and p.114*
Student groupings and instructional strategies:
- Direct instruction activity: PowerPoint lecture
- Cooperative strategies: buddy system (lab)
- Learning style: bodily kinesthetic (lab)
Open:
− Holding a ball of fire in your hand.
− *See Appendix B, p.113*
−−−− This will surely get your students attention and demonstrate how cool water is!
Body:
- Power point introduction
• Teacher-led power point introducing the unit theme: blue gold (water) and its importance in our lives. *See
references #1 through #9 in “References / Resources” section below* for visuals and information to be used
in the power point. The teacher will pose the following questions during the power point:
• Water facts to think about:
o How much of our body is composed of water?
o If the entire world’s water was in an 18 L jug, how much would be available for our use?
o Does Canada have water poverty or water wealth?
o What are the implications of water overconsumption?
o What number of people out of six does not have access to clean drinking water?
o How does water availability compare with population?
o What are sources/contributions of water pollution in Canada?
- Lesson on how to prepare a solution from a solid. *See Appendix B, p.114*
- Lab preparing solutions from a solid
- Introduce Watercan
Assessment:
- Formative assessment: students demonstrate the lab technique to prepare solutions.
Accommodations:
- Hands on interactive activity.
- Buddy system: students working in pairs for lab.
Extension / extra time:
- Read textbook on desalination process
- Research desalination process of water
Link to future lessons:
- This is introduction of the importance of water and its uses in chemistry. Students must be able to properly prepare
solutions in the lab for future labs and classes. The concept of dilution and quantities will be further explored in pH and temperature.
Reflection and Feedback:
Was the timing alright? Did I accommodate all learners to the best of my ability? Did the lesson provide something for everyone (i.e. learning styles)?
Were the students somehow in charge of their learning? What was the atmosphere or energy of the class like? What would I do differently next time?
What would be important to tell someone else who is going to try this lesson? Were the curriculum expectations adequately met? Did I fulfill my
personal objective for this lesson? Does my following lesson(s) need to be adapted in any way now that this lesson is complete?




