A Primer of GIS Fundamental Geographic and Cartographic Concepts shared by Eugène Dongmo A.
321 Pages
English

A Primer of GIS Fundamental Geographic and Cartographic Concepts shared by Eugène Dongmo A.

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A PRIMER OF GIS A PRIMER OF FUNDAMENTAL GEOGRAPHIC AND CARTOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS THE GUILFORD PRESS New YorkLondon Francis Harvey © 2008 The Guilford Press A Division of Guilford Publications, Inc. 72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012 www.guilford.com All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher. Printed in the United States of America This book is printed on acid-free paper. Last digit is print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Harvey, Francis (Francis James) A primer of GIS : fundamental geographic and cartographic concepts / Francis Harvey. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-59385-565-9 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-59385-565-6 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN-13: 978-1-59385-566-6 (hardcover: alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-59385-566-4 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Geographicinformation systems.2. Cartography.I. Title. G70.212.H38 2008 910.285—dc22 2007050932 A bo u tt he Au th oA r bo u tt he Au th o r About the Author Francis Harveyis Associate Professor of Geography at the University of Minnesota.

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A PRIMER OF GIS
A
PRIMER
OF
FUNDAMENTAL GEOGRAPHIC AND CARTOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS
THE GUILFORD PRESS New York London
Francis Harvey
© 2008 The Guilford Press A Division of Guilford Publications, Inc. 72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012 www.guilford.com
All rights reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
This book is printed on acidfree paper.
Last digit is print number:
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Harvey, Francis (Francis James) A primer of GIS : fundamental geographic and cartographic concepts / Francis Harvey. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN13: 9781593855659 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN10: 1593855656 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN13: 9781593855666 (hardcover: alk. paper) ISBN10: 1593855664 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Geographic information systems. 2. Cartography. I. Title. G70.212.H38 2008 910.285—dc22 2007050932
A b o u t t h e A u t h o A r b o u t t h e A u t h o r
About
the
Author
Francis Harveyis Associate Professor of Geography at the University of Min nesota. He has also worked at the University of Kentucky and at a variety of academic and professional positions in Germany, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. He has taught GIS courses in other academic and profes sional programs around the world. His research is wide ranging, with a cur rent focus on governance of land and spatial data infrastructures. He received his doctorate in 1996 from the University of Washington for research on GIS overlay.
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P r e f a c e P r e f a c e
Preface
The idea behind this book is simple: to put in the hands of people interested in geographic information systems (GIS), geographic information science, and geospatial science and engineering a book that provides a broad prepa ration for later work with geographic information,regardless of background. Accordingly, this book explains, with a pragmatic approach, the concepts and practices of geographic information that underpin GIS. It covers what and how geographic information represents, analyzes, and communicates about human and environmental activities and events on our planet. In order to serve a broad array of readers, this book has four parts that, read sequentially, build on each other to offer a successively deeper under standing of GIS. Part I introduces the most basic concepts of cartography and GIS; Part II goes into more detail to offer an overview of the fundamen tals of cartography and GIS; Part III focuses on specific techniques and prac tices; Part IV looks at geographic information analysis and sketches out some of the exciting new GIS developments. Each part, or individual chapters, can be read separately or together with other parts or chapters for courses, semi nars, training, and workshops to learn about specific conceptual or practical issues. Most readers should start with the first chapter to make sure they under stand the key concepts of geographic representation and cartographic repre sentation. The other parts and chapters can be read as an instructor suggests or as fits your needs best. Given the breadth of GIS and the diversity of peo ple reading this book, and its modular structure, some parts of the book repeat other parts: the repeated material may be well known to some read ers, but useful to other readers who need different explanations. The access point sidebars in some chapters provide detailed practical examples of how people use geographic information; example sidebars focus on relevant aspects of examples; exercises allow you to apply theories and concepts to learn skills; indepth sidebars offer practically oriented detailed
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discussion of theories and concepts. To assist your reading and learning, you will also find Internet links at the end of each chapter to help you find exam ples that are relevant to your interests or learning needs. This book provides a conceptual introduction to GIS without requiring the use of GIS software. Through practical examples and exercises, regard less of your educational background or interests, you will find in this book detailed introductions to the theories, concepts, and skills you will need to prepare for working with GIS.
Acknowledgments
Many people are explicitly connected to the writing of this book; many more implicitly. Above all I am happy to thank Martin Galanda for discussions in conjunction with the GEOG 1502 course we teach at the University of Min nesota. My other colleagues in the Department of Geography have been helpful on many occasions, particularly Mark Lindberg, Jonathan Schroeder, and Julia Rauchfuss, who were a great aid in preparing many of the figures. Over the years, numerous discussions with colleagues from the University Consortium of Geographic Information Science have led to the refinement of many of the concepts and skills I cover in this book. Colleagues and friends from around the world have also helped me out in various ways. I thank the following people for discussions and contributions: Adam Iwaniak, Marek Baranowski, Brett Black, Omair Chaudhry, Nathan Clough, Jason Dykes, Dietmar Grünreich, Peter Fisher, Randy Johnson, Chris Lloyd, William Mackaness, Robert McMaster, Lori Napoleon, A nnamaria OrlaBukowska, and Nick Tate. I most of all want to thank Alicja Piasecka and Anna Piasecka for their support during the many hours spent writing and revising this book. Without their help I could not have written this book; any misinterpreta tions or errors in the presentations or translations remain my sole responsi bility.
C o n t e n t Cs o n t e n t s
Contents
PART I
Communication and Geographic Understanding
Chapter 1 Goals of Cartography and GI: Representation and Communication
Chapter 2 Choices in How We Make Representations
Chapter 3 GI and Cartography Issues
PART II
Principles of GI and Cartography
Chapter 4 Projections
Chapter 5 Locational and Coordinate Systems
Chapter 6 Databases, Cartography, and Geographic Information
Chapter 7 Surveying, GPS, Digitization
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Chapter 8 Remote Sensing
Chapter 9 Positions, Networks, Fields, and Transformations
PART III
Advanced Issues in GI and Cartography
Chapter 10 Cartographic Representation
Chapter 11 Map Cultures, Misuses, and GI
Chapter 12 Administration of Spaces
PART IV
GI Analysis: Understanding Our World
Chapter 13 GI Analysis and GIS
Chapter 14 Geostatistics
Chapter 15 Futures of GIS
Index
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