Section II Writing One-Best-Answer Questions forthe Basic and ...

Section II Writing One-Best-Answer Questions forthe Basic and ...

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  • mémoire - matière potentielle : factual information
  • mémoire
  • exposé
  • cours - matière potentielle : action
  • mémoire - matière potentielle : for isolated facts
Section IIWriting One-Best-Answer Questionsfor the Basic and Clinical Sciences ™ The previous chapters outlined technical issues related to the construc- tion of multiple-choice questions. Section II focuses on item content.
  • length as the correct answer
  • application of knowledge
  • application knowledge
  • basic science
  • patient description
  • findings
  • item
  • items
  • answer

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ALBRECHT.GRETCHEN Hru&**
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e,{Xffi3J.XXS&K3KkXffiryW THE ONETWO
THE TEN THOUSAND THINGS
by Linda Gill
years For 22 I have had on my wall pencil a drawing by Gretchen
Albrecht. It is of a winged woman plant. plant and a The is almost
in the centre, the woman is fitted into the left hand side. She
stares downwards, out of the frame to the left, away from the
you plant, seeing nothing but her own thoughts. feel she ought to
plant be looking at the that picture shares the with her, instead of
turning away from it. Her right arm lies loosely across her naked
body, hinting at the antique pose pudenda. of the Venus But she
does not conform to that convention either and the arm falls to
conceal the black scribble of pubic hair.
The artist's hand holding a thick pencil black is almost tangibly
present in the drawing: clean strong lines form limbs and torso,
black smudges the breasts, the pencil swoops and curls to
describe wings, leaves and stem, or shoots outwards with the hair
streaming away from the head. The left eye is sharply focused,
almond-eastern, the right is vacant, round like a fish's: two
distinct signs for eyes adding up to a complex meaning.
Ilook at the drawing often. The vigour pencil of the marks hasUntitled drawing 1964
not been diluted by familiarity, and the meaning of the figure
remains part part enigmatic, angel, insect, poised between
strength partaking and fragility, of both. As an image of a woman
it hangs between a familiar convention and a new one still in the
making.
t-16 Gretchen Albrecht exhibited fifty drawings similar to this in
24,26t7-25, 1964, a year after leaving art school and there is also a series of
paintings. related Her work at this time was all figurative, the
protagonist always a woman and the woman was often nude.
Although there are echoes of Picasso and Matisse in the
treatment of form, Albrecht's nudes are different in emotional
'other',content. For her, passive the nude is not a object, an
recipient of emotions ranging from delight to hatred; the nude is
sublect, actively point engaged, is up to a herself, or- - ,JIA'lsaJalul uEtxoli\e se pe^t^lns sPt{ oq^\ ]O aq laluled tsnru Jo
a[]e]sqo,'ruaql ueuofi\ sr apnreJoJeq a^eq sJeluled e eJll eql ,aJPJ Jo
'euo^Ja^a'alouJaLIUnC uaeq seq q)nu os uaqfl\ aq] ualllll( lnoqe
']eql 'rffio1oqt[u sluroJ o]ula)tlt a^Eq ot ot Sutqteuos "laqloleuorl(