LESSON 2: What’s in Your Water? - Water Purification
Subject: Chemistry
Grade: Grade 11 (University)
Students: 30 students
Time: 70 minutes
Ontario curricular expectations:
- Strand(s): Solutions and Solubility
- Specific:
• Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of water as a universal solvent.
• Describe the technology and major steps in the purification of drinking water.
• Explain the impact of human activity such as drug use on water contamination.
• Identify the allowable concentrations of metallic and organic compounds in drinking water.
Prior knowledge:
- Water is a universal solvent.
- Familiarity of metallic and organic compounds such as nitrate, sulphate, ammonium.
Safety:
- Students should not at any point drink their water. If this occurs, seek medical help immediately.
- NaOH is corrosive, harmful if swallowed.
- Clean-up spills immediately. No real safety concerns for this class.
Resources / materials:
- Plastic cups
- Tap water
- Indicator, phenolphthalein
- 10 mL of 1 M NaOH
Student groupings and instructional strategies:
- Arts based : storytelling
- Activity based: game
- Thinking skills: graphic organizer
Open:
- “My Water is Your Water” Activity
- Purpose of activity:
• To illustrate that water is a universal solvent and is not owned by one person but by everyone. All people
use the same water and we must take care not to contaminate with chemicals or drugs.
- Instructions for students:
1. You have been given a cup of water and you represent a person who lives in Ottawa. You may be a healthy
person or you may not be feeling well and you have taken an aspirin.
2. This cup of water is your water. It represents the water you drink and the water that goes throughout your
body before it returns to the water system where it is purified. You will have to share your water with 5
people.
3. Be careful not to spill your water as it is a precious commodity. If you do spill, let the teacher know so it
can be cleaned-up.
4. Do NOT drink your water.
- Activity starts and students mingle and exchange water with two other people. The teacher will go around and add
1-2 drops of phenolphthalein to each cup.
- Teacher says “I am adding phenolphthalein to see if you have been drinking contaminated water”. Asks by a show
of hands who had contaminated water.
- Questions for thought: What does this mean? Why do you think this is important? How does this make you feel
knowing that there may be minute traces of drugs in your drinking water? Ask do you think bottled water is safer?
( Note that bottled water is not necessarily more ‘pure’ than tap water) Students will dispose of water in the sink
and return to their sink. Teacher debriefs by explaining that the tap water is safe to drink.
Body:
- Water purification
• Taught by direct instruction by drawing the process on the blackboard or by using pictures. *See references
#10 through #14 in the “References / Resources” section below.*Teacher asks what other metallic compounds are in water? Organic compounds? At what levels? Write the name of elements and their
amounts on the board.
- Guessing game: the concentrations of chemical compounds in drinking water
• The teacher will ask students what chemicals they think are found in water. Teacher provides names of
chemical compounds and students will guess the concentrations g/mol).
- Students will work in pairs to write a short story on water filtration following a molecule of water from the source
to your tap, each student will have their own copy OR trace the path of water from source to a bottle of water in the
store.
Assessment:
- Checklist completion and correctness using checklist (communication 3 marks and understanding marks) of
Short story on water filtration following a molecule of water from the source to your tap.
Accommodations:
- Hands on interactive activity
- Visuals used in combination with text to aid with reading difficulties or ESL students
- Buddy system
- Extra time
Extension / extra time:
- Work on water footprint sheet.
Link to future lessons:
- First half of the story behind where our water comes from and will lead into where our water goes after we use it.
Reflection and Feedback:
Was the timing alright? Did I accommodate all learners to the best of my ability? Did the lesson provide something for everyone (i.e. learning styles)?
Were the students somehow in charge of their learning? What was the atmosphere or energy of the class like? What would I do differently next time?
What would be important to tell someone else who is going to try this lesson? Were the curriculum expectations adequately met? Did I fulfill my
personal objective for this lesson? Does my following lesson(s) need to be adapted in any way now that this lesson is complete?






LESSON 3: Waste Water
Subject: Chemistry
Grade: Grade 11 (University)
Students: 30 students
Time: 70 minutes
Ontario curricular expectations:
- Strand(s): Solutions and Solubility
- Specific:
• Describe the technology and major steps in the treatment of waste water.
• Relate individual Canadian’s daily water use to other countries and describe ways in which an individual
can conserve water on a daily basis.
Prior knowledge:
- Water purification; where does it come from?
Safety:
- Normal classroom setting and out of class activity which involves walking in the hall with water; spillage poses
potential for falls and injuries.
Resources / materials:
- 4 buckets with handles
Student groupings and instructional strategies:
- Cooperative learning : discussion
- Thinking skills: issue based analysis, brainstorming
- Arts based: poster making
Open:
- Heavy as gold – carrying water.
• Purpose of activity:
o To illustrate that we as Canadians take water for granted and that we would be more careful with
our water usage if we had to carry our water from point A to point B.
• Instructions for students:
o For our class today, you will need to get water from the janitor’s workroom and then bring it
back to the classroom. With your partner you are to carry to water back here and you should not
spill any water or talk in the halls.
• Questions:
o On a scale of one to ten, how difficult was your task of carrying the water? How many litres do
you think you carried? How many litres of water do you think one Canadian uses in one day?
Knowing that one Canadian uses 350 litres of water a day, how many trips to the janitor’s room
and back would you need?
- Read Mirror story from Otesha handbook. *See “References / Resources” section.* (5 minutes)
• Shows differences in cultural uses, conservation and appreciation of water between developed countries and
underdeveloped countries like Africa.
Body:
- Daily water consumption discussion.
• Students have previously completed the “Your Water Footprint” worksheet as an out of class activity and
now take it out. *See Appendix B, p.114*
• The teacher will asks students to stand up and says stay standing if you used less than 350 litres, 300, 250,
200, 150, 100, 50 litres of water. Where does the water go after use? What happens to the water once we
flush a toilet? How much does water cost? How much do other countries pay for water? How do you think
our use of water would change if water cost more money?
- Teacher explains waste management. *See references #15 to #20 in the “References / Resources” section below.*
• Teacher demonstration of how to make a toilet dam and encourages students to make ones at home.
• Note: toilet dams can lead to complications in drainage such as decreased water flow which leads to clogs.
As an alternative look at low flush or dual flush toilets as a solution.
- Group brainstorm and poster making.
• In groups of four, students will brainstorm ways in which they can conserve water in their own lives. The
teacher hands out the 100 quick facts about water sheet to each group. • Students will work individually on creating a poster linking water purification, waste management and
water use to educate the high school population about water conservation. For a student resource for the
poster, *see reference #21 in the “References / Resources” section below.*
Assessment:
- Students will complete a poster which will be marked using a rubric.
Accommodations:
- Hands-on activities
- Peer help
- Pictorial diagrams with text to help with reading difficulties or comprehension
- Group think
Extension / extra time:
- Work on water conservation poster.
Link to future lessons:
- Students will learn about the solubility of elements in water and the formation of precipitates from aqueous
solutions ( hardness of water).
Reflection and Feedback:
Was the timing alright? Did I accommodate all learners to the best of my ability? Did the lesson provide something for everyone (i.e. learning styles)?
Were the students somehow in charge of their learning? What was the atmosphere or energy of the class like? What would I do differently next time?
What would be important to tell someone else who is going to try this lesson? Were the curriculum expectations adequately met? Did I fulfill my
personal objective for this lesson? Does my following lesson(s) need to be adapted in any way now that this lesson is complete?





