3.091 Intro to Solid State Chemistry Lecture 36
6 Pages
English
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3.091 Intro to Solid State Chemistry Lecture 36

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Learn all about the services we offer
6 Pages
English

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  • cours magistral - matière : chemistry
M. J. Cima 3.091 Introduction to solid state chemistry 3.091 Intro to Solid State Chemistry Lecture 36 Michael J. Cima
  • seeds of the tree theobroma cacao
  • ice crystals
  • tree as a source of strength
  • cacao tree
  • scanning electron micrograph of ice cream
  • bean store protein

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14 75OSpGCiGa aCcaRWNuG BWR. )4 B. multispinisShcherbachev, 1980. Indian Ocean. Benthopelagic at 1 500 to 1 880 m. Rare. B. nasusGarman, 1899. East Pacific. Benthopelagic at 3 060 to 3 570 m. Common. B. normalisGill, 1884. Northwest Atlantic. Benthopelagic at 2 850 m. Uncommon. B. oncerocephalus(Vaillant, 1888). East Atlantic.Benthopelagic 3 200 m.Rare. B. robustusSmith and Radcliffe in Radcliffe, 1913. In all oceans. Benthopelagic at 1 035 to 2 750 m. Common. B. taenia(Günther, 1887). North Atlantic. Benthopelagic at 4 375 m. Rare. B. zenkevitchiRass, 1955. North Pacific. Deep pelagic. Rare. B.n. sp. 1. Indian Ocean and West Pacific. Benthopelagic at 1 280 to 3 960 m. Uncommon. B.n. sp. 2. Off Vanuatu. Benthopelagic at 1 850 m. Rare.
Bathyonus8WGaWF6GVF,)aV244 Type species:Replacement name forBathynectesGünther, 1877; takes same type species, Bathynectes laticepsGünther. Synonyms:BathynectesGünther, 1878, type speciesBathynectes laticepsGünther; preoccupied byBathynectesStimpson, 1870 in Crustacea.MixonusGünther, 1887, type speciesBathynectes laticepsGünther.NematonusGünther, 1887, type speciesBathyonus pectoralisGoode and Bean. Number of recognized species:3.
Fig. 55Bathyonus caudalisZW(HiGS9VGaR),93
Diagnosis and description: Body depth 9.5 or less in standard length;head length about 1/2 preanal length; branchiostegal rays 8 or 9;no prominent spines on top or side of head; median basibranchial tooth patches 2; developed rakers on first arch 10 or more;pectoral-fin rays 16 to 19, lower rays free and stronger than upper ones,pelvic fin with 2 rays in each; caudal-fin rays 6; precaudal vertebrae 17 to 19. Revisions:None. Geographical distribution:Probably circumtropical. Habitat and biology:Benthopelagic at bathyal and abyssal depths. Interest to fisheries:None. Size:Reaches at least 780 mm. Remarks:Taxonomic revision is needed in order to verify species distributions. Key to species:Not possible at present.
pOOiFiHWZS 7iaOGa WH cOG WWZRF
1
List of nominal species Bathyonus caudalis(Garman, 1899). Eastern tropical Pacific at 1 524 to 2 417 m; also recorded from the Indian Ocean at 1 840 to 4 040 m. Uncommon. B. guentheri(Vaillant, 1888) (junior synonym ofB. laticeps). B. laticeps(Günther, 1878). Bathyal to abyssal in the Atlantic; juvenile caught in midwater off Bermuda at 1 280 m. Locally abundant. B. pectoralisGoode and Bean, 1886. Tropical western Atlantic at 604 to 2 615 m and eastern Indian ocean at 4 600 m. Uncommon.
Benthocometes92V,)4aG6FVaGFWW8 Type species:Neobythites robustusGoode and Bean, 1886 by subsequent selection. Synonyms:None. Number of recognized species:1.
Fig. 56Benthocometes robustus249,)aV6GVFGaWFSWW8(ZH