^es ,taqt rnoq't1a1 ,tldaap uloJsueJl aql u,t11err;rrads saruartadxa ,aleuaJ,
'epnusuollE)o^a,,put{ e o] pue'(1) alet-,(tleJ puetsJapun Jo Jo ,,p1totrt
',slua^a, eql {\ou{ 'aiaslleal o1 ,(1uo a{} aJe sllot\ er{} ueq] aJou }eq} JI
'ratel 8u1qt,iue ueql Selrsl plp aqs ot lerrqdelBolqotne]uet:odurl u JO
'taqtaSolles,lq)elqtV lalel\oH ur srr{:ale slloin ,i1:ea aJou
^lllaJIp os sl tuolJaq ,teur xalduor ll p:e8arsrp ol asl/n ll ]eql ,(qde:Eorq
aqJpa,rt1 Sutaq aJIl aql ueefiueq aqt ulaql pue sa8:aua ue Iu![ teqt
'raluted puee ueuo,ll
'1sed aql uI seeplJaq 3ur4eu sl uaa1{ilie se qled ut\o lL{)alqlv ueuot\
'uaql qll^\ pue pauotlsanbsa8eu1 eql arnBr;passardxa aneq asoqt ]eq1
'sn 'asle SulqlaurosslooJ 3ur1eu seq sIspapt pegdacry are Jo
sJI ',Jo, pue Butddlls Eut8ueql pue ,teme llqeq olur Jo ,Jaqlle,
:Saql 'Jlastl [1t1ea: arn]'eu ]noqe OfiU qloq eq o1 ,icuapua] sll ISeJo
'uaql 'pesn)uae^uaq suol]elal[aql puv o1 aqt puolaq aqotd leuos:ad
>1seaql suotlsanb rreq arpue uaul elnleu aql pue uauot\ ]noqe Jo
'^lllueptq]ta slIsBurlaal ot [aq1 xas a]rsoddo aqt ]uale^lque ]noqe
'osro]eJe slJor\\ asaqJueuo/Y\ 8uno,t e qlt^\ o1 Sututeal lnoqe Ieap
:slooJ'[lSurpuaqardurocun ]aqioue elaql\asla [1qt3uruo s{oo[ [ooJ
eetql e)e uery est/vl 9eo] dn pessalp uauo/r\ ro s:alsa[ eIIt lool
:lseag s,r(1neag a111 slle:s{seu ,teur :o ,(eu aldoad ol ar{l Sutreern aq tou
'{lnI :s]ueld slseeq olul aqs 'Sutceuau saullauos ]nalqerlrd saul]euos
:pJIq olul paulo;suer1 Sutaq paleuooJ uauot\ aql aq ol ulees Sururn]
pue'1ue1d aq ol suaes pea:o e olul Sutu:nl sr aqt sdeq:ad 1ue1d Jo
'(;suroq lo)pltq e sl ol sno:a8uep aq [eru ]l tqalsrenoq to saqctad leq]
oqmuPuI asla\ e aq a{l u,e aIlI qulo) e seq tq8tu peaq srLl uo s,[a]al)ol
'atuool'slueld lo tuoJJ ul eVS st;1E Surra;;o ]t{3U ueu papleoq e 1o UaI
'Sutlatnbstp,ieru oqin sra8uerlS 'qtoq 'ao; lo puelll aq lsourllsdeqrad
eqlseunsse UPtuoA\ ueqlleplJofi\ P ul selol sfem1e st lualaJllp ]eql
'(ueofieyU ',tratsr(u aW ozz1yl) Llrar{ arerne ,{11n;aa1B pue tamod Jo
'(s{sPlv pay) qrlrm e sl aqs sdeqta6 atIllW uewoy prezr^\ e ro
'[rey1 'ualepSeyrl ',ueuolt\e ]o e - ,(1lu1es e lo reqlou aqloq
'lralo:d ptlql e seq aqs saullauospue JoJ aJe) ol e aqs sl la[]els
ueuol\ eql 'par st sluled ur passelp ]q)alqlV
'Sulluted ',repla, auopa8pa ar{} lsoule 1no Jo
'sa[a 'dn 3ut[rd'peqrosqe-J1as paq)unq stls pue lnq ,t1uo sr aleq] SI
auos ut padeldslp touaql to; asod uorlellelap leuol]ue^uol Jo
antssed qeuuesns ul apnu 6lJaplE aql pue sr ueuoff\ aql ,pellasqo,
'ueutomfraraueqh\ ua^E 3u!]ulpd sl Iltuaredde aql 1q)aJqlv
OA1I 3HJ 3NO 3HJCNVSNOHJ N3I 3HJ S)NIHJ THE ONE THE TWO THE TEN THOUSAND THINCS
Briefly then, at the end of year her first at art school, aged 17,
Albrecht became pregnant and during l96l was ill with toxaemia,
eventually confined to bed. Unable to attend life classes, she
painted the only model available, pregnant. herself, The paintings
were unacceptable to most of her teachers and she failed that
section of the course. In 1962, married, with a child, she
"in described herself as being a daze... the only decision Iam
aware of making for myself was that I had to keep on at art
(2). school" The marriage ended years, after five leaving her with
the task of supporting herself and her son.
