EMAT10100 Engineering Maths I Lecture 1Introduction


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EMAT10100 Engineering Maths I Lecture 1 Introduction Dr John Terry Department of Engineering Mathematics 1. Introduction – p. 1/17
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Annula Report Annual Report Audace Institut Afrique 2011

An independent African voice promoting liberty

Annual Report Audace Institut Afrique 2011

Audace Institut Afrique (AIA) is a non-profit making, liberal and independent think-tank.
Through its publications, seminars, conferences, education, research works, AIA stimulates
the political debate, by the means of reform proposals axed on free market and the
development of economic freedom, private property, legally constituted state, individual
liberties. To preserve its independence, AIA denies any subvention from the state.

The team

Chief Executive

College of qquuaalliififieedd ppeerrssoonnaalliittiieess

Jean-Philippe Gérard
Pascal SALIN
Tél // FFaaxx :: ((0000222255)) 2222 4499 4499 9911
Nicolas Cell :: ((0000222255)) 5577 8888 8822 9911 Jean-Yves Bertrand
Madelénat di
FLORIO E mail : institut@audace-afrique.com

Postale Adress : 22 BP 836 Abidjan 22

Bank Account of Audace Institut Permanent researchers
AAffrriiqquuee :
10059 01010 00136982018 94
Mamadou François swift : ecocciab Eric KOUADIO GBONGUE NDENGWE

33 active volunteers

Annual Report Audace Institut Afrique 2011

A statement
from the Chairman

« To live in peace, we must be free, and

to be free, only boldness can guide us”


n Africa and especially in the French- the difficult situation in Côte d’Ivoire,
speaking part, freedom is mistreated, during this period particularly sprinkled with Icorrupted and sometimes inexistent. It violence and unrest, our ideas move
sounds to the rather fatalistic populations, forward and start anchoring in the heart of
like a reality proper to richest countries, but the populations, mainly the youth. We
not compatible with the local realities. consider that this past year has permitted
Once we are aware of the narrow link to erect solid foundations on which, we
between liberty and progress, we can’t shall efficiently built. The chore of our
but regret this lack of aggressiveness. There activities for this year, economic freedom
and parliamentarian regime must be lies among others, one of the reasons
which led to the creation of Audace widely promoted, and therefore shall the
Institut Afrique aiming to promote liberty, work be continued in 2012, even if our
education, creation and mostly, to be a main topic for next year is the promotion of
tool of influence. private enterprise. The end of the crisis
effectively invites to devote all energies to
A sad reality prevailing in the continent is the problem of employment.
that knowledge is most of the time,
sorrowfully used as a mean of domination. During our investigation on freedom on the
One prefer to let populations in ignorance, work field (presented in this document),
as it is therefore easy to better dominate one of our investigator students has
them, when the said knowledge is not interviewed a group of militaries from the
simply jealously kept in locked circles. The former rebellion of the north. Although now
objective of Audace Institut Afrique is to integrated in the Republican Forces (FRCI),
precisely make all these barriers fall down, they revealed that they would have never
make ideas circulate, enrich and grow felt the need to take weapons, if the
through sharing. The final objective creation of enterprises was not so
remains the decline of poverty. We are in complicate in Côte d’Ivoire. We therefore
fact convinced that Liberalism is the way realize the whole importance of our 2012
for progress in Africa. The 2011 works works.
presented in this report show that despite


A statement from
the chief executive

fairly provided us their support, in spite of
the great risk of investing in an unstable
country. Without them, the Institute would
not have been able to resist the period of
troubles. We made it a challenge that any
amount of CFA expended, would better
help spread liberalism in Côte d’Ivoire and
in Africa in general.
Among the greatest satisfactions of this
year, we have felt the pleasure to see our
liberal students set about doing
publications and actively promote our
ideals. One always feels it a great emotion
to see the circles of liberals grow larger
and notice hopes and competences are
fully increasing. Bright ideas have this year

