1 Evans, A.M. and M.P. Vink (2012). Measuring Group Switching in ...
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1 Evans, A.M. and M.P. Vink (2012). Measuring Group Switching in ...

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  • cours - matière potentielle : ep legislatures
  • cours - matière potentielle : legislative mandates
  • revision
  • exposé
1 Evans, A.M. and M.P. Vink (2012). Measuring Group Switching in the European Parliament: Methodology, Data and Trends (1979-2009). Análise Social. Forthcoming. Party Group Switching in the European Parliament: Definition, Measurement and Trends (1979-2009) Ana Maria Evans1 University of Lisbon Maarten Peter Vink2 Maastricht University Earlier versions of this paper were presented at the joint meeting of the Maastricht University research group on Politics and Culture of Europe and the ICS-UL research program Citizenship and Democratic Institutions (Lisbon, June 2010), the meeting of the ECPR Standing Group on European Union (Porto, June 2010)
  • discussion to available literature on the topic of legislative switching
  • political groups
  • national party delegations
  • degree of party system development
  • parliamentary groups
  • prerogatives of parliamentary group membership
  • ep
  • party
  • policy
  • group

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Photographers E-Newsletter
December 2011
Hello E-Flora Photographers,
It has been a long time since we have been in touch with you in this format, the E-Flora
Photographers E-Newsletter. We hope to be in more frequent touch from now on.
Progress on E-Flora BC (and E-Fauna BC) continues at an impressive pace with changes and
improvements to the user experience as well as to the behind-the-scenes inner workings of the
complex programming that makes the site function. These unique resources get better and
better all the time thanks to the tireless work and dedication of Brian and Rose Klinkenberg, the
programmers, the E-Flora Advisory Committee, various other volunteers and, of course, you the
photographers who so generously donate your images. It is your photos that really breathe life
into the user experience.
Now that it is winter time and you are spending more time indoors we would love for you to
upload more of your amazing photos. Please see below for Statistics on the Photo Gallery, for
an announcement on an E-Flora App for smartphones, for a request to find images for species
that currently have no photos to represent them, and an article on citizen science and the
importance of adding location information to your photo uploads. Last but not least we end
with some beautiful photos from our top ten most prolific uploaders.
Read on, E-Flora Photographers. And thank you again for your involvement in E-Flora BC!
Cheers,
Gary Lewis
E-Flora Photo Coordinator

In this Issue
Photo Gallery Statistics
In Development: An E-Flora App for Smart Phones
Photos Wanted Search for Plants Without Any Photos
Location, Location, Location: “Eflora Photos as Citizen Science: Mapping Your Photo Records”
Celebrating the Flora of BC: Selected Images from the Photo Gallery

*******************************************************

Photo Gallery Statistics
Thanks to you, the E-Flora Photographers, the Photo Gallery is filled with thousands of great
photos. Tens of thousands actually! Currently there are 20,386 photos available to the general
public for viewing in the Photo Gallery and through the Atlas Pages for each species.
The Images: The table below summarizes this success and shows us where we need to go in the
future. For instance, if you look at the first row which summarizes all plant groups you can see
that we have at least one photo for 48% of the plants in BC. That leaves 4615 taxa (species,
subspecies and varieties) without images. If we look at vascular plants – the “charismatic
megaflora” -- we can see that we are doing quite well. Seventy-five percent of all vascular plant
taxa have at least one image.
Plant Group Total Taxa* Total Taxa* Percent of Taxa* Total Photos for this
With At Without Any Represented by Group
Least One Photos At Least One
Photo Photo
All Plant Groups 4301 4615 48% 20,386
Algae 107 486 18% 169
Fungi 849 883 49% 2674
Lichens 456 1034 31% 1399
Liverworts 51 666 7% 139
Mosses 158 673 19% 375
Vascular Plants 2633 873 75% 15,449
*Taxa includes species, subspecies and varieties. But when we look at the plant groups that inspire fewer aficionados in the general population
like algae, lichens, liverworts and mosses we are currently only covering 18%, 31%, 7% and 19%,
respectively, of the taxa in these groups with at least one photo.
The Photographers: We currently have 456 E-Flora Photographers! Each one of you is part of a
larger group throughout BC and beyond who are interested in and dedicated to BC’s native
plants. Thank you for being a part of E-Flora BC and for helping us to build this great resource!
There are photographers who have yet to upload photos (we’re ready when you are!) and there
are others who have uploaded thousands of images. The average number of photos uploaded
per photographer is 45. Thank you for uploading.
We have some stars among us though who have made incredible contributions to the Photo
Gallery. Between them our top five photographers have uploaded over 40% of all the photos on
E-Flora!
Most Photos Uploaded Top Five
Photographer Photos Uploaded
Jamie Fenneman 2832
Jim Riley 1613
Adolf Ceska 1330
Curtis Bjork 1314
Michael Beug 1295