It is perhaps surprising that the work emerging from these
experiences is not bleaker, more bitter. Uneasy it certainly is, but
narrow negative emotions are submerged beneath the poetic
power of the mythology Albrecht invents, its theatricality and
touches of playfulness, as if life were grasped in all its tragicomic
fullness. The painting that moves furthest out into a statement
about the human rather than specifically female condition,
Shelter me, brother fool, suggests rueful recognition of the fact
that life can be full of despair, that we are alone. . . and slightly
ludicrous. The image has such a mature breadth of vision that it
comes as a shock to remember that Albrecht was only 20 when
painted she it.
Although these paintings are sombre, almost claustrophobic in
atmosphere they are also sumptuous, full of enioyment of the
qualities of thickly paint. applied oil The darkness is shot through
with intense contrasts, a red dress, a red beast, bird or flower
flares out of the gloom, or dark figures enact their drama before a
red backdrop. Albrecht alters traditional content but her handling
paint of remains within the expressionist tradition. It can stand
comparison with the tough neo-expressionist surfaces of the
1980s and looked particularly raw and robust in the early 1960s.
"My work different from the other students', in subject M
liMmatter and style. My pregnancy, the marriage, the baby, all those
events had a very positive effect on me. I grew up so fast, and the
work drew strength from that. When Ifailed painting the section
in year my second I had to take extra drawing as a requirement
getting for that part passed the following year. Allen wasIim
running drawing classes from i-7 at night. They were wonderful
classes. We cut off large paper sheets of and worked on table tops
paint in black with big brushes. We drew the life model. He
encouraged large bold confident drawings and it totally liberated
(3)my work."
6it,
'se^ue)aJe sa:nlsa8 eqi Sutqrlef, slralqo aq] ul leql auo luelaqut
palerac'JIe sadeqsaIII aLIl ul SutBueq :o reded uo s{ieu 1etlualod
0H 'a^ou ,(lluelsuor ele spueq JaH lel3ur,real aql uo lueua^lo^ulrealr
sdol a1rulaler{1 spuallJ Suoue eues aql sl Itel Iense] 1ecrs,{qd
seq (q) ur ltrqeJ Sutq],itane ll lnJrapu;o ,,'lt
sell\ uee punolatqel Sutssalp pue ]uqeJ a{rl Surqir(ue ll l,useop 1a[ Iool
lueuaretllll aqlalorls 3ut133ttm paraqleB Sutqrtrsap lured ;o leualeuJ
uorllas[at8'a1qel Sutssatp'lrlseluel sJeaus A\oH )tultll Ipue'1ured Jo - aql puE'eIolls L{snlq sseusnolnuallslleu slnuJnu e s,aleLIJ Jo Jo Ileus &alleg uV asoql llaql ul Sutnoutpue au loJ Ilaql qlll\ op ol s,lt lualuo) Ieuolloula ,fir3 puellcny eqt Jo lto)'sut13Pog
'l16t :ltEllrod sa)ueu 0J!1 lralqns:pleuuog Sutleeds :9,,'se^uef, JIasstg,, lllls ,tldaap a:e sButluted ;o
's0961