Conclusions:

The purpose of this unit is not to create or increase fears that Canada will run out of water. It is
intended to increase awareness and action of Canadians to protect the most valuable ‘resource’ in the
world, water. In addition it is to provide a global perspective on the use and abuse of water and to promote
principles of responsibility, interconnectedness, sustainability and equity. By analysing our own actions and
putting our beliefs about water conservation and protection into action, we as teachers and Canadians can
enable others, our students and our community to embark on the essential task connecting youth and
members of the community to their daily actions and choices. There were several key resources which
helped to create the lesson plans. For organizational partners, teachers can go from the Environment
Canada water page to find local water treatment centres, which will have information about local
organizations to help conserve and protect water. The resources are presented in APA format followed by a
brief description as how the resource was used in the lesson plans. There are some additional resources not
used but which would be useful for the rest of the unit.

References / Resources:
Specific to lessons:
All resources accessed 15 or 17 February 2008.
1) You very own body of water
http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/images/info/facts/e-Body_of_water.htm

2) World’s freshwater supply just a drop in the bucket
http://www.ec.gc.ca/WATER/images/info/facts/e-Available_freshwater.htm

3) Water availability versus population
http://www.ec.gc.ca/WATER/images/info/facts/e-Water_availability.htm

4) A broader perspective on water
http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/images/info/facts/e-Water_poverty_index.htm

5) Aral Sea: Going, going, almost gone
http://www.ec.gc.ca/WATER/images/info/facts/e-Aral_sea.htm

6) Gazing into the water-filled crystal ball
http://www.ec.gc.ca/WATER/images/info/facts/e-Future_water_availability.htm

7) The appropriately named Great Lakes
http://www.ec.gc.ca/WATER/images/info/facts/e-Great_Lakes_profile.htm

8) Canadian Shield no shield against acid rain
http://www.ec.gc.ca/Water/images/info/facts/e-Acid_rain.htm

9) Closing in on 100 percent waterwaste treatment
http://www.ec.gc.ca/Water/images/info/facts/e-Canada_sewage_treatment.htm

10) Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality – Summary Table
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/water-eau/sum_guide-res_recom/chemical-
chimiques_e.html