Please Upload More Images: Now that it is winter and less is going on in the wilds of BC to
photograph we would like to encourage you to upload more images to E-Flora. We are
especially looking for images for taxa that are not yet well represented with images. For
instance, we are pretty good for photos of Trillium ovatum and Calypso bulbosa. But we would
really like to round out the images for less charismatic species and, of course, acquire photos
for taxa that don’t yet have any photos. Please have a look at the article later in this e-
newsletter called “Photos Wanted Search for Plants Without Any Photos”. This search feature
provides a list of taxa that currently have no photos uploaded to represent them.

*******************************************************

In Development: An E-Flora App for Smart Phones
Smart phones are used everywhere today. As such,
people are becoming used to accessing information
whenever, wherever. Although there is a large number
of great ‘apps’ for birders to choose from, the choice is
much more limited for botanists in British Columbia.
While E-Flora BC has been providing BC’s plant
enthusiasts with comprehensive information on all of
the native plants known from the province for the past
eight years, it is difficult to access that information on a
smart phone.
In light of this, we have begun working on developing a mobile app for E-Flora BC, using funds
provided to us through the Shell Environment Fund. We hope that by summer 2011 botanists
will be able to easily access the E-Flora Atlas pages through their smart phone. As part of this
evolution of E-Flora, one of the enhancements that we have already put in place is the ability to
view thumbnails of species when conducting a species search. Over the next few months you’ll
continue to see additional enhancements designed to make accessing Atlas pages as easy on a
phone as it is using a PC.
As a first step E-Flora will likely be available on your smart phone with an internet connection.
In time we will work to make E-Flora a fully downloadable app so that it can be used in the field
where there is no cell or data services. Imagine E-Flora BC in your pocket as you hike through
the BC wilderness. Botanizing in BC will never be the same again!

*******************************************************

Photos Wanted Search for Plants Without Any Photos
The Photos Wanted Search was created to help direct our E-Flora photographers to plants that
currently do not have any photos. We hope that you will be able to look through your photos to see if you have any of these species. Or, keep an eye out for these species in the field and get
some photos of them.
To use this feature go to the main page of E-Flora BC (www.geog.ubc.ca/biodiversity/eflora/).
The right hand vertical bar is for Photo Information and the Photo Gallery. Scroll down to and
click on the tab “Photos Wanted”. This section of the photo gallery lists the species that
presently do not have any photos in the E-Flora Photo Gallery. Please note that vascular plants
is the default group. You can determine if a species is in our 'photos wanted' list in two ways:
1. Use the quick search box to check for a particular species (using the scientific name only).
2. Click on a group name (Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Liverworts, Mossed, Vascular Plants) to call up a
scrolling list of species presently missing in that group.

If you see a species listed in our Photos Wanted search and you have a photo for it we would be
so excited to have it for E-Flora BC! Thank you for helping us fill in the gaps in the Photo Gallery
and for helping to build this fabulous resource.
******************************************************* Location, Location, Location
This article appears on the E-Flora Web Site and we are reprinting it here for your information.
We are now using the coordinates that you upload as part of the data you provide for each
photograph to add another data layer to our mapping of species distributions. Please read on to
find out why it is so valuable for E-Flora if you can include the coordinates of where you took
each photo.
Remember that you can always return to your photo details to add or change information
including location data. Log in as a photographer by clicking on “Upload Photos” from the main
E-Flora page. Click on “Edit My Photos”, select a photo from the list and change the location or
other details. Make sure to click on “Submit” before exiting the page. We would especially like
to have coordinates for photos that represent range extensions or that fill in or clarify species
ranges. For unique individual plants, such as those blooming at different times relative to the
main population, coordinate data would also be valuable.

E-FLORA PHOTOS AS CITIZEN SCIENCE: MAPPING YOUR PHOTO
RECORDS
Introduction
Citizen science or, as geographers call it, volunteered geographic information (VGI) is a growing
area in biodiversity documentation. Citizen scientists are now collecting fundamental and
significant biological data that can be added to our biodiversity knowledge base. This sort of
volunteered geographic information can aid scientists and can lead to comprehensive
databases of information that result in greater understanding of species and their habitats, and
can ultimately lead to better protection and management efforts.
Citizen Science and VGI on E-Flora BC
On E-Flora BC, we are now mapping photo records, and you can become a citizen scientist by
participating in this. Mapped photo records appear on our interactive maps as a new and growing data layer. While species distributions are generally mapped from specimen records,
and specimen records are the most important scientific documentation of species occurrences,
photo records can provide significant information and observations on species that can then be
followed up by experts.