,'sleaus pue sa8no8 aqlq:ns 3utleu aql uo slleu snoa8ernol
eqt :uo)eB slluell Jo's8ur3un1 pue a,retq snouJoue asoqJ,, sButBunld
' puels L',par{sets, ',pata11e1ds,sIIel aqS sBurluted aqt Jo ,pa,(e:ds, ;o
3u rlpue',paqseA\, ',pallolq, 'JJo ',paurels, ',ue{orq, ro',paBpnus, ',paqqotq,
e aroJe(:Ilo1t\ ud\o laq ul sl leql lueua^lo^uluo,pade:rs, sr luapl^e lured
ia^\olJuo sluauulol laHeql sseJls sraluted laqlo snoroBt,r, 1errs,(qd
qBnotq.'purru fl\ell laq ul Sutluted[poq eq] s,(ein1e st aql se se io 1e^\
er.{1 seqlllsep aqs Jool E se leq^\pooD ptlot\ aql l1a;, ,asuodsat
ur )rqol'lnoqBnorqt ol epnlllle pue Sutluted luaJSISuolr{ll^\ op ol seq 1l
uolJ srea,{ []uaml Sutop st aqs leq^\ lualeJJIpB sr eleLIl'ra]e1
uaq^\ qBnoqtlV 0pue sButluted ,t1rea s,1L{]alqlV [ran uraas sBurmetp
(7) ]t teqlP1tortt,,
,iltqBt set\ sula)uo) 1sqllfi\ dn punoq [lqerttlxaut ]nq eql aql lsal Jo
aq:l)eJ 'Ie]ol ol se^\ sleloq)sol [1uo pautluo] aq lou lo leuot8ar Ieuorleu
'uorlrpuaH aluessleuedlno auI pue slsllJe se e)ueltlaqul leql lqBnel
'anbsaueuoS luaualrpue ql€l aql le{)aB-u t.{osrapoy\[rn]uar LItrl aqt pue s:atured uerlel
'9061 etned lreluod JIes crruoorEpulul [1te1oqrs[ro]trtat peloleq slq la^o Sutueor eql Jo
pue ,itls,alueJfl\el lnqllv,,aloul se^\ aluanlJul slq'.(lllallpul ltaJ
rrlaod'JIasraq prlos,(ltuanbola os 3u11eads salotls luted lalqel ;o ;o
'sr rtnq 'slralqo aBelquasse passeu e ur :aqlaSol leuosted 1o ,sut13pog
asaql rfl\ot{ aru Sutmoqs'[ta11e3toqdelar.u asn plnol euo Surlured ut -
palle) sutlSpogaL{l ul eln ,i]1f, puell)nV ltetltod UV tt!lS J/aS -
t{1la lalpoojs aq pue'''[eunelaq,{q ul au sa)ueJl Surlured }eql luojJ Jo
'.laIle8-utiosJapoy\ uelel'zltrtrttQ) 'Jalunw aqle) alatJqeD etuos
iue ucI dq sBuriured suotlonpordarpleeq la^eu peq slslue elned 1o I Jo - 'pleqs 'raueu-lralqns rit-u pooqleqlou uollenllspalnpollut se ol eu Jo
peaql leql ut Surop sem pue;1as[u 3u1sn pue te[ur ls8utluted 59 2961
rlurr'slalnllal sBu 'leray\ pue .letary uo^ uo1'alual^\e'l Jnquv Un) 3ur1oo1
'saaqs aql qllA\ seaslelo uloJJdrolsrq uelueuv aql ue Jo Ie^llle
'erulaexse au uo eluanlJul a^l]lul;appa8utm ue ur fiem s1t ]uepnls lle
'/ paSr:s[em sJat{)eal Jai{1O I ut aJa^\ lJe le aq1,, luelaJJIp 1n;d1aq [oot]ls
3HI 3NO 3HJCNVSOOHJ N3I 3HI O,TI SSNIHJ THE ONE THE TWO THE TEN THOUSAND THINCS
looks at. or she is on her feet acting out some episode with the
whole body. As a teacher she watched a painting student jasmine
leaf, petal, leaf, petal and said,',tt,s not really like that, is- -
it? It's.. ." and made quick a quivering gesture with hand tirted
up and fingers curled, perfectly summing up the starry clustering
and frothiness of iasmine, showing how you might respond with
'feeringry'. the body and paint 'rargeThe encouragement to make
bold confident drawings' exactry suited her instinctive way of
working.
