How can lessons learned from senior social studies developments ...
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How can lessons learned from senior social studies developments ...

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  • cours - matière potentielle : curriculum
  • cours - matière potentielle : climate
  • cours - matière potentielle : teachers
  • cours - matière potentielle : social studies
  • cours - matière potentielle : a secondary school
  • dissertation
  • exposé
  • cours - matière potentielle : certificate
  • cours - matière potentielle : as the result of the introduction
  • cours - matière potentielle : subject
How can lessons learned from senior social studies developments inform teaching and learning in year 9 and 10 social studies classrooms? Dr Rowena Taylor Massey University College of Education Palmerston North 4442 New Zealand Abstract Since the introduction of senior social studies for the National Certificate in Educational Achievement [NCEA] in 2002, some progress has been made towards developing a unique identity for social studies. An increased emphasis on conceptual learning, clarification of terminology, and progress towards a unifying theme based around social justice issues has provided greater internal cohesion for the subject.
  • exploration of values
  • focus
  • social studies
  • standards
  • knowledge
  • subject
  • curriculum
  • values
  • teachers
  • 2 teachers

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mapping talent
in Latin America
a study to quantify and map the quality of
human capital in 2008 and 2013
Argentina DominicanRepublic
Brazil Ecuador
Chile Mexico
Colombia Peru
CostaRica Venezuela
Developedinco-operationwiththecontents
Introduction,1
LatinAmericaTalentIndexmap,2
Findings,3
Methodology,6
TalentIndexweightings,8
Demographics,9
Qualityofcompulsoryeducation,10
Qualityofuniversitiesandbusinessschools,11
Qualityoftheenvironmenttonurturetalent,12
Mobilityandrelativeopennessofthelabormarket,13
StockandfowofForeignDirectInvestment,14
Proclivitytoattractingtalent,15
OurcapabilityinLatinAmerica,16
TheHeidrick&Struggles Talen tIndexseries,17
Copyright ©2009 Heidrick & Struggles International, Inc.
All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited.
Trademarks and logos are copyrights of their respective owners.mapping talent
in Latin America
If we consider talent to be a global commodity, as precious as oil or
water, then it should be possible to analyze it as a commodity; to
predict its supply and demand. The Global Talent Index, developed
in collaboration with the Economist Intelligence Unit, explored the
distribution of talent in the world in 2007 and 2012.
WhenwedevelopedtheGlobal Talen tIndex,onlythreeLatinAmericancountries–Argentina,Braziland
Mexico–wereincluded;theirlowperformancewithintheglobalcontextcameasno ThesurLaprtin ise.
America Talent Indexusesthesamemethodologybutallowscloserexaminationoftheregion’stalentpool
byassessing:Argentina,Brazil,Chile,Colombia,CostaRica,DominicanRepublic,Ecuador,Mexico,Peruand
Venezuela.
Inthepast,thechallengeforLatinAmericancompanieshasbeenaccesstocapitalandtechnologyin
amarketdominatedbyexporting,miningandagribusiness,oligopoliesandgovernmentcontrolled
companies.Businessinterestsweredependentongovernmentactionsandviceversa.Leadershipwas
important,butnotakeysuccessfactorinfosteringcorporategrowthandproftability.
Unprecedentedadvanceshaveoccurredsincetheearly-1990s,helpedbytheopeningupofmarkets,
deregulation,themodernizationofeconomies,greaterintegrationandinteractionwithglobalmarkets,
thedevelopmentoflocalfnancialandcapitalmarkets,andthecreationoflargeglobalcompanies
headquarteredintheregion(‘multi-latinas’).Asaresult,leadershipandtalenthavestartedtoemergeas
importantcompetitivefactors.
