Analyzing Transportation and Communication Lifeline Vulnerability
10 Pages
English
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Analyzing Transportation and Communication Lifeline Vulnerability

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Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer
10 Pages
English

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  • cours - matière potentielle : a lifespan
5.3 Transportation and Communication Lifeline Disruption Harvey J. Miller Department of Geography University of Utah S. L. Cutter, D. B. Richardson and T. Wilbanks (eds.) The Geographic Dimensions of Terrorism, in press. One of the many lessons from 9/11 is that terrorism is not just about terror. Terrorism is also an attempt to disrupt the daily lives of non-combatants to achieve political objectives. Physical or virtual networks that are vital to health, safety, comfort, and economic activity are called lifelines (Platt 1995).
  • lifeline vulnerability
  • lifeline disruptions time
  • spatial decision support system
  • data needs
  • stationary activity time
  • accessibility
  • space
  • transportation
  • time

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Language English

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Geology 100 Midterm #2 Mark all answers neatly and completely; erase completely. 1.Marble at room temperature is most likely to deform in a _________ way. A.Ductile B.Static C.Geothermal D.Brittle 2.Where would you go to find eclogite facies rocks? A.Iceland B.Oregon C.Switzerland D.Death Valley 3.Which type of wave will not travel through liquid or gas? A.Swave B.Pwave C.Love Wave D.Rayleigh wave 4.True or false: large portions of Wisconsin were once under a shallow sea. A.True B.False 5.The Appalachians were created: A.By volcanic activity due to subduction. B.As a result of continental collision that formed Pangaea C.Related to rifting that widened the Atlantic Ocean basin D.After the uplift of the Rocky Mountains 6.The Northeast portion of Wisconsin was covered by __________ . The southwestportion of the state is called the ___________ area because it was not. A.Glaciers, basement B.Glaciers, driftless C.Oceans, driftless D.Ash, passive
7.The Juan de Fuca plate of the coast of Washington and Oregon is being _______. A.Rifted B.Uplifted C.Deformed by transform motion D.Subducted 8.The graphical curve known as the geotherm describes A.The relationship between temperature and depth in the earth B.The temperature of rocks around the surface of the earth C.How easily minerals heat up and cool down D.The change from greenhouse earth to icehouse earth 9.Convection is A.Heat moving by atoms passing on vibrations of energy from one to the next B.Heat moving by circulation of a material that behave fluidly C.Something that rocks in the mantle don’t do D.A dish or delicacy made with sweet ingredients 10.Which of the following choices is not a tectonic force? A.Tension B.Shear C.Compression D.Transform 11.Which of these does not relate to divergent plate boundaries? A.Tension B.Reverse Faulting C.Volcanism D.Normal Faulting 12.Downfolds, or troughs, of layered rock are called A.anticlines. B.faults. C.synclines D.plunging folds
13.Earthquake A has a magnitude of 4 and earthquake B has a magnitude of 7. Which of the following statements is true? A.The ground moved exactly twice as much in earthquake B as it did in A B.The ground moved 11 times (4 + 7) as much in earthquake B as it did in A C.The ground moved 1000 times as much in earthquake B as it did in A D.The relative amount of ground movement cannot be determined due to insufficient information 14.Which is not a mechanism for continent growth? A.Continentcontinent collision B.Accretion of buoyant fragments C.Magmatic addition D.Cratonic Keel 15.The type of magnetism recorded by sedimentary rocks is called___________ magnetism. A.Hydroremanent B.Bioremanent C.Thermoremanent D.Depositional Remanent Magnetism 16.To what degree does the Earth’s dynamo act exactly like a perfect bar magnet? A.25% B.90% C.4% D.75% 17.Which process generates and sustains Earth’s magnetic field? A.Convection B.Apparent polar wander C.Subduction D.Upwelling of mantle plumes 18.Which is not a type of metamorphism? A.Contact B.Regional C.Shock/Impact D.Local
19.Prograde is to subduction as A.Retrograde is to uplift B.Supragrade is to exhumation C.Intermediate grade is to burial D.High grade is to gneiss 20.A highgrade metamorphic rock with all olivine that experienced deformation would have what type of foliation? A.Wavy B.Schistose C.Slaty D.None, olivine is not an elongate mineral 21.Which answer choice places the metamorphic grades in the order of least metamorphism to most metamorphism? A.Migmatite, schist, slate, phyllite, and gneiss B.Slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss, migmatite C.Slate, schist, phyllite, gneiss, migmatite, D.Gneiss, schist, phyllite, migmatite, slate 22.If your TA spills a strawberry milkshake on an outcropping of a single, exposed, deformed sedimentary layer, the direction the regrettably lost beverage will run points the same direction as…? A.Downhill B.Shear C.Strike D.Dip 23.The process by which the planets formed is called: A.accretion B.bombardment C.condensation D.divergence