Conference Table 1967
The paintings of rg6i-6g continue to use the figure, but it is
drained of autobiographicar content. rn Conference (t96T)Tabre
politicians the seem to be deliberately chosen because they are
so far removed from her own rife that there is possibirity no of
identifying with them. They have onry the outward form of human
beings and, detached from them, Arbrecht can concentrate on the
issues of composition, subtre corour and tone rerationships. The
polo player in The Wooden (l96T)is Horse hardly more than a
pretext for exquisite porsolt areas "theof colour. LV. wrote of
infinitely tender passages', tonal in these paintings, and
suggested "real that Albrecht's paintership" lay there rather than
with the significance of the figures themselves. (6)
With the decreasing importance of the figure goes a
heightening of colour' it becomes lighter, non-naturalistic. The
I
i
8'c'satltldue or{I ',terure uaql pue salertlduroc o1 ared o] sur8aq ,!rre1r
B SeC'Iro/r\ e saqsrlqelsaanulluol uqldqt 3qs s,lqrarqlv ul leql ttll\
laue olpnls aql'eplstno polred aql esealal pue uopaarJ Jo
ueql riaqJeJou e o] sloopul Eur>1:oin pautldtrstp luaua^ou ur lo,teirr
pued11n1t1neaq,,,ture pue (8) aJII-ueqi-ra8:e1 lua8utrlse ,,aJlt-ltns
a!1,, aql uorllqlqxepuet{]nv le 1re se paqrrlsap sem'[:a11eg trv
'slut:douour^l1f, 'aug e ueqlpueleaz it\eN ul Sunq 3uno1 serreroduraluo3
's(aql 'auaql aql uo sese^uef,se pue slnolo)lalE^\ se ,qlo[]'elqP], llaa
eql uopuE 3ut:nqpellqlr{xe a8rel sarras e }qlelqtv L oL6l I Jo
'lnololjale/l\ pue ueunq,iretpeuut ;o
,{llllplnol aqs,tern slq] ul ct1[rreaql ol aso1r,ila,r aruol Jo ,tcuaredsue:l
'u/y\oqs pue are i(alpeq leleqlua{uerl ualaH punoJ Sursn r(q ]q)arqtv ler{t
(t96r)'seluel a^ee^\se paurtldun aqtl s:aluted uellJeuv srno'l srJJolAI Jo
aqs s! Sutsn ala^\ 1l 1lJalal\oq cl1[trv']uled aql olul ulels lured 1to 1l^\
alqrssod:aded Eursn paurrd uo pallolt\ aqs 1y se seluel lsllJ Jr
ule uo alels sno:aua8 alou lnq'lnoloJlele^\ eq plnoff\ ueql
uo popatqeua qllqA\'se^uef, palured se,tlaar; se o] laq eqs luted
€e)uls L'.1'uaaq peq rr1,fuce peuulql Sutsn lqlarqlv uEqt Jaqter 0l,6l
'a)ueJelln rtt[1 euotsserdulI ue sa,rr8 sseluoJJa ]aod ;o
eql slee)uo) reqtel'1r pacnpo:d seq leq] sp ]eql IIIIS
^]laueluodspue slle]saal E ut se^eaI L{snJq e'salolls Iensec,tlluatedde E
.i,:slJeu aq} ue'sa{eu lnoqeeJll oqt ezles ol ,ttillqe lqlerqlv Jo
'1'Ie]uatro esaql ulue st alaql sllo^\ r$r1enb rtqdet8tller [[e
'suleunJ lo sfi\opulrh'st{loll'alqel
r(1a1elaqt1aplnolo) seeJe Sutsoduroo uaas eq ptno) se leql Jo
e uo sloopurqlot) allqI\ 'punor8lreq patnolo) e lsute8e
'uellel o1 ue8eq aLIS uaqJpue olel a8ue::e seleal untunlseu
'raqlaSolle steeddestP
aulolaq seqeq] uolJ alqeqslnBullstpul ,(11eury pue aderspueI
(f)',,poqlau raqselJst alnBt; aqJ lods-aql-uo ]t tnq tuasa:d 11r1s
'uap:eB aql ut aptslno t9-9n'rasooI ,tlsnotcsuoc,, e sp]e^\o] Sutltoitt
er{s Suttnq 0n-vtsallas e paluled I/-0161 ]srJ'slnololJale^{ Jo [[e Jo
'unrpau pue,(1asoo1 patldde eq uelse Surmerp e tsoule',itptntJ
seq lnolo)]e]e1\uaaq sfem1e asne)aq ol }ueltodurl ]r{)eJqtv lt
're^o fen0Ie sallln)lJJtp ;o
'uapte8 ilaq sle^\olJ aE:e1. aql saoul aug eq] leql Jo ]slot\ Jo leuos:ad
'adecspuel 'splealno LlI^\ p'saneal eql pue saall aqt le pue selqeteBa,r
'a)uls r:a1ss,tqra:qlV pauloJul 3u :a,ra Sutluted 3u11oo1 1r\ou selr\ aqS
patltl e^eq a,r11etn3t; dlteaaql o1 rten uantS seq ursrctr,tl Ileq] IlolY\
sr 'leq:ar{J aJe s8utlaa;)lleueJp lualaJJlp eql satltlenb a,rtlcadsorlul Jo
'sseusnotredsaqJ EUIUTST'3ur1aa; qll^\ pa8reql ale s{ro^\ aql lnq II[ts
ql!a]ou ale soleJlns aql ue st alaql pue snouttunI yo 3ur1aa; [[e]a^o
3NO 3HJN3I 3HJ O/TJ 3HI SDNIHJ ONVSNOHJ THE TEN THOUSAND THINGSTHE ONE THE TWO
is like between two kinds of truths,and condense. It swinging
reality and the'one',between the'ten thousand things'of outer
particular (9) at a kindthe underlying unity. Once she has arrived
process complication begins again.of simplicity, the of
to leave out more and more ofFrom the early 1970s she began
The lines bounding thethe elements of the still-life. straight
in begin to dip andareas of colour the'table-cloth'paintings
The bands across the top of worksbend, the rectangles disappear.