The2008globalfnancialdownturnhascreatednewprioritiesandplacednewdemandsonthecurrent
leaders.Intheshortterm,companiesmaybeconcernedwithquarterlyresultsbutinthelongtermthe
diferentiatorwillbetheirabilitytoidentify,developandretainhighlyqualifedT hetalenLa t.tin America
TalentIndexrevealssuchtalentwillcontinuetobescarceoverthenextfveyears,posingachallengeto
companiesandeconomieseagertocontinuetheirgrowthandconsolidation.Permanentlyreversingthis
trendreliesheavilyongovernmentpolicies,businessstrategiesandculturalvalues,andpracticalresultsmay
taketimetoappear.Butassoonasawarenessisraisedamongstbusinesses,governmentsandindividuals,
andafrmativeactionadopted,thepresentandprojectedtalentshortfallwillstarttobeT rhiseversedstudy .
representsanimportantfrststepinthisprocess.
Manoel Rebello,Regional Managing Partner, Latin America, June 2009
Heidrick&Struggles 1Latin America
Talent Index map
Dominican RepublicCubaMexico
Jamaica
Belize Haiti
Honduras
Guatemala
El Salvador Nicaragua
Trinidad & Tobago
Panama
Costa Rica
Venezuela
Guyana
French Guiana
Colombia Suriname
Ecuador
2008
Peru
Brazil
Bolivia
Paraguay
Chile
Argentina
Uruguay
Talent Index rankings in 2013
21 26 31 36 41 46 51
to to to to to to tocooler red hot
25 30 35 40 45 50 55
The map uses color to represent the overall talent ranking
in 2013 of each of the ten measured countries,
indicating at a glance how they score.
2 Mapping Talent in Latin Americafndings
Our regional grouping can be broadly
Talent Index rank
rank country (Ti) rating change
categorized into three groups of
2013 2008 2013 RC nations. The top group consists of
Chile 54.8 57.2 n 01 fve countries with a small range in
Mexico 52.2 55.9 n 02 overall scores. Two of these countries,
Brazil 51.8 52.8 n 03 Chile and Costa Rica are relatively
CostaRica 49.6 50.1 n 04 small open economies. Chile is also
Argentina 48.5 44.7 n 0 the most economically developed in 5
terms of GDP per capita. Costa Rica is Peru 38.0 39.8 s 16
boosted by its relatively high quality of Venezuela 41.4 38.6 t 17
compulsory education and openness. 8 Colombia 35.9 36.9 n 0
The other three countries in the 9 DominicanRep. 28.6 29.2 s 1
top group are the regional giants of 10 Ecuador 29.9 28.2 t 1
Mexico, Brazil and Argentina. However,
Overall rankings showing movement scale is not so important here. Without
between 2008 and 2013 for each of the
the demographic category Mexico, measured ten countries
Brazil and Argentina would still remain
in the top fve. These three are also
more developed economically with
some of the highest levels of GDP per
capita within the regional group.
Heidrick&Struggles 3Thenextgroupconsistsofthreecountries:Peru, atthetopofourrankingsinbothtimeperiods,Chile
VenezuelaandColombia.PeruandColombiahavescoressurprisinglyweaklyinoneofourcategories,
similarlevelsofeconomicdevelopmentandGDPperthe qualityofcompulsoryeducation.Ther eismuch
capita,lowerthanthoseinourtopgVroupenezuela,. potentialforittomovetowardsthehigherranked
closertothoseinthetopgroupintermsoflevels countriesinthiscategory.Insodoing,Chilewould
ofGDPpercapitaisletdownbyrelativelypoor strengthenitsfrstplaceposition.
environmentstonurtureandattracttalent,thelower
internationalopennessofitslabourmarketand Countrybycountryperformance
verylowrelativeratesofForeignDirectInvestment
ThefndingsofthisIndexbroadlyconfrm
(FDI).Thesefactorsprecludeitfromreachingthetop
conclusionsfrompreviousversionsofTthealen t
group.
Index:absoluteandrelativepoolsoftalentare
ThefnalgroupconsistsoftheDominicanRepublicmostlikelytobefoundin,andareattractedtothe
andEcuadorwhicharetwooftheleastdevelopedec onomicallydeveloped,wealthiereconomies.
countrieseconomically.T hegapbetweenthesetwoThereisoneexception:Venezuela.Althoughitsoil
countriesandthesecondgroupispredominantly industryhasgeneratedconsiderablewealththishas
causedbymuchweakercategoryscoresforthe nothelpedtodeveloptheconditionsnecessaryfor
qualityofcompulsoryeducationandtertiary aregionallysignifcanttalentpool.Overtheforecast
education. periodVenezuelaisexpectedtofallfromsixthto
seventhplaceintheIndex.