Diagnosis and description: Head short and stubby, mouth terminal; eyes equal to or greater than length of snout;opercle with 2 posteriorly directed spines, 1 basibranchial tooth patch; vomerine tooth patch without arms;developed rakers on anterior gill arch 7 to 10; pseudobran-chial filaments 5 to 7; pectoral-fin rays 27 to 33; pelvic fins with 2 rays in each. Revisions:Bougis and Ruivo (1954). Geographical distribution:Tropical West Atlantic, off Northwest Africa and the Mediterranean. Habitat and biology:Benthopelagic at 500 to 1 000 m. Larvae epipelagic (see Fig. 4). Interest to fisheries:None. Size:At least 122 mm. List of nominal species Benthocometes robustus(Goode and Bean, 1886). Information see above. Uncommon. Pteridium armatumDoederlein, 1886 (junior synonym ofB. robustus). Sirembo muraenolepisVaillant, 1888 (junior synonym ofB. robustus).
2(
Dannevigia)09),yGRciOW Type species:Dannevigia tuscaWhitley, 1941 by original designation. Synonyms:None. Number of recognized species:1.
Fig. 57Dannevigia tusca
75OpSGCiGaCacaRWNuGBWR.)4
Diagnosis and description:Body robust, deepest over pectoral fins;several short, weak, concealed spines at lower angle of preopercle; spine on opercle barely if at all reaching beyond rear margin of head; eyes well developed;median basibranchial tooth patches 2; developed gill rakers on first arch 4;no dark spots on body or fins of adults;pelvic fins with 2 rays in each, fin bases close together, inserting under rear margin of eye.Small specimens with 4 rather diffuse broad vertical brown bands on body, adults uniformly brown. Revisions:None. Geographical distribution:Great Australian Bight, straying to Bass Straits. Habitat and biology:Benthopelagic along the outer shelf at 115 to 365 m. Interest to fisheries:Occasionally landed but not taken in abundance. Size:Reaching at least 56 cm.
List of species Dannevigia tuscaWhitley, 1941. Information see above. Common.
Dicrolene.44)6FVa,VaG8FGWW
Type species:Dicrolene intronigraGoode and Bean, 1883 by monotypy. Synonyms:PteroidonusGünther, 1887, type speciesPteroidonus quinquariusGünther;Paradi-croleneAlcock, 1889, type speciesParadicrolene multifilisAlcock;BrachydicroleneNorman, 1939, type speciesDicrolene nigricaudisAlcock.
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Number of recognized species: 15.
Fig. 58Dicrolene pallidusH(ZuaGWZHSGR9iVFua4))9V,aG
2)
Diagnosis and description: Snout rather blunt; eye diameter almost as long as snout; opercular spine strong and straight(except curved inD. kanazawai);hind margin of preopercle usualy with 3 sharp spines; 1 or 2 median basibranchial tooth patches and a pair (exceptD. kanazawaiwith 0); pseudobranchial filaments 2 or 3; 7 to 15 developed rakers on anterior arch; pectoral-fin rays 22 to 33 of which lower 5 to 11 are free and longer than upper ones; pelvic-fin rays 2; precaudal vertebrae 13 to 16. Revisions:None. Geographical distribution:Below tropical and subtropical areas of all oceans. Habitat and biology:Benthopelagic at bathyal and abyssal depths (350 to 3 200 m). Interest to fisheries:None. Size:At least 580 mm. Remarks:A much needed revision may show that more than 1 genus should be recognized. Various collections hold much untreated material.
Key to species Note: Shcherbachev (1980) published a tentative key toDicrolenespp. mainly based on meristic characters, but due to insufficient knowledge of the intraspecific variation his key is difficult to use. A key to species and species groups from Hureau and Nielsen (1981) is provided below.
1a.No paired and 1 median basibranchial tooth patch; opercular spine curvedD. kanazawai. . 1b.One or 2 median and 1 pair of basibranchial tooth patches; opercular spine straight. . .|2
2a.Two median basibranchial tooth patches (Fig. 59a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D. longimana, D. nigricaudis, D. tristis, D. vaillanti 2b.One median basibranchial tooth patch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|3
3a.Median basibranchial tooth patch long and narrow (Fig. 59b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D. filamentosa, D. gregoryi, D. nigra, D. pullata 3b.Median basibranchial tooth patch broad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|4