World Economy
13 Pages
English

World Economy

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Description

  • fiche de synthèse - matière potentielle : statistics for product type
Princeton University Press 1 World Economy Intra-industry trade Intra-industry trade arises if a country simultaneously imports and exports similar types of goods or services. Similarity is identified here by the goods or services being classified in the same “sector”. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that we focus on the sector “cars”. Intra-industry trade then occurs, for example, if Germany exports cars to France and simultaneously imports cars from Italy.
  • world economy intra
  • weighted average grubel-lloyd index for a selection of years
  • weighted average grubel-lloyd index
  • itorisector importexport sec
  • industry trade
  • export value
  • years trade
  • sec sec

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Reads 12
Language English

SIMPLY
HISTORY
1900 to Present
Robert Taggart
























Table of Contents
To the Reader ...................................................... v
Topic 1: A New Century and World War I
Chapter 1: The World Enters the Twentieth Century................... 3
Chapter 2: The World Moves Toward War ........................... 8
Chapter 3: The Great War......................................... 12
Chapter 4: Searching for Peace..................................... 18
Topic 2: The World Between the Wars
Chapter 5: The Western Democracies............................... 25
Chapter 6: Changes in the Middle East, Asia, and Latin America........ 32
Chapter 7: The Rise of Dictators in Europe .......................... 40
Chapter 8: Military Japan and Communist Russia .................... 48
Topic 3: World War II
Chapter 9: The Road to War....................................... 57
Chapter 10: The War Begins and Spreads ........................... 62
Chapter 11: The War Goes Global.................................. 69
Chapter 12: The World After the War............................... 74
Topic 4: The World After World War II
Chapter 13: Europe: Democracy and the Iron Curtain................. 83
Chapter 14: The Middle East and Africa............................. 91
Chapter 15: Asia After the War ................................... 101
Chapter 16: The United States and Latin America ................... 109
Topic 5: The Americas
Chapter 17: The United States and Canada ......................... 117
Chapter 18: Mexico and Central America........................... 128
Chapter 19: The Caribbean....................................... 135
Chapter 20: South America 141
Topic 6: Europe and the Former Soviet Union
Chapter 21: Western Europe ..................................... 151
Chapter 22: Eastern and Central Europe............................ 159
Chapter 23: The Balkans......................................... 165
Chapter 24: The Former Soviet Union.............................. 172
iii
Simply History: 1900 to Present