Vine maple (Acer circinatum), photo by Kevin DeBoer.
Which photo records would we like to map?
While we can map any photo record of a species, we are particularly interested in
mapping significant photo records. That is, photo records that document range changes and
that fill in gaps in species distributions. If you have a photo record that shows, for example, the
occurrence of a species that is further north than our present mapping shows, or that
documents a record of a species in a region where it is not known, then we would like to map it.
Mapping photo records is particularly valuable for groups like invasive plants, where some
species are moving quickly into new territory as the climate changes. It is also valuable for
species at risk where mapping of new sites is important for protection and management. Photo
record mapping will be particularly useful for adding dots to distribution maps that are
presently blank. Your photo records will give insights into where these species occur in BC.
How does this work?
If you submit photos to E-Flora and include precise location information (UTM coordinates or
latitude/longitude), then we will map your photo record. A dot will appear on our interactive
map. Mapped photo records are included in our interactive maps as their own data layer. This
allows users and experts to easily sort out which distribution records are based on photos and
not on specimens.
What geographical regions do we cover?
We presently map photo records primarily for the Pacific Northwest but do include other
adjacent regions where this information is available in the databases we have downloaded.
Concerned about showing rare species locations?
Concerns about mapping locations of rare species that would allow unethical collection of
specimens are valid. If you are concerned about providing location information for a particular
species that you feel might be a target, then your data can include less precise coordinate
information that only shows general locality. The dot that this produces on our maps will still be
important for showing new regions and occurrences even at a more general level.

Wild Cucumber (Echinocystis lobata), photo by Brian Klinkenberg. This photo shows the flower
arrangement, leaf shape and trailing nature of the plant. How do I participate in this citizen science component?
Participation is simple. If you feel that your record of a species is significant, then just include
location coordinate information (latitude/longitude or UTM info) in the photo details section of
the upload form when you upload your photo. Your dot will appear on the species map the next
time we update our mapping databases (monthly). Note that you only need to enter
coordinates for one photo of a species from a particular location. Use less specific coordinates
for species of concern.
How do I determine location coordinates?
In order to map your photo record, we need location information such as the UTM coordinate
or the latitude and longitude (note that latitude and longitude would be the preferred choice,
as UTM coordinates require additional information [the zone #] in order to be useful). Those
with GPS units will find this information easy to obtain for each photo. If you don't have a GPS,
this information can be determined in one of two ways.
1) by using topographic maps. You can purchase these for your region through government
bookstores. (Instructions on how to obtain UTM coordinates from a topographic map can be
found here.)
2) by using Google Maps. Go to maps.google.com, select the Satellite view, then zoom into
where you took the photo (hold the cursor down to move the map around), or type in a name
in the 'search maps' box. You can then either:
a) Right-mouse click over the spot where you took the photo, and select What's here? (On a
Mac, pressing the control key and then clicking on the spot [control-click] is the same as right-
mouse clicking on a PC.) Then click on the green arrow that appears and the latitude and
longitude are revealed, or
b) Click on Options (in the upper right corner of the Google Map). In the drop-down tab
that opens, click on Maps Labs. In the window that pops up, scroll down to the last of the items
and enable either LatLng Tooltip or LatLng Marker, and then click on Save changes. The Google
Maps Lab pop-up should then close. If you selected the LatLng Tooltip, as you move the cursor around the map you should see a continuous readout providing the latitude and longitude. If
you selected the LatLng Marker, you need to rght-mouse click (or control-click on a Mac) over
the point and select Drop LatLng Marker (which contains the latitude and longitude for that
point).
If you are interested in contributing to this sort of citizen science information gathering, you
can go back and add precise location information to any of your photos that are already in our
database. Use the "Edit My Photos" link on the Photo Upload page to access your photos. Click
on a thumbnail to open the editing page and add information.
Photos in our database that already have coordinates will be mapped automatically.

Red baneberry (Actea rubra), photo by Alfred Cook. This photo shows flower structure and
colour, fruit colour variation, and leaf shape and toothing.
How can I improve the accuracy level of my photo records?
The value of data, inlcuding citizen-collected data, is based on its accuracy and reliability levels.
In our case, this means that the accuracy of the identification of the species in the photos in our
photo gallery is of prime importance. At E-Flora BC, we work with many experts to vet photo
identifications and ensure that our accuracy level is high. All photo are reviewed and where
identification to the species level cannot be made or is too uncertain photos are not published.