Overtheforecastperiodthereareafewchanges
inranksuggestingthatthevariationsinrelative Chileprovidesthemostattractiveenvironment
strengthsandweaknesseswillremainentrenched. fortalent.Despitethelowestdemographicrating
Collectivelythoughweareexpectingabsolute andpoorcompulsoryeducationscoresitismost
improvementsinmostofourmeasures,especiallyabletonurturetalent,withthehighestlevelofFDI
ineducation.Incontrast,Venezuela sufersfroma andarelativelystrongeconomy;itisabletouse
noticeabledowngradetoitsexpectedeconomic itsstrongermacroeconomicfoundationstoattract
prospectsandfallsonerank.Asimilarrelative talentfromoverseas.Mexicoscoresrelativelywell
weaknessineconomicprospectsforEcuador comparedtoitscompetitorsinmostareasexcept
explainsitsfall. initsabilitytoattractFDI(whereitisthirdfrom
bottomin2008,thoughrisingby2013).Brazilis
Intermsofrelativegrowthpotentialfortalent
supportedbythestrongestdemographicsand
Mexicoseemstopromisethemostintheforecast
thebestuniversitiesinthegroup.Brazilispoorat
periodwithmorepotentialtoimproveonits
attractingFDIasaproportionofitsoverallgross
compulsoryeducationsystem,FDIfowsandstocks,
domesticproduct(2ndlowest)andhasarelatively
andgeneraleconomicgrowth. Weexpectallthese
closedlabormarketinternationally.If‘theQualit y
measurestoimproveatamuchfasterratethanits
oftheenvironmenttonurturetalenca tt’egorywas
regionalcompetitorsupto2013,despitethemalign
removedBrazilwouldrankfrstoverallin2008.
globaleconomicoutlook;by2013Mexicoisonlyjust
behindChileinouroverallrankings.Althoughitsits
4 Mapping Talent in Latin AmericaAswehavediscoveredinpreviousglobaland Venezuelahasagoodeducationsystemandgood
regionalversionsoftheTalen tIndex,demographics potentialforattractingtalentfromoverseas.Other
playanimportantrole.Chile,forexample,haspercategoriesaremuchpoorerhowever:FDIisverylow;
capitathebestscoresinourIndexforhumancapital the,environmentisnotconducivefordeveloping
butitsrelativelysmallsizeandlowpopulation andretainingdomestictalent,and;thelabormarket
growthlimittheabsolutesizeofitspotentialtalenistrelativelyrigid T.he bottomthreecountriesin
pool.Thisholdsitbackfromwhatwouldotherwisethe group–Colombia,theDominican Republic
beamoreregionallydominantposition.Costa Ricaand Ecuador–haveatbestaveragescoresinmost
wouldbesecondintheoverallranking(behind categories.ThemainexceptionisFDIforwhichthe
Chile)ifpopulationwerenotbeingusedasasizing Dominican Republicscoreswell(althoughthisisnot
andcorrectivefactor.Brazilwoulddroptwoplacesenoughtoboostitsfnalposition).
toffthifitspopulationdidnotsodominatethe
Thegreatestdisturbancetotherankingbetween
region.