Table of Contents, continued
Topic 7: The Middle East and Africa
Chapter 25: The Middle East ..................................... 179
Chapter 26: Africa I: Egypt, Libya, Ghana, Ethiopia.................. 194
Chapter 27: Africa II: Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo,
Zimbabwe, South Africa .............................. 202
Topic 8: Asia and Australasia
Chapter 28: The Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia ............ 213
Chapter 29: China............................................... 223
Chapter 30: Japan and Korea ..................................... 230
Chapter 31: Indonesia, the Philippines, and Australasia.............. 235
Appendix....................................................... 243
Glossary 254
Index.......................................................... 283
iv
Simply History: 1900 to PresentTo the Reader
Welcome to Simply History: 1900 to Present. This book reviews key
people, places, and events from the beginning of the twentieth century
to the early years of the twenty-first century.
Topic 1: A New Century and World War I introduces the
changes that marked the end of the nineteenth century. These include
important new inventions and scientific developments, and how the
rise in imperialism and nationalism led to World War I. Finally, you
will read about the end of the war and the creation of the League of
Nations.
Topic 2: The World Between the Wars discusses the period
between World War I and World War II including the worldwide
economic depression, and how many nations became independent.
We will review the rise of communism in China and Russia, the rise of
dictators in Europe, and the growth of imperialism in Japan.
Topic 3: World War II addresses the events that led up to World
War II. You will read about developments in Germany, Italy, and Japan
during the 1930s, and how the League of Nations failed to prevent war.
The course of the war in Europe, Africa, and Asia, and the changes that
followed the war will be highlighted.
Topic 4: The World After World War II deals with events and
developments around the world during the late 1940s and 1950s,
such as the Iron Curtain and Common Market in Europe, the creation
of the state of Israel, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the rise of
independence in Africa and Southeast Asia.
Topic 5: The Americas presents the major events and issues in the
United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and
South America from 1960 to 2004, including the Gulf War, the war in
Afghanistan, and the Iraq War.
v
Simply History: 1900 to PresentTo the Reader, continued
Topic 6: Europe and the Former Soviet Union introduces the
social, political, and economic factors that affected this region from
1960 to early 2005. You will read about the reunification of Germany,
the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the changes in many nations of
Eastern Europe. You will also read about the breakup of Yugoslavia,
the wars that followed, and the new nations that formed in the region.
Topic 7: The Middle East and Africa discusses the geographic,
religious, and economic factors that affect life in this region. We will
review the many types of government found here and the sources of
unrest in the area. We will also discuss how oil has affected economies
in much of the Middle East and about the contrast between rich and
poor nations in Africa.
Topic 8: Asia and Australasia addresses the way nations in this
region adjusted to independence after colonial rule. The tensions
between India and Pakistan, the war in Vietnam, and governments in
Cambodia and Burma will be covered. You will read about changes in
communist China, in North Korea and South Korea, and in Indonesia,
the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand.
vi
Simply History: 1900 to PresentChapter 1: The World Enters the
Twentieth Century
Inventions Change the World
In the early years of the twentieth century, new inventions changed
business and industry. They changed people’s lives, too. Advances in
science brought new understanding of the world we live in, and people
gained new knowledge about human beings and human nature.
The first really big change was the use of electricity. The American
Thomas Edison perfected the lightbulb in 1879. Then he found ways to
transmit electric power through a system of lines. An Edison system lit
up New York City in 1882. Edison developed the generator, which used
electric power to run huge industrial machines. A factory could now be
built anywhere, because it no longer needed waterpower. Cities became
cleaner as electric trolleys replaced manure-producing horses.
Inventions helped people communicate much more easily, too.
Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone in 1876. (Bell was a
Scotsman who lived in the United States.) U.S. President Rutherford
B. Hayes had a telephone put in the White House in 1878. Networks of
telephones spread across the country and around the world. By 1900,
1.5 million telephones were in the United States alone.
Guglielmo Marconi was a young Italian inventor. He developed a way
to send messages using radio waves instead of wires. He sent a wireless
telegraph or radio message across the Atlantic Ocean in 1901. In 1904,
the vacuum tube was invented. Now radios could play music and human
voices in people’s homes. During the 1920s, radio broadcasts came into
millions of homes worldwide, every day.
Transportation also became modern during this time. Different
inventors in both Europe and the United States developed gasoline
engines that powered the automobile. In Germany, Karl Benz and Gottlieb
Daimler were auto pioneers. In France, Louis Renault was a pioneer. In
America, Charles and Frank Duryea built one of the earliest automobiles in
1893. Henry Ford followed in 1896.
3
Chapter 1: The World Enters the Twentieth Century • Simply History: 1900 to PresentFord had the biggest impact on the automobile industry. First, he
designed a simple, reliable, and affordable car. It was called the Model T.
(It came in one color only: black.) To make his cars, Ford created the
assembly line. Car frames moved past workers as they put the cars
together. Cars were made twice as quickly with assembly lines. As a result,
almost anyone could afford to buy a Model T.
Another huge change in transportation began in 1903. The Americans
Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first powered and sustained airplane
flight that year. The airplane industry was born. Planes played a part in
World War I. In the 1920s, they began carrying mail and then passengers.
These advances had an important impact on people’s daily lives.
Middle-class homes were now safely lit with electric lights. People played
music on Edison’s new invention, the phonograph. Edison added more
enjoyment to people’s lives when he improved motion picture technology
in the 1890s. People around the world flocked to theaters to watch movies
in the early 1900s. Movies became even better when sound was added to
them in 1927. George Eastman brought photography to the world. He put
his simple Kodak box camera on the market in 1888.
Breakthroughs in Science
During the 1800s, scientists made many discoveries. They learned that
matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. Soon, this idea became