emerged from our works, ideas favorable Gisèle DUTHEUIL
to the end of the crisis in Côte d’Ivoire and
also the decline of poverty in Africa in
general. We have had also the he year 2011 has been a rough period
opportunity to touch the population, forAudace Institut Afrique, due to the
through a starting of collaboration with Ttroubles consecutives to the
local Medias whose contribution has presidential election of November 2011.
permitted to dispatch our ideas among During the whole first semester, we have
the general public. The RTI (Ivorian programmed, postpone or simply
television) perfectly followed us and made cancelled our activities. The long bank
coverage of our important events. closure along with the collapse of
Concerning press, its cost being expensive economic tissue has significantly worsened
in Côte d’Ivoire, our limited means our quest for funding; this is highly
provoked censorship from certain damageable to an independent institute.
newspapers in Abidjan. We are working to Despite the loss of energy and the situation
broaden our publication possibilities. This is of violence rather unfavorable to
an objective for the year 2012. intellectual life, we can assert that it has
been productive as we were able to resist,
It is also to be mentioned that a great and we have during the second semester
number of volunteers have joined the concentrated all the interesting activities
Institute this year, although volunteering is presented in this report.
not yet fully anchored in Africa. We could
this year particularly feel an interest of the The support and confidence of our faithful
African youth for our activities, and this is a partners there also played a great part.
sign of hope fully encouraging us to take The Atlas Foundation for Economic
big steps ahead. research and The Smith Family Foundation


Youth education at University

At the beginning of this year, we initiated a monthly
education opened to all the Campus students, at the
Economic and Management Sciences Unit of Cocody

On February 26th, Mamadou KOULIBALY educated 250
students in liberalism, struggling against all preconceived
ideas on liberal politics in Africa. On March 19th, the
Chairman was that time to deal with the topic of
economic liberty, before 283 students. This education
project has been stopped by the complications of the
post electoral conflict. University will not reopen till
October 2012. This is more sorrowful considering that our
evaluations gave a percentage of 81% students
convinced with liberalism meanwhile the University
teaching in Côte d’Ivoire strongly calls for Keynesianism.

Post electoral conflict

From the end of March to mid-June 2011, the
Institute was to stop all activities due to
episodes of violence and the bombing of
Abidjan by the French militaries forces and the
Operation of United Nations in Côte d’Ivoire.
Unrest resulted in the impossibility of doing the
slightest activity, as it had become very difficult
to think. In fact, intellectuals and mainly
students were targeted. In such a context, the
Institute suffered a robbery of computing
equipments, phones and money.

Proposal of end crisis
At the very first moment of end crisis, we call for our
liberal friends throughout the world to share their vision
and lead proposals of end crisis for the country.
Distinguished liberals among whom: JP Feldman, a
Parisian barrister, Emmanuel Martin Director of Un Monde
Libre publication, Pierre Garello Director of the Institute of
Economics Studies, JF Minardi Associate Director of
Economic Liberty and Development at Fraser Institute
Canada, Aurélien Véron Chairman of the Liberal and
Democrat Party of France, Jean Yves Naudet Director of
the Center for Research in Economic Ethic in France. Their
proposals were broadly promoted in the national press. Annual Report Audace Institut Afrique 2011

Post crisis training of journalists

On June 17th, we were the first in Abidjan to dare
restart the intellectual life by gathering 103 journalists
of Côte d’Ivoire after violence.

François NDENGWE, economist and consultant
tackled the topic of the importance of counter-
power. This gathering objective was to make the
verbal violence strongly present in the columns of
newspapers close to the winners regress; meanwhile
losers were reduced to violence and looting. We
wanted to recall them the necessity to keep in
common the foundation of journalist job: freedom
of the press.

We have restarted The meeting allowed organs pertaining to different
political sides to encounter and thus reduce the intellectual life and broken
hatred they were full with. Dialogue led to mutual
fear around 103 journalists comprehension and gave again a human
dimension to discussions.

Audit of Economic freedom in Côte

On September 22, we presented the Audit of
Economic Freedom in Côte d’Ivoire, in
collaboration with Un Monde Libre.org, represented
by Emmanuel Martin, its Director of Publication and
the Fraser Institute whom realized the study. This
event was possible because of the Atlas Foundation
for Economic Research’s support. This was a
première in Abidjan. Promoting economic freedom
was so important, as the country at the end of crisis
ranks very bad on world plan.

We wanted to sensitize decision-makers and
populations on the importance of freedom in As economic freedom and
economic development and freedom in general. progress go together everywhere
We gathered a hundred of resource persons
in the world, we have sensitized (Chairman of Industry and Commerce Chamber,
Representative of the IMF Resident, Ministries decision-makers and populations
‘representatives, Deans, University academic staffs,
to the major challenge of Côte Researchers, Students) for this presentation followed
by an interesting discussion which permitted to d’Ivoire’s performance
determine the priorities of Côte d’Ivoire. The media improvement, when it is in the
coverage was very significant, and the TV report
from RTI highly contributed to position AIA and the bottom half of the world.
importance of freedom among the Ivorian
populations. .
Annual Report Audace Institut Afrique 2011

Parliamentarian Regime for Peace,
Freedom, Democracy, and Progress in

On October 8th, we have organized a seminar on the
interest of a parliamentarian regime in Africa. Among
us, was Jean Philippe Feldman who presented a
survey conducted for the Institute on Constitution. His
very dynamic presentation permitted to show in
evidence the importance of a good constitution
when it is to lead a country to development and
permit populations welfare. Let us underline at this
Mamadou Koulibaly stage that in Côte d’Ivoire, such a regime could
permit to struggle against ethnic, as all the regions
would become actors in the political game.