2008and2013comesfromthediverseoutlookfor
CostaRicaranksrelativelyhighlyinfourthplacewithGDP growthandemploymentprospects,which
asolidsetofcompulsoryeducationindicators.Italsoafec teachcountry’s‘Proclivitytoattracttalen t’
hasthesecondhighestlevelofFDIandthemostmeasure.Butthisisnotenoughtosignifcantlyalter
mobileandopenlabormarket.CostaRica’sposition the overallrankings.Asaconsequence,weonlysee
isunderminedbyalackofrecognizeduniversitiestwochangesinposition;PeruovertakesVenezuela
andbusinessschools,althoughthisisnotsurprising (mainly duetoVenezuela’sexpecteddecelerationin
foracountryofitssizThee.lackofqualityinhigherGDPgrowththroughtheforecastperiod)andthe
educationhasasubstantialimpactonCostaRica’s DominicanRepublicpushesEcuadorintolastplace
ranking,whichwouldotherwisebetwoplaces duetoitssignifcantlylargerforecastinwardfowof
higher(aheadofBrazilandMexico).Argentina ranks FDI. Inbothinstancesthescoresremainveryclose.
inthemiddle T.his islowerthanonemightexpect
Interestinglytherangeofscoresiswiderin2013
sinceithasthebestcompulsoryeducationand
relativeto2008.Thissuggeststhattheregionis
high-qualityuniversities.However,themobilityand
divergingslightlywiththegapbetweentopand
opennessofitslabormarketandrelativelevelsof
bottomincreasing.T hebestperformingcountries
FDIarepoor.
areimprovingmorequicklythanthoseatthe
Perumovesfrom7thto6thplaceovertheforecastbottomofthegroup.n
period;thisisduemoreVenezuelato ’sdecline
ratherthananysignifcantimprovementinPeru’s
performance.PeruhasfairlevelsofForeignDirect
Investmentandcouldimproveitsscorebyinvesting
moreinitscompulsoryeducationsystem,in2013it
hasthelowestrateofeducationspendingasa%
ofGDP.
Heidrick&Struggles 5methodology
step1The Latin America Talent
Keytalent-promotingcountry
Index compares and ranks
attributeswereidentifed
countries in the region
Weidentifedthefollowingsevenkeycategoriesas
according to the depth of themostimportantdriversassociatedwithtalent
pools(intermsofquantityandquality):available talent that they have
• Demographicsto ofer potential employers
• Qualityofcompulsoryeducationsystems
now and in fve years time. In
• Qualityofuniversitiesandbusinessschools
doing so, the Index measures • Qualityoftheenvironmenttonurturetalent
• Mobilityoflaborandrelativeopennesseach country’s natural potential
ofthelabormarket
for producing talent – a quantity • StockandfowofForeignDirectInvestment
• Proclivitytoattractingtalentmeasure largely driven by socio-
demographic factors (including step2
Variableswereselectedtomeasureeachimmigration and imported
ofthecountryattributeslistedinstep1skills) – and the degree to which
TheEconomistIntelligenceUnit,inconsultationwithgood schooling (and other
Heidrick&Struggles,drewupalistofvariablesto
environmental factors) raises measureeachtalentattributecategor They.poolof
countriesofinteresttoHeidrick&Strugglesincludedthe quality of that raw talent
anumberofdata-pooreconomies,afactorthat
(alongside foreign investment).
neededtobetakenintoaccountintheselection
process.Estimateswereusedtofllgapsinthe
We took the following four
dataset.Thesewerederivedbylinearregressions,
steps to construct the Index: trend-basedextrapolationsandin-housecountry
expertise.Thefnalsetofvariablescombines
quantitativemeasuresdrawnfromavarietyoflocal
6 Mapping Talent in Latin Americaandinternationaldatasources,withqualitative Strugglestosettheweightsofthediferentvariables
assessmentsfromtheEconomistIntelligence intheoverallIndexbyassigningthemscoresfrom
Unit’snetworkofcountryanalystsandin-feld 1–5basedontheirparticularrelevance(where
contributors.ForecastswerebasedontheEconomist 1=unimpor tantand5=ofcriticalimportance).
IntelligenceUnit’smacroeconomicmodelsand
step4countryanalysts ’ projections,takingintoaccountthe
Attributescoreswerecombinedusingcurrenteconomicuncertainties.
weightstoformasingleoverallIndex
step3 scoreforeachcountry.