part of physics, which is the study of matter and energy. Then, in 1897, J. J.
Thomson of England discovered the electron. An electron is an even tinier
particle that is part of an atom. In 1898, Marie Curie and Pierre Curie of
France studied radioactive elements. These elements change all the time by
throwing off tiny particles.
Next, Ernest Rutherford of England found that the atom has a nucleus,
or core. He also found more tiny particles within atoms. He called them
protons. He studied atoms by splitting them apart with radioactive
particles. This led to nuclear physics. Later, scientists learned more about
the nuclear structure of atoms. They were able to create power and bombs
by smashing atomic nuclei. By World War II, scientists had built the
world’s first bomb.
4
Topic 1: A New Century and World War I • Simply History: 1900 to PresentScientific discoveries did not stop there. Two other men moved physics
in new directions. Max Planck of Germany showed that energy was
released in definite units. He called each of these packages of energy a
quantum. This was a very new concept. Another German, Albert Einstein,
explained how a small mass can become a huge amount of energy. He also
came up with the theory of relativity. This theory explains atomic events in
terms of motion, space, and time. Other scientists used Einstein’s ideas to
learn more about atomic energy, which became very important later in the
twentieth century.
New Knowledge About Human Beings
Scientists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries also studied
living things. Charles Darwin developed his theory of evolution in the mid-
1800s. This theory explained why living creatures changed over millions of
years. A monk in Austria named Gregor Mendel wondered about this, too.
He studied pea plants in the mid-1800s. learned a lot about how
certain characteristics are passed on from a parent plant to its offspring.
Other scientists finally found out about Mendel’s work around 1900.
They found threadlike structures, called chromosomes, in plant and
animal cells. Mendel had believed that these particles existed but had not
been able to find them. These twentieth-century scientists also discovered
that each chromosome contains many genes. They discovered that genes
give a person (or other animal or plant) his or her own characteristics.
Later in the twentieth century, scientists found out much more about
chromosomes and genes.
Other scientists learned new things about human and animal behavior.
Ivan Pavlov was a Russian biologist who studied dogs. He trained dogs to
water at the mouth when he rang a bell. This is called a conditioned reflex.
Pavlov had conditioned his dogs to respond in a certain way to a particular
stimulus.
A new science called psychology developed in the late 1800s.
Psychology is the study of the human mind. The American John Watson
applied what Pavlov had learned to psychology. Watson called his system
behaviorism. Behaviorism suggests that all human behavior is a response of
the nervous system to stimuli from the world that a person lives in.
5
Chapter 1: The World Enters the Twentieth Century • Simply History: 1900 to PresentSigmund Freud of Austria is probably the world’s most famous
psychologist. He developed a new idea about human behavior in the early
1900s. Freud studied the thought processes that go on without a person
being aware of them. Freud called this type of study psychoanalysis. Not
all of Freud’s ideas are accepted today. But they had a huge impact on
psychology.
The New Industrial World
It was no accident that so much new technology came out in the early
twentieth century. Starting in the late 1800s, companies began setting up
research centers. One of the first was in Germany. The German chemical
industry wanted to find the best ways to use the latest science. Thomas
Edison set up one of the first research labs in the United States. Alexander
Graham Bell’s telephone company soon did, too.
Science went to work for industry in these research laboratories.
Companies paid scientists to work in the labs. In return, the company
owned the rights to whatever a scientist might discover while at work.
The people who lived and worked in this new industrial world were
much more connected to the outside world than earlier people had been.
News from around the world arrived in a flash. Newspapers, radio, and
telephone lines kept people informed daily.
Transportation systems also drew people together. Railroads then
crisscrossed North America. In Russia, railroads carried people over great
distances between Siberia and Moscow. As more and more people owned
cars, networks of highways were built. Families could travel easily. Trucks
could bring more goods to more places. Canals shortened shipping times.
Trade between nations increased. Production was up, so manufacturers
needed new markets in other nations. They also needed raw materials
from other countries.
This modern industrial economy didn’t grow at the same rate
everywhere in the world. The countries of Western Europe, such as Great
Britain and France and Germany, were very industrial. So was the United
States. Southern, Central, and Eastern Europe were less developed. Much
of their economy continued to be based on farming.
6
Topic 1: A New Century and World War I • Simply History: 1900 to PresentThe same thing was true in much of Latin America, Africa, and Asia.
Nations and colonies in these areas had little industry. Most of their
people lived in rural areas and were poor farmers. Japan, however, had
begun changing over to a modern economy in the 1880s. By 1910, it was a
strong industrial country.
The lives of people in the industrial nations were quite different
from those in rural nations. Western Europeans, for example, generally
had more and better food, clothing, and shelter than their parents or
grandparents had. They could usually change jobs if they wanted to. Rural
peasants in countries such as India, however, remained tied to the land.
They had few choices about how they could lead their lives. They often did
not have enough food, clothing, or shelter.
The lives of women who lived in the industrial nations in the early
1900s changed in extra ways. Little by little, new jobs opened up for
women after 1900. More women were able to work in medicine, the law,
industry, and other areas. They were no longer as tied to the home as they
once had been. They could buy ready-made clothes and other goods at
department stores instead of staying home and making them. Prepared
foods cut down on cooking chores. During World War I, women worked
to keep war-related businesses running. They showed clearly that they
were important and capable citizens. Women gained the right to vote in
most western democracies during and after the war.
The industrial countries were wealthy and powerful and developed
strong military forces. They wanted control of markets in which they sold
their goods and where they bought raw materials. Tensions grew among
these strong nations. Weaker and less powerful countries resented them.
These problems eventually led to World War I.
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Chapter 1: The World Enters the Twentieth Century • Simply History: 1900 to Present