« Although a constitution A comparative survey conducted by two Ivorian
does not create freedom, it researchers of Audace Institut Afrique, on Presidential,
goes with it and safeguards Semi-Presidential, and Parliamentarian Regimes in
Africa, has shown in evidence, extremely interesting it. A good Constitution does
results. It then appears that in Parliamentarian not of course create
Regimes, comparatively with the two other ones, freedom, but a bad one will
wealth per inhabitant is superior, Human Development prevent it. A good
Indexes are better, schooling and education rates are Constitution does not
clearly better, and so are the quality of health care automatically induce
and life expectancy. The scores of Economic Freedom freedom; however a bad
are also superior, and pursuing in the extension of one restricts citizens and
these results, we observe less conflicts, and although
individuals in
they happen, they are of less importance. The institute
is working to make the said results available in French

and English, to make them accessible to all African
Jean Philippe FELDMAN

We also plan to widely promote publication in Côte
d’Ivoire, as in period of end crisis and reconciliation, it
is important to deal with fundamental matters. We
have in fact noticed that since the independence, all
the conflicts that occurred in Côte d’Ivoire essentially
root in the heavy power of its ruling men. The country
effectively needs a Constitution limiting hyper
Presidency. We plan to widely promote the results of
this important survey early in 2012.

Two major surveys
conducted by the Institute
have permitted to
formulate concrete and
major proposals
Annual Report Audace Institut Afrique 2011

rd3 liberal University
Africa and Liberty Seminar

From October 24 to 28, with our partner
UnMondeLibre.org, we have organized our third liberal
University in Côte d’Ivoire, thanks to the support of The
Smith Family Foundation and The Atlas Foundation for
economic research.

Forty Ivorian participants coming from various horizons
(students, teachers, researchers, activists, business
owners) gathered on the site of “la Maison de
l’Apprentis de Grand-Bassam” (The Apprentice House
of Grand-Bassam) to have discussions and share ideas
on the themes of Freedom and Development. This year,
we have felt it a great honor to have with us Pascal
Salin at Emmanuel Martin and Chairman Koulibaly’s
sides. We have had fruitful and constructive discussions,
since the check files display that 91% of the participants 91% of the participants
left convinced that liberalism is the way for
convinced that development in Africa. In addition, we have had a
good media coverage whereof a report in the national liberalism is the way for
television RTI.
Progress in Africa

Pascal SALIN

Emmanuel MARTIN

Annual Report Audace Institut Afrique 2011

The Upbeats

The coming of Jean Philippe FELDMAN and Pascal SALIN

The coming in Côte d’Ivoire of Jean Philippe Feldman and Pascal Salin, two eminent liberals, was a
fruitful share moment in the Institute. The first one presented for us the survey achieved on
Parliamentarian Regime in Africa, while the second one intervened within the framework of the
Africa and Liberty Seminar. Their intellectual analysis and moral qualities make of them a source of
inspiration for their students and readers throughout the world. They have published a great choice
of reference works and taken part to many symposiums all over the world. Their participation to
AIA’s works, their communications intentionally rendered accessible to a larger audience have
significantly helped us make freedom progress in the heart of the Ivorian.

Pascal SALIN : Jean Philippe FELDMAN :
Emeritus Professor at Paris-Dauphine Holder of the aggregation in Law, Jean
University, he is Doctor of Economics Philippe Feldman is Professor of Universities in
Sciences, Holder of the Aggregation in France, and lecturer at Sciences-Po Paris. He
Economics Sciences, Bachelor of is also lawyer in the Paris Court (Jean Philippe
Sociology, and laureate of the political Feldman’s law firm). He is among others,
Surveys Institute of Paris. Chairman from Administrator of the Association for Economic
1994-1996 of the International Society of Freedom and Social Progress (A.I.E.P.S., Paris)
Mont-Pèlerin (international association of and Member of Audace Institut Afrique’s
liberals founded in 1947 by the Nobel Prize Qualified Personalities.
of Economy, Friedrich Hayek).

When Pascal Salin presented: “Should Africa fear

Liberalism?” The discovery of those enormous potentials
of development liberalism offered the continent,
provoked tears of hope from the participants.