Thevariableswerestandardizedand
Eachcountryreceivedascorebasedontheirrelative
combinedusingweightstoscoreeach
performanceineachoftheindicatorsandcategories
countryattribute
intheIndexagainstalltheothercountries.Countries
Thedatawasthennormalizedtoobtainscores thatrankhighlytendtogetfairlygoodscoresacross
from0–100(wherehigherscoresmeantbetter awiderangeofindicators;ortheydoextremelywell
performancesonthetalentmeasures).Finally,the inasub-setofhighlyweightedindicators.
EconomistIntelligenceUnitworkedwithHeidrick&
Backgroundnote
TheLatin America Talent Indexisaregionaldeep-diveandextensiontotheoriginalGlobal
Talent Index(GTI)althoughcoveringtheperiod2008to2013,astepforwardofoneyearonthe
originalGTIwork.Importantly,therankscorescalculatedarerelativewithinthegrouponly(how
eachcountryfaresagainstitsregionalcompetitorsbyeachindicator)andcannotbecompared
tootherrecentregionalindicesortheoriginalHeidrickandStruggles TalenGlobal tIndex.
Indeed,absolutevaluesinscoresbetween2008and2013mustnotbedirectlycompared;the
signifcancelieswithintherelativespreadandtherankings.
Heidrick&Struggles 7Talent Index weightings
indicator weight:1to5 indicator weight:1to5
Demographics R&Das%ofGDP 5 nnnnn
Populationaged20-59 4 nnnn Costofliving 3 nnn
CAGRPopulationaged20-59(%) 1 n Degreeofrestrictivenessoflaborlaws 4 nnnn
Quality of compulsory education sectors Wageregulation 1 n
Durationofcyeducation 4 nnnn Qualityofworkforce 4 nnnn
Startingageofcompulsoryeducation 1 n Localmanagers 4 nnnn
Currenteducationspending(%ofGDP) 2 nn Protectionofintellectualpropertyrights 4 nnnn
Currenteducationperpupil 4 nnnn Protectionofprivateproperty 3 nnn
asa%ofGDPpercapita
Meritocraticremuneration 4 nnnn
Primaryschoolenrollmentratio(%) 2 nn
Mobility and relative openness of the labor market
Secondaryschoolenrollmentratio(%) 4 nnnn
Numberofstudentsstudyingoverseas 3 nnn
Meanyearsofschooling 4 nnnn
Numberofoverseasstudentsstudyingin4 nnnn
Adultliteracyrate(%ofpopover15) 5 nnnnn countryasa%oftertiaryenrollment
Pupil/Teacherratio,primary 2 nn Languageskillsofthelaborforce 5 nnnnn
Pupil/Teacherratio,lowersecondary 2 nn Hiringofforeignnationals 4 nnnn
Pupil/Teacherratio,uppersecondary 2 nn Opennessoftrade(exports+imports 3 nnn
%ofGDP)Quality of universities and business schools
Stock and fow of Foreign Direct Investment
GrossenrollmentratioISCED5T&otal6 4 nnnn
AveragefowofFDIinpreviousfveyears3 nnnNumberofbusinessschools 2 nn
(%ofGDP)rankedinworld’stop100
AveragestockofFDIinpreviousfveyears 2 nnNumberofuniversitiesranked 3 nnn
(%ofGDP)inworld’stop500
Proclivity to attracting talent
Expenditureperstudentforhigher 3 nnn
education(as%ofGDPpercapita) Technicalskillsoftheworkforce 4 nnnn
Quality of the environment to nurture talent Personaldisposableincomepercapita 4 nnnn
(US$bn)Shareofthepopulationaged25-64 3 nnn
withtertiaryleveleducation Employmentgrowth 3 nnn
Percentageofhighereducationgraduates 2 nn GDPpercapita 0
intheSocialSciences,BusinessandLaw
GDPpercapita(PPP) 4 nnnnPercentageoftertiarygraduates 4 nnnn
intheSciences NominalUSDGDP 3 nnn
ResearchersinR&D(permpop) 4 nnnn PPPGDP 0
TechniciansinR&D(permpop) 3 RealGDPgrowth(%) 3 nnnnnn
8 Mapping Talent in Latin America