Horizon or Table-cloth in Yellow Space become thelike Grey
swelling shapes that lie behind the foliage-suggestingorganic
'garden' paintings marks of the of l97l-3. Gradually the52-16 brush
gestures, the individual brush strokes disappear and bysmaller
gestures pools 1974 the only left were those which swept of58-67
colour into broad horizontal shapes reminiscent of sea, land and
sky.
"characteristic Martin Edmond spoke of her low-slung curve. .
pylons, like the sag in high tension wires slung between or the
(10) belly of a cloud." Like the shapes, the colours were those of
gradations, nature, but heightened, with subtle startling
virtuosoharmonies and contrasts. Look for example at the
pinks, purples inhandling of the shifts between reds, mauves and
yellow at the bottomi7,62 works like Rainfall or Sky Clearing, with the
green lemon orcooling beside the dark above it and turning to
in ochre below; or in Summer Harvest, where the red the upperT4
green differenthalf caught between and mauve is somehow of a
piled yellows, the lower half oforder from the oranges and reds of
painting. paintings as a superbthe In these Albrecht emerges
colourist.
painterly and colours to create a realityShe controls the shapes
planemovement on the flat that can be experienced as and space
It is similar to that of Matisse. The eyeof the canvas. a space
press colours recede or advance, heavilysweeps down, across, up;
paperwhite like glimpses of or take flight; the of the canvas acts
watercolour, to breathe light and space into the paintedin a
shape in its own right. The canvases have becomeareas, or as a
feet tall or six feet wide, related to the size of thelarge, six
human body and the reach of the arm.
point The landscape remains the starting for all Albrecht's
gatherpaintings time. She regularly went back'outside'to at this
information. With a pile of watercolour paper stretched up ready67-6s
went Auckland's West Coast or the Manukau Harbour andshe to
quick watched go out, the cloudsmade studies as she the tide 11
spnol)p[]o1t\ aql slsaSSnsSut,rour [1ssa1pua er{t sa[]tued }eqt Jo
pue rn(']ualsauena ue sl elaqJsIJolrt eseqt ul [1t1enb snoutunl ler{l
c'areds rtpeat pue 3ut,rea,t ,{3:auapa1111-rq311 3ut:auu;tqs e Surqqam
raqleB'JnoloJ Japun Jnolol sllellaII[ ]aqlo stadel sluallnl Jo Jo Jo
'xa1du-toc 'suotleutwnll s,lqlarr3u11eu slnuals qllt\ sBullured altqns
'08paluted aqs uaa^ueg r8 peler eqs sl:oir sarles e 8L-LL6l teqt Jo
eqt Jo
q)ley!'r8uetrltl9/61 auoJa(
palute(
raded
3
r(ltrreaq
ala aq
aueld 1
[1r1ear
qradns
Jo Jleq
tueralJ
raddn'xalduoc 'uaql punolseleJlns aql pue arour Suturolaq alou
'eull lo uouslt{l Sutop se^'\ ale ]nolo) sta,{e1 1e }qlalqlvpue re^o preI ;o
r,uollo(aqltaql uo Sutpuels uees pue setpnls aql ul u^\o s8urmerp
u r sald'sa^eaI e)uo peq selorls pue pue s{[els pat;tuBts ]eq] ue) [[eus
osonuar{J'lted e deld o1 sesea)a8tel rUa,r aIII ele saulI eq] suorsJel Jo
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