24.How did Earth’s Moon form? A.gravity capture of a very large asteroid B.by the same process that formed the Earth C.impact of a Marssized body with Earth D.it is not a ‘moon’, it is technically a planet 25.What is NOT a reason that we know there was once liquid water on Mars? A.discovery of minerals that only form in the presence of water B.the Spirit rover encountered small puddles of water in a crater C.rock formations with clearly bedded layers D.dry river channels left on the surface 26.The difference between heterotrophs and autotrophs is: A.Autotrophs mate only with other autotrophs while heterotrophs mate with both B.Heterotrophs live on land while autotrophs live in the sea C.Autotrophs produce their own food while heterotrophs have to consume food D.Autotrophs can use chemicals for energy while heterotrophs can only use sunlight 27.Life arose on Earth during the __________ Eon: A.Hadean B.Archean C.Proterozoic D.Phanerazoic 28.The main structure of Earth’s magnetic field is:A.Monopolar B.Dipolar C.Tripolar D.Unipolar 29.True or False: Earth’s magnetic north pole is the same as the true north pole. A.True B.False
30.Which of these scales is NOT used to measure earthquake activity? A.Richter Scale B.Moment Magnitude C.Beaufort Scale D.Modified Mercalli Scale 31.The property of earthquake waves that allow us to pinpoint an epicenter of an earthquake from thousands of miles away is: A.All earthquake waves carry a constant amount of energy over long distances B.All earthquake waves travel at a constant speed over long distances C.All earthquake waves can travel through all layers of the earth D.All earthquake waves are generated at the same depth 32.Faultblock mountains like the Great Basin in Nevada are the result of which tectonic force? A.Tension B.Torsion C.Transcurrent D.Tetrahedral 33.If an earthquake occurred in Wisconsin, it would most likely be due to: A.Rifting B.Continental Collision C.Transform Faulting D.Crustal Rebound 34.You would most likely find oil and natural gas trapped in which type of geologic structure? A.Syncline B.Anticline C.Meteorite Crater D.Normal Fault
35.The event in which life on Earth rapidly evolved from just microorganisms to many kinds of skeletal and shelled animals is called the ___________ Explosion of Life. A.Cretaceous B.Cenozoic C.Cambrian D.Darwin 36.Humanity’s search for life on other planets in our solar system is, in large part, motivated by fact that _____________ exist on Earth in environments that would kill any other organism. A.Microfossils B.Stromatolites C.Chemofossils D.Extremophiles 37.Banded Iron Formations provide some of the earliest evidence of which life process? A.Photosynthesis B.Respiration C.Predation D.DNA transcription 38.The process by which some organisms convert sunlight and CO2into food: A.Procreation B.Respiration C.Photosynthesis D.Oxidation 39.Increasing temperature and pressure on a rock can cause all of the following EXCEPT: A.Increasing grain sizes of minerals B.Forming new minerals from old minerals C.Separating different minerals into foliation bands D.Eruption of the rock on the surface as an igneous rock
40.Which of the Earth’s layers does NOT experience convection? A.The atmosphere B.The mantle C.The outer core D.The inner core 41.Magnetic secular variation supports the finding from seismology that__________ A.The Earth’s mantle is 2900 km thick B.The outer core is made of olivine C.The outer core is made of liquid iron D.None of the above 42.Even though the process that reverses Earth’s magnetic field is not well understood, reversals provide us with an excellent_______________. A.Time scale for the entire history of Earth B.Calendar of solar events C.Time scale for the last 160 million years D.Date for when the moon formed 43.The late heavy bombardment 3.9 billion years ago was thought to precede the origin of life on earth, until evidence for ____________________. A.life was found by the Mars rovers. B.life was found in 4.4 billion year old sedimentary rocks on Earth C.liquid water was found in a zircon crystal that is 4.4 billion years old. D.liquid water was found on Mars. 44.The most severe mass extinction__________________. A.Was caused by a meteorite impact 65 million years ago. B.Wiped out 90% of all species 251 million years ago. C.Will be caused by global warming. D.Occurred at the end of the Precambrian
Questions 45 – 47 refer to the diagram below: Units A, B, and C are sedimentary rocks; unit A is the oldest and unit C is the youngest. The sedimentary rocks are cut by a fault, indicated by the bold line. The o fault dips 60 to the northwest as shown b the strike and di s mbol. North is up.
45.What type of structure is shown in the geologic map? A.A faulted anticline B.A faulted syncline C.A folded strikeslip fault D.The structure cannot be determined from the information given. 46.What type of fault is depicted on the geologic map? A.Normal fault B.Reverse fault C.Rightlateral fault D.Leftlateral fault47.Which way do the sedimentary layers dip? A.Toward the east B.Toward the center C.Toward the west D.Toward the east and west
48.Prokaryotes including some types of bacteria began to evolve at least_____________ years ago, whereas hardshelled animals first appeared______________ years ago.A.650 million; 544 million B.544 million; 65 million C.2800 million; 544 million D.4400 million; 544 million 49.Stromatolites are________________. A.layers of sediment deposited through interactions with eukaryotic organisms that lived only in the Proterozoic Eon B.Eukaryotic microbial mats that grow today in modern oceans C.Microbial mats found on Mars D.layers of sediment deposited through interactions with microbial organisms that grow today and may have lived 3.4 billion years ago. 50.A diagram representing a vertical slice through the Earth’s crust is called a _______________. A.Geologic map B.Geologic model C.Subsurface picture D.Geologic cross section 51.Which of the following statements is false? A.P waves travel slower in the crust than in the mantle. B.The crust is denser than the mantle. C.The crustmantle boundary does not have a small amount of partial melt. D.The oceanic crust consists of basalt